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A&P II FINAL

A&P II FINAL Unit 6, 7, 8, 9, 10

QuestionAnswer
In the condition of lactose intolerance, the person develops problems because of the rapid digestion of lactose FALSE
Intrinsic factor is secreted by which cells of the gastric glands? PARIETAL CELLS
Which organ produces and secretes bile? LIVER
Which area has the greatest amount of enzyme activity? DUODENUM
The _____ nervous system division usually stimulates and promotes digestion. PARASYMPATHETIC
The enzyme salivary amylase begins to digest which molecules? CARBOHYDRATES
Which term does not belong with the others? ESOPHAGUS
The purpose of the soft palate is to_____. Close off the nasal cavity during swallowing
A disorder characterized by self-induced aversion to food(loss of appetite) is: ANOREXIA
The hormone that causes the pancreas to secrete an enzyme rich fluid is CHOLECYSTOKININ
Urea is synthesized by the liver following ____ metabolism. PROTEIN
Which gland is closest to the joint between the mandible and temporal bone? PAROTID
The liver has the ability to convert carbohydrates into amino acids. FALSE
Which of these does not increase surface area for absorption in the small intestine? RUGAE
What is the primary purpose of the liver in aiding digestion? produces bile to emulsify fats in the small intestine
The Kupffer cells are phagocytic cells found in the___. LIVER
All of the following are parts of the tooth except: DUCT
The shortest section of the intestines is the____. DUODENUM
Which salivary glands produce the msot viscous saliva? SUBLINGUAL GLANDS
Bile contains a lipase enzyme FALSE
A hiatal hernia is a weakness in the _____ muscle, which allows a portion of the digestive tract to enter the thoracic cavity. DIAPHRAGM
Biliverdin is found in bile TRUE
Another term for swallowing is DEGLUTITION
Bile slts combine with fatty acids to form complexes called___ that facilitates absorption. MICELLES
The plicae circularies are found in the stomach FALSE
What hormone does the small intestine release in response to acidic chyme? SECRETIN
The descending colon usually lies on the left abdominal wall area TRUE
The ____ prevents food from entering the small intestine. PYLORIC VALVE
Which gastrointestinal layer is characterized by having tough, fibrous connective tissue? SEROSA
The ileocecal valve prevents chyme from entering the____. LARGE INTESTINE
The esophagus passes through an opening in the diaphragm called the_____. ESOPHAGEAL HIATUS
Which of these does not belong with the ithers? LIPASE
The external anal sphincter is under voluntary control TRUE
The deciduous dentition consists of 24 teeth. FALSE
The teeth are best adapted for biting off relatively large pieces of food are: INCISORS
Which salivary gland secretes saliva that aids in digestion of carbohydrates? PAROTID
What is the primary function of the large intestine? TO COMPACT, STORE, AND ELIMINATE FECES
Gastrin secretion will stop when the stomach pH reaches_____ 1.5
Which of the following is not a function of the adult liver? ERYTHROPOIESIS
There are normally 2 common hepatic ducts from the liver. FALSE
Compared to the others listed below, which type of tooth is more likely to be involved in grinding food? MOLAR
Fatty acids and glycerol are released when___ are broken down by the liver or muscle cells. CHYLOMICRONS
The gallbladder stores and concentrates bile. TRUE
The membrane that hangs like an apron over the intestines is the ____. GREATER OMENTUM
Stensens duct conveys saliva from the submandibular gland into the oral cavity. FALSE
The common hepatic and ___ ducts merge to form the common bile duct. CYSTIC
Which lymphatic areas are most commonly the site of inflammation? PALATINE TONSILS
What is the stimulus for cholecystokinin release? LIPIDS
Where are the lacteals located? SMALL INTESTINE
Most of the absorption of nutrients occurs in the ___. JEJUNUM
Secretin from the duodenum causes the pancreas to produce secretions rich in___. BICARBONATE
The cecum is located at the inferior end of the descending colon. FALSE
Inflammation of the gallbladder is: CHOLECYSTITIS
The gallbladder is connected to the Common Bile Duct by the Hepatic Duct. FALSE
What normally holds the intestines in position within the abdominal cavity? MESENTERY
The falciform ligament seperates the right lobe from the ___ lobe. LEFT
The ___ PArt of the stomach is the portion that is connected to the esophagus. CARDIAC
Which vitamin is mainly formed by Escherichia coli? K
The term wisdom tooth refers to the ___ tooth. THIRD MOLAR
Dysentery is a severe form of gastro-intestinal disturbance. TRUE
The so-called wisdom teeth are actually the four last molars. TRUE
The defecation reflex, aids, defection and can also potentiate a heart attack. TRUE
Which of the following triggers the formation of the others? ENTEROKINASE
Gastric intrinsic factor is essential for the absorption of vitamin B12 TRUE
A viral disease of the salivary glands is MUMPS
The process by which bile causes the breakdown of fat globules into smaller droplets is EMULSIFICATION
The correct sequence for the layers within the wall of the alimentary canal from inside to outside is mucous membrane, submucosa, muscular layer, serous layer
The ____ cells secrete gastric enzyme CHIEF
The sphincter muscle located between the small intestine and the large intestine is the ____ sphincter. ILEOCECAL
The portion of the tooth above the gum is the ___. CROWN
How are the components of fats absorbed in the small intestine? Components of lipids diffuse through small intestinal cell membranes, are reconstructed in the cells, then carried off by lacteals as chylomicrons
The band of smooth muscle that cause the colon to pucker are called the TEANIA COLI
The processes of chewing are referred to as MASTICATION
The finger like extensions inside the small intestines are called ____ and increase the surface area.. VILLI
Peristalsis ends in the esophagus FALSE
What mouth part helps to mix with saliva, moves food toward the pharynx for swallowing and houses taste receptor cells? TONGUE
The area called the vermiform appendix serves no digestive function in humans TRUE
Which of the following are not active in the duodenum? PEPSIN
Secretion is a function of the digestive system TRUE
Hemorrhoids are varicose veins of the anal canal TRUE
The portal veins drain blood from the liver and convey it to the inferior vena cava FALSE
Which of the following statements about the function of saliva is not true? It initiates the chemical digestion of proteins
Which of the following has a digestive function? BILE SALTS
The ____ are lymph vessels that project into the villi and absorb fatty substances LACTEALS
During swallowing the soft palate is moved upward and the epiglottis is tilted downward TRUE
The alimentary tube is around ___ meters long. 9
Which muscle constrict to prevent air from entering the esophagus during breathing? INFERIOR CONSTRICTOR
The buildup of bile pigment in tissues that can be caused by gallstones is OBSTRUCTIVE JAUNDICE
Which of the following vitamins is not stored in the liver? C
The cartilaginous structure at the base of the tongue that helps to prevent food and liquid from entering the trachea during swallowing is the____. EPIGLOTTIS
What does the pancreatic duct directly join to? DUODENUM
Peristalsis occurs in the digestive tract From the pharynx to the anus
Amylase could be found in all of these areas except which one? STOMACH
Which of these is a hormone name? CHOLECSTOKININ
Activities of the digestive system are fenerally increased by ____ nervous stimulation. PARASYMPATHETIC
The pancreas secretes enzymes that enter the small intestine and chemically digest chyme.Choose the enzyme that breaks down fats. PANCREATIC LIPASE
The main part of the stomach is the___ of the stomach. BODY
What initiates the swallowing reflex? Sensory receptors detecting the bolus in the pharynx
Acute pancreatitis may be the result of all of the above may contribute to the development of pancreatitis
Where does the greatest amount of digestion occur? SMALL INTESTINE
Diverticulosis is an inflammation of the diverticuli FALSE
During which stage of gastric secretion do gastric glands actually begin secreting gastric juice? CEPHALIC PHASE
The ____ is the membrane that anchors the tongue to the floor of the mouth. FRENULUM
The pyloric sphincter acts to prevent food from leaving the small intestine. FALSE
The enterogastric reflex normally inhibits the further contraction of the stomach as the duodenum fills. TRUE
The root canal of a tooth contains BLOOD VESSELS
Gallbladder stones are medically referred to as a ___ condition. CHOLELITHIASIS
Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disease that affects digestion as well as respiration TRUE
The portion of the tooth which lies within the mandible socket is called the ROOT
Ferritin is a globular protein that transports and stores ____ in the liver and blood. IRON
The liver contains special blood channels termed____. SINUSOIDS
The pancreas secretes amylase TRUE
Inflammation of the liver is: HEPATITIS
Hepatitis can be caused by viruses such as hepatitis A which can be transmitted by contaminated food. TRUE
Bile facilitates digestion by causing the ___ of fats. EMULSIFICATION
Which intestinal layer accounts for the action of the peristaltic waves? MUSCULARIS
The digestive system functins to provide cells with proper amounts of proteins, carbohydrates or fats. FALSE
Emetics cause the vomiting center in the hypothalamus to propel food by contracting stomach muscles. FALSE
The liver functions to: All the preceding
The mucous cells of the salivary glands secrete amylase which facilitates digestion of starches. FALSE
The liver stores___ for energy. GLYCOGEN
Acute pancreatitis is mainly the result of ____ activity. TRYPSINOGEN
The outer layer of the intestines is the SEROSA
Inflammation of the colon and rectum is COLITIS
Proteins are digested or broken down by the ____ in the stomach. PEPSIN
Which organ has the most metabolically active cells? LIVER
The most common type of hepatitis is hepatitis A TRUE
Which of the following acts to inhibit acid production? SOMATOSTATIN
The following are true of the tongue except which one? Attaches to the temporal bone
What blocks pancreatic secretions from entering the duodenum? Sphincter of Oddi
The ___ duct directly receives the fluids from the gallbladder. CYSTIC
The hormone that stimulates the release of bile form the gallbladder is CHOLECYSTOKININ
Without a gallbladder a person will definitely develop vitamin and lipid deficiencies because of the lack of bile. FALSE
Where would the least amount of bacteria be found? STOMACH
The alkaline tide occurs when ____ is excreted into the urine. BICARBONATE IONS
The surface area of the stomach is enhanced by the presence of folds called____. RUGAE
The process of Gluconeogenesis involves The conversion of fats to glucose
The ampulla of vater is the area that joins the common bile duct to the ____ duct. PANCREATIC
Type B hepatitis is more serious than type A. TRUE
To which structure is the appendix attached? CECUM
Intrinsic factor is secreted by the STOMACH
The ____ canal is the tube like passageway through which food actually passes. ALIMENTARY
Pepsinogen is an active form of the enzyme pepsin FALSE
Which of these is a water soluble vitamin? C
Intrinsic factor is necessary for the normal absorption of: B-12
The visceral peritoneum is a membrane which wraps around the outer layer of the intestines TRUE
Inflammation of the peridontal ligament and adjacent gums is called pyorrhea. TRUE
Where are the palatine tonsils located? PHARYNX
After much debate what has been described as being a leading cause of peptic ulcers and gastritis? A bacterial infection caused by Helicobacter pylori
Proteins are split by all of the following pancreatic factors except which one? ZYMOGEN
The ____ layer of the alimentary canal contains loose connective tissue, glands, blood and lymphatic vessels and nerves. SUBMUCOSA
Which of the following is not readily absorbed in the small intestine? Mg++
Aphagia is difficulty swallowing FALSE
Bile contains cholesterol TRUE
The following areas contain tonsils except which one? Around the frenulum
Alcohol is absorbed in the stomach TRUE
The pancreas does not secrete any enzymes to assist in lipid digestion FALSE
How many teeth will be produced in an average lifetime? 52
The frenulum is the membrane attached to the inferior surface of the TONGUE
The microvilli are found on the cells of villi TRUE
Parasympathetic stomach impulses cause all of the following except which one? Secretion of somatostatin
Which of the following statements about the function of the liver is not true? It concentrates bile
The mucosa is avascular TRUE
Which is the only area that can digest a double sugar? DUODENUM
Chylomicrons are lipoproteins aggregates that are absorbed into the intestinal villi False
The following belong together except which one? LARGE INTESTINE
A peristaltic rush which results in a failure to absorb enough colon water resluts in___. DIARRHEA
Proctitis is inflammation of the rectum and anus. TRUE
Which part of the tooth most closely resembles bone tissue? DENTIN
Hemolytic jaundice is a disease involving an excess production of erythrocytes. FALSE
Which reflex involves a spasmodic contraction of the diaphragm? HICCUP
The cartilaginous structure at the base of the tongue that helps to prevent food and liquid from entering the trachea during swallowing is the epiglottis. TRUE
Asthma affects expiration more than inhalation TRUE
The carina separates the ____ from each other PRIMARY BRONCHI
The respiratory membrane is the simple squamous epithelium of the alveoli FALSE
The pharynx is an enlargement at the top of the trachea that houses the vocal cords FALSE
Ordinary air is about 21% oxygen and 78% nitrogen TRUE
The amount of air that enters or leaves the lungs during a normal respiratory cycle is the TIDAL VOLUME
Breathing is mainly controlled by MEDULLA OBLONGATA AND PONS
What is the anatomical term for the throat? PHARYNX
The release of oxygen by hemoglobin for use in body tissues is dependent upon which of the following? LOW OXYGEN CONCENTRATION OF THE BODY TISSUE
What is the partial pressure of atmospheric oxygen? 160 mmHg
Which of the following is part of the upper respiratory tract? PHARYNX
Rhinitis is an inflammation of the sinusese FALSE
The basic rhythm of breathing is controlled by which portion of the brain? Dorsal respiratory group of the medullary rhythmicity center
The respiratory membrane across which gases diffuse is very thin and is made up of ____ Alveolar cell membrane, capillary membrane, and fused basement membranes
The most important factor that allows the blood to carry carbon dioxide in high amounts is ____ CARBONIC ANHYDRASE
What is the first structure in this respiratory sequence? PHARYNX
The exchange of gases between the lungs and lung capillaries is called EXTERNAL RESPIRATION
Most of the oxygen in the blood is found in the___ HEMOGLOBIN
Cancer that originates in the lungs is most likely to develop from EPITHELIAL CELLS
The respiratory membrane is comprised of the two layers of the alveoli FALSE
What are the most powerful stimuli for breathing? Low pH, high CO2
Where are the pharyngeal tonsils located? NASOPHARYNX
Where is the highest amount of carbon dioxide found? The arteries entering the lung
The amount of air that enters the lungs during normal, restful breathing is called the____ TIDAL AIR VOLUME
The only structure that allow gas diffusion aross them are the ALVEOLI
The condition characterized by difficulty breathing due to an allergic response is _____ BRONCHIAL ASTHMA
The conchae create the ___ MEATUSES
The vital capacity include: Tidal volume, expiratory reserve volume, inspiratory reserve volume
Even after the most forceful exhalation a certain volume of air remains in the lungs. This volume is called the _____ RESIDUAL VOLUME
The force that causes air to move into the lungs during inspiration is supplied by ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE
The primary muscle of respiration is the DIAPHRAGM
Laryngitis is a potentially dangerous condition because it may cause OBSTRUCTION OF THE AIRWAY
When swallowing the soft palate would have to move downward in order to prevent food from entering the lungs FALSE
The smooth muscle within the vocal cords allows them to change their tension for vocalization FALSE
Carbon monoxide bonds to hemoglobin more effectively than does oxygen TRUE
C shaped pieces of cartilage are found within the TRACHEA
The glottis is the opening between the vocal chords TRUE
Changes in the structure of the respiratory tube as the branches become thinner include the Epithelial lining changes from pseudo stratified ciliated columnar to cuboidal and simple squamous
Non-respiratory movements are most easily triggered by stimuli in which of these areas? LARYNX
The walls of the alveoli are composed of Simple squamous epithelium
At high altitudes it is difficult to breath because the air has a lower percent of oxygen FALSE
Which mechanism prevents over inflation of the lungs? Hering Breuer reflex
Which of the following proteins is the most important physiologically in the transport of carbon dioxide by blood? CARBONIC ANHYDRASE
The enzyme carbonic anhydrase causes Carbon dioxide to react with water
Continued hypo ventilation results in an increase in CO2 concentration TRUE
The percentage in ordinary air is about 0.04%
Bronchial asthma is a condition caused by An allergy
Which of these has highest affinity for hemoglobin? CO
The space between the two lungs is called the MEDIASTINUM
The greatest amount of carbon dioxide transported in the blood is in the form of dissolved carbon dioxide FALSE
The alveoli exchange gases between the air and the capillaries within them FALSE
Respiratory distress syndrome in an infant results from an inability to breathe because of excess surfactant production in the aveoli by type I FALSE
This muscle can cause a forced exhalation INTERNAL INTERCOSTAL
Gas is exchanged in the aveoli by a process of ____ SIMPLE DIFFUSION
What prevents the alveoli from collapsing during exhalation? SURFACTANTS
Which of the following is (are) a function of the mucus-covered nasal passages? All of the above
Emphysema is characterized by an increase in None of the above
Carbon dioxide is sometimes added to the air that a patient breathes in order to Increase the rate and depth of breathing
During the act of swallowing the epiglottis moves upward and the glottis appears as a triangular slit FALSE
The intensity of a vocal sound is a result of the Force of air passing over the vocal cords
The main function of the pleural membranes is to ____ REDUCE FRICTION
The effects of carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions on the respiratory center are similar because Carbon dioxide combines with water to form carbonic acid
Microorganisms removed from incoming air by sticky mucus are most liekly to be destroyed by The digestive action of gastric juice
During maximal expiration the lungs can be completely emptied of air FALSE
Which of the following is true as a result of the dead air space of the respiratory tract? Air exchange is more complete
What is the normal pO2 of the alveolar air? 104 mmHg
The interlobular bronchioles enter the ___ of the lungs LOBULES
The mucous membrane lining the nasal cavity functions to All of the above
The unit of the respiratory system most directly involved in external respiration is the ALVEOLUS
The choreceptors in the carotid and aortic bodies are most sensitive to changes in blood OXYGEN CONCENTRATION
The epiglottis is part of the ____ and covers the glottis LARYNX
The condition characterized by alveolar fibrosis with difficulty exhaling is EMPHYSEMA
If a flashlight is placed just below the eyebrow in a darkened room it may be possible to illuminate the FRONTAL SINUS
The layer of serous membrane that is firmly attached to the surface of a lung is called parietal pleura FALSE
The relative amount of smooth muscle is highest in the bronchioles
The trachea contains rings of cartilage that surround the windpipe to keep it rigid TRUE
The trachea is about 15 inches long FALSE
The utilization of oxygen by metabolic processes is correctly referred to as Cell respiration
The pharynx functions as a ____. Whereas the larynx functions as a Common passageway for air and food;passageway for air only
The movement of air in and out of the lungs is correctly referred to as_____ Ventilation
The tissue that prevents food from entering the lungs is the EPIGLOTTIS
Atmospheric pressure is around______ mmHg 760
Which principle normally prevents the alveoli from collapsing during expiration? SECRETION OF SURFACTANT
Pleurisy result from an accumulation of fluid in the PLEURAL CAVITY
The tissue lining the alveoli is ___epithelium SIMPLE SQUAMOUS
How many alveoli are there in an average adult lung? 300,000,000
The main force causing the exhalation of air is the____ ELASTIC RECOIL
Which of the following does not contain a sinus? ZYGOMATIC BONE
Oxygen is carried in the blood in the form of bicarbonate ions and is bound to hemoglobin FALSE
The most sensitive areas os the air passages are located in the LARYNX and BRONCHI
Which of these functions cannot be attributed to the mucous membrane that line the nasal cavity? Initial gas exchange between air and blood occurs here
The procedure used to directly examine the trachea and bronchial tree is called BRONCHOSCOPY
Which of the following factors favors a release of oxygen form hemoglobin? DECREASED pH
During moderate physical exercise blood concentrations of Oxygen and carbon dioxide remain nearly unchanged
The walls of the alveoli are composed of SIMPLE SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM
A significant factor in maintaining the normal pH of body fluids is the loss of which gas during external respiration? CO2
The functional (terminal) unit of the respiratory system is the ALVEOLI
During inspiration the diaphragm moves upward while thorax expands and moves outward FALSE
Thin walled outpouchings of the alveolar ducts of the lings are the ALVEOLAR SACS
Increasing blood concentrations of carbon dioxide thereby resulting in an increase in hydrogen ions
The left lung is larger than the right lung and is divided into three lobes FALSE
Which part of the respiratory tree has the greatest relative percentage of smooth muscle fibers? BRONCHIOLES
Decreasing blood oxygen and increasing carbon dioxide causes the major increases seen in breathing rate during strenuous exercise FALSE
The ____ cartilage marks the lowermost portion of the larynx CRICOID
The pectralis minors and the sternocleidomastoid are useful in aiding forced expiration FALSE
What is the entrance into the lungs called? HILUS
The respiratory system functions in pH balance TRUE
The main purpose for cellular oxygen is to provide a means of producing most of the cell energy TRUE
They thyroid cartilage is the largest cartilage of the larynx TRUE
A sudden contraction of a diaphragm while the glottis is closed produces a sneeze FALSE
The condition in which air enters the pleural cavity is called PNEUMOTHORAX
Which of the following factors favors an increase in breathing rate? Increased blood carbon dioxide
The true vocal cords are those that produce the sounds of the human voice. Where are these located? Inferior to the false vocal cords
Within the bronchial tree which tubes are small branches that enter the lobules of the lungs? INTRALOBULAR BRONCHIOLES
The maximum amount of air a person can exhale after taking the deepest breath possible is the ____ VITAL CAPACITY
ARDS is a condition of lung collapse or atelectasis in a newborn FALSE
Carbon monoxide is toxic because it attacks and destroys the respiratory center in the brain FALSE
The area directly superior to the soft palate is the NASOPHARYNX
Within the blood oxygen is primarily transported____ while the bulk of carbon dioxide is transported____ As oxyhemoglobin; as bicarbonate ions
The true vocal cords move because they are attached to the ____ cartilage CORNICULATE
Where is most carbon dioxide transported? As the bicarbonate ion
The force of exhalation is primarily due to____ Elastic recoil of thoracic muscles
The amount of oxygen released from oxyhemoglobin increases when carbon dioxide concentration increases
MOst CO2 is carried as CO2 dissolved in the plasma FALSE
Which is the most common cause of hyperventilation? ANXIETY
Of the respiratory air volumes listed which one has the largest volume? VITAL CAPACITY
Which sinus are not paranasal sinuses? MASTOID
A pneumothorax occurs when the thoracic pleural pressure_____ compared to the atmospheric pressure IS EQUAL TO
The trachea can be described as All the above
What is the opening to the larynx called? GLOTTIS
Which condition is characterized by inflammation and infection involving the alveoli? PNEUMONIA
Which is the most abundant gas in the atmosphere? NITROGEN
The lipoprotein known as _____ reduces surface tension within the alveoli so they do not collapse during exhalation SURFACTANT
Which of the following is not found in the pharynx? VOCAL CORDS
The right lung is composed of ____lobes; the left lung is composed of ____lobes Superior, middle and inferior; superior and inferior
Which of these is not a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease? LUNG CANCER
At high pO2 levels, where is most oxygen located? OXYHEMOGLOBIN
Which area exerts its effect on the primary breathing control areas? Pneumotaxic area of pons
The exchange of gases between the blood and the cells of the body is called Internal respiration
Which of the following statements about the C-shaped rings of cartilage of the trachea is incorrect? They form a complete circle in the trachea
The respiratory tree contain a ciliated mucous lining that helps remove foreign particles from them TRUE
The temporary absence of breathing is called APNEA
The glottis is the opening between the vocal cords TRUE
During an asthma attack the patient usually finds it most difficult to EXHALE
The first event in inspiration is The diaphragm moves downward and the external intercostal muscles contract
The force that causes air to move into the lungs during inspiration is supplied by Atmospheric pressure
The PO2 in the pulmonary veins is less than the PO2 in the alveolar air TRUE
Which of the following bones does not posses sinuses? ZYGOMATIC
The portion of the respiratory center that is responsible for the basic rhythm pattern of breathing is the DORSAL RESPIRATORY GROUP
Which of the following is (are) a function of the mucous covered nasal passages? All of the proceeding
Where are the palatine tonsils located? OROPHARYNX
The chemo receptors in the aortic and carotid bodies are very sensitive to fluctuations in the levels of blood FALSE
What is the normal pCO2 of the capillary blood? 45 mmHg
Most carbon dioxide is carried through the blood in the form of carboxyhemoglobin FALSE
The condition of newborns called respiratory distress syndrome is caused by a LACK OF SURFACTANT
Whether oxygen diffuses from the alveoli into the blood or not is dependent upon______ The partial pressure of oxygen in the lungs to expand or collapse
What is the Adam's apple directly part of? Thyroid cartilage
The primary force responsible for air moving into the lungs during inhalation is ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE
Most of the respiratory passage surface is lined with_____ PSEUDOSTRATIFIED COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM
All of the following are organs of the respiratory system except the ESOPHAGUS
Which of these is the sum of the other three? VITAL CAPACITY
The amount of air that enters or leaves the lungs during a normal respiratory cycle TIDAL VOLUME
The exchange of gases between the atmosphere and the blood occurs in the LUNGS
Which structures play the greatest role in warming and humidifying air? CONCHAE
The total amount of air that cannot be exchanged is termed the____ Physiologic dead space
Carbon dioxide and oxygen compete for binding sites with the heoglobin FALSE
The respiratory membrane consists of Two thickness of epithelial cells and basement membranes
Respiratory alkalosis is caused by Removal of too uch CO2
When the diaphragm contracts the pressure within the thoracic cavity decreases TRUE
Which reflex is caused by local alveolar decreases in oxygen content? YAWN
The respiratory center is located in the medulla oblongata and the hypothalamus of the brain stem FALSE
The organs of the upper respiratory tract are located outside the thorax TRUE
Which of these laryngeal cartilages occurs singly rather that in pairs? CRICOID
Which of the following does not stimulate the medullary breathing center chemo-sensitive neurons? LOW BLOOD OXYGEN
Hyperventilation causes its symptoms mainly because it results in respiratory acidosis FALSE
Hyperventilation is most likely to be accompanied by a(n) Decrease in blood CO2 concentration and a rise in pH
The force responsible for normal expiration is supplied by the Elastic recoil of tissues and surface tension
In order to maintain homeostasis chloride ions move in as bicarbonate moves out of the erythrocyte TRUE
The amount of air that cannot be expelled is the RESIDUAL VOLUME
The pitch of a vocal sound is controlled by changing the TENSION ON THE VOCAL CORD
Which of the following is not a property of the mucous lining of the respiratory tract? CONTAINS MICROVILLI
The pleural cavity is the space between the lung and____ PARIETAL PLEURA
Which of the following air volumes cannot be measured using simple spirometer? RESIDUAL VOLUME
The functional gas exchanging units termed____ ALVEOLI
The olfactory nerves pass through openings in the CRIBIFORM PLATE
The pitch of a vocal sound controlled by changing the _____ Tension of the vocal cords
During inspiration the intra-alveolar pressure reaches_____ 758 mmHg
The intensity (volume) of a vocal sound is a result of the Force of air passing over the vocal cords
Of the respiratory air volumes listed which one has the largest volume? VITAL CAPACITY
The alveoli are filled with pleural fluid FALSE
The visceral and parietal pleural membranes are normally held together by Surface tension
There are____ secondary bronchi? 5
Aphagia is difficulty swallowing false
The firs event in expiration is The diaphragm and external respiratory muscles relax
Which passageway serves as a common route for food or air? OROPHARYNX
The vocal cords are located within the LARYNX
The inflation reflex is activated when stretch receptors are stimulated during inspiration TRUE
The function of the countercurrent multiplier is to_____ Increase the concentration of NaCl
Which of these could appear in the urine from dieting or the utilization of excess lipids? KETONE
Enuresis UNCONTROLLED URINATION
The mucosa of the bladder is comprised of____ Transitional epithelium
The outermost structure of a kidney is the CAPSULE
Whcih blood vessels surround the loop of Henle? VASA RECTA
The internal urethral sphincter is under, involuntary control TRUE
The reason that most persons only have trace amounts of albumin in the urine is that most of it is returned to the blood by reabsorption FALSE
Tubular reabsorption occurs from the nephron tubles into the _____ Peritubular capillaries
Aldosterone causes the retention of Na+ and water and the wasting of____ POTASSIUM
This is the correct term for a "floating kidney"______ Nephroptosis
Which of these has the highest concentration in the urine? Sodium
Which of the following is not considered a function of the kidneys? Formation of plasma proteins
Which force favors filtration?Glomerular capillary hydrostatic pressure
The location of the kidneys can be best described as____ Retroperitoneal
Persons with spinal cord damage in the lumbar area will no longer have voluntary control over urination TRUE
The epithelial cells of the proximal convoluted tubule are adapted for reabsorption by Having microscopic projections called microvilli
An increase in glomerular hydrostatic pressure will result in ____ the rate of glomerular filtration An increase in
Each minor calyx receives urine from the____ Renal papillae
The triangular area on the internal floor of the urinary bladder comprise the_____ TRIGONE
Where are most microvilli found? Proximal convoluted tubule
The average glomerular filtration rate is____ ml/ minute 125
The glomerular capsule is composed of two layers of squamous epithelial cells TRUE
Which factor does not affect glomerular filtration rate? Concentration of leukocytes in the blood
Given 500 ml glomerular filtrate approximately how much will ultimately be excreted as urine? 5 ml
Which of the following is not associated with the glomerulus? Minor calyx
Kidney stones are least likely to be composed of Cholesterol
Which of the following is not normally found in the glomerular filtrate? Protein
Water will move from a hypotonic to a hypertonic area by osmosis TRUE
Uric acid results from the metabolism of____ Nucleic acids
The functional unit of the kidney is the Nephron
Which structure is the first to collect the urine? Calyx
ADH is produced by cells within the_____ Hypothalamus
There are about one million nephrons in each kidney TRUE
An increase in the level of blood urea usually indicates renal dysfunction TRUE
As a consequence of widespread edema blood volume Decreases and blood pressure drops
Glomerular pressure is due to a characteristic of the afferent arteriole. The afferent arteriole: Has a larger diameter
The countercurrent mechanism functions primarily in the Nephron loop
The composition of glomerular filtrate compares to that of plasma by containing The same substances as plasma except for larger protein molecules
Albuminuria The presence of (a protein) in the urine
Which blood vessel conveys blood out of the glomerulus? Efferent arteriole
ADH Water retaining hormone
Where does ADH have its greatest effect? Distal convoluted tubule
Higher blood pressure resulting from vigorous exercise could release high amounts of____ Albumin
____is an enzyme that is released when the blood pressure drops. Renin
The membranous urethra is the portion found in males as well as females TRUE
Which of these is not usually secreted by the kidneys? Creatine
Filtration rate in the glomerulus is increased by Both vasodilation of the afferent ateriole and vasoconstriction of the efferent arteriole
Which of the following is not part of the male urethra? Glandular urethra
Which of the following is correct concerning the location of the kidneys? They are located behind the peritoneum
Infants have a greater probability of dehydrating than adults True
How much of the cardiac output passes through the kidneys? 25%
What is the function of the renal system? All of these
A renal corpuscle is a ____, whereas a renal tubule is a_____ Tangled cluster of blood capillaries;highly coiled tubule that leads away from the glomerular capsule
PAH is a plasma clearance test that can be used to assess plasma flow through the kidneys TRUE
Cystitis could spread from the bladder to the kidneys through the urethra FALSE
The secretions of H+ and reabsorption of the bicarbonate anions are important pH regulating mechanisms of the kidney TRUE
The largest quantity of hydrogen ions is secreted Actively from the distal convoluted tubule
The transport of urine from the renal pelvis into the bladder is a function of the Ureter
During a kidney transplant procedure the renal artery and vein of the donor kidney are connected to the recipients Iliac artery and vein
What is the main factor does not promote bladder infections in the female? Dietary factors
The triangular area formed by the entrances of the ureters and the exit of the urethra is called the___ Trigone
Water reabsorption occurs throughout the length of the renal tubule by the process of___ Osmosis
Which process is most affected by blood pressure? Glomerular filtration
In which of the following portions of the nephron is water actively transported? None of the above
Micturation is under this type of control Both A and B
What is the purpose of the countercurrent mechanism in the nephron? It creates a highly concentrated interstitial fluid so that urine can be concentrated by the collecting ducts when they are permeable to water
The entrance into the kidney is called the___ Hilum
Conscious control of micturation involves inhibiting the micturation reflex by using nerve centers in the Brain stem and cerebral cortex
The action of aldosterone is to increase Sodium reabsorption
Inulin and para-aminohppuric acid (PAH) can be used to determine glomerular filtration rate and the rate of blood flow through the kidneys TRUE
An increase in sodium reabsorption increases water reabsorption TRUE
The structure which receives the filtrate from the glomerulus is the Bowman capsule
High blood pressure is inversly proportional to the rate of urine formation FALSE
Tubular reabsorption is responsible for retaining nutrients the body requires. Most tubular reabsorption occurs in the ____ where microvilli and their numerous carrier proteins increase the surface area available for reabsorption Proximal convoluted tubule
Sympathetic nerve impulses usually cause proportional degrees of vasodilation in the afferent arterioles FALSE
Which best describes the main function of the urinary system To help keep the body in homeostasis by controlling the amount and composition of the blood
The ureter directly receives urine from the___of the kidney Pelvis
The renal medulla is composed of___ whereas the renal cortex is composed of____ Renal pyramids; granular tissue composed of nephron tubules
____ acts on the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts of the kidneys and causes them to increase their reabsorption of sodium. Aldosterone
Which of these does not operate under a renal threshold mechanism? Water
Which of these is not a function of the kidneys? The kidneys deactivate vitamin D
The appearance of glycosuria indicates that the renal plasma threshold has been exceeded TRUE
The juxtaglomerular apparatus consists of the juxtaglomerular cells and the cells of the____. Macula densa
Whenever the plasma glucose concentration exceeds the renal plasma threshold Glucose will appear in the urine
Whenever sodium ions are reabsorbed through the wall of the renal tubule by active transport chloride ions are Reabsorbed by passive transport
When the concentration of water in body fluids increases the secretion of ADH increases FALSE
Within the renal tubule two hormones play a role in determining the final volume and sodium concentration of the urine. The hormone ____ regulates sodium reabsorption while ___ regulates water reabsorption Aldosterone; antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Which of the following is an abnormal constituent of urine? None of the above
A decrease in the glomerular hydrostatic pressure of the glomerular capsule will result in ___ the rate of glomerular filtration A decrease in
About 50% of urea is absorbed from filtrate by diffusion whereas uric acid is absorbed by active transport TRUE
The renal pyramids are located within the Medulla
Choose the statement that does not correctly characterize the kidneys The right kidney is udually 5 to 2 centimeters higher than the left one
Urine formation involves which of the following processes? Glomerular filtration and tubular reabsorption and tubular secretion
What structure is the last in the sequence of urine flow? Urethra
The final branches of the interlobular arteries give rise to the ____ that carry blood to the nephrons Afferent arterioles
The portion of the renal cortex that extends between the renal pyramids form areas called the renal _____. Renal Column
If the arteriole that supplies blood to the glomerulus becomes constricted The glomerular filtration rate decreases
Gout is a disease that causes uric acid crystals to form in joints TRUE
Large amounts of hydrogen ions are secreted between plasma and urine by the nephron loop FALSE
The urinary bladder is located internal to the parietal peritoneum FALSE
An increase in ADH production will tend to make the blood more hypertonic FALSE
______ is a term referring to inflammation of the urinary bladder CYSTITIS
Which of the following is usually not found in the urine? GLUCOSE
The micturation reflex center is located in the Sacral segments of the spinal cord
PYURIA Pus in the urine
Humanes secrete urine that is ___ to the plasma Hypertonic
The countercurrent multiplier mechanism occurs at the _____ Loop of Henle
Active transport mechanisms have limited transport capacities because the renal tubule is not very permeable to the absorption of molecules FALSE
Which vessel directs blood into the glomerulus? Afferent ateriole
Which of the following indicates the parts of a renal tubule in the correct sequence from begining to end? Proximal convoluted tubule, descending limb, ascending limb, distal convoluted tubule
Excessive sweating will usually cause a person to withold their secretion of ADH FALSE
What causes urine to flow from the kidneys to the bladder? Peristalisis
Which of the following correctly lists the order of structures through which urine flows after its formation in the nephron? Calyx, renal pelvis, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra
Renal calculi are commonly comprised of urea and calcium salt preciitates FALSE
The outer most covering of the kidney is the____ Capsule
As a result of excessively low arterial blood pressure glomerular hydrostatic pressure Drops and filtration decreases
How much urine is formed in 24 hours? 1.5 Liters
The efferent arteriole supplies blood to the capillary of the glomerulus glomerular filtrate has a composition similar to tissue fluid FALSE
Which area actually secretes renin into the blood? Juxtaglomerular cells
OLIGURIA Small amount of urine produced
Eating large amounts of meat will increase the levels of ___ in the blood UREA
The kidneys have the capability of controlling their own blood flow independent of general controls for circulation of organs such as the pancreas TRUE
In the female the urinary bladder lies posterior to the uterus and vagina FALSE
Twenty percent of the blood volume is removed as it passes through the glomerulus. This fluid as it enters the capsular space is termed ____ Glomerular secretion
Proteins of smaller molecular size may be reabsorbed from the glomerular filtrate by the process of _______ Pinocytosis
Which vessels surround a nephron unit in order to reabsorb portions of the glomerular filtrate? Pertibular capillaries
Which muscle metabolism waste product is eliminated by the kidneys? Creatinine
During urine formation some substances move from the plasma in the peritubular capillary into the renal tubule by the process called tubular____ Secretion
The micturation reflex can be voluntarily controlled by the Cerebral cortex stimulating or inhibiting the external urethral sphincter
The urethra transports urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder FALSE
What affect does ADH have on urine output? Decreases
The juxtaglomerular regulates the filtration rate by the____ and by ____ Vasoconstriction of the afferent ateriole, renin-angiotensin II causing vasoconstriction of the renal artery
Vitamin C will appear in the urine when an excess is consumed in the diet or supplements TRUE
The concentrations of substances in the plasma in the glomerular filtrate and in urine differ in what way? Plasma and glomerular filtrate are virtually identical but urine contains proportionately more waste products
Kidney stones are also called CALCULI
If the osmotic pressure of the blood plasma is decreased the glomerular filtration rate is increased TRUE
Aldosterone from the adrenal cortex causes sodium ions to be Conserved and water to be conserved
Urine is forced along the length of the ureter by peristalic waves TRUE
Where does most selective reabsorption occur? Proximal convoluted tubule
Aldosterone Produced in the adrenal cortex
Which of the following occurred by active transport? Reabsorption of amino acids
The openings at the inferior tip of the renal pyramids are called____ Renal papilla
A drug that is an ACE inhibitor will lower blood pressure by inhibiting conversion of angiotensinogen to aniotensin I FALSE
How much sodium is reabsorbed by the proximal segment of the nephron? 70%
Which of the following statements about the functions of the nephron is false? It produces Aldosterone
Reabsorption is carried out by Active transport and passive transport
Infants are more likely to become dehydrated that adults because Infant kidneys are less able to conserve water
Which of these is under voluntary control? External sphincter
An increased production of urine is called DIURESIS
In which area can the term urine be correctly used? Renal pelvis
What enables the urinary bladder to stretch? Transitional epithelium
The capsule hydrostatic pressure is usually higher than the glomerular hydrostatic pressure FALSE
Which of the following correctly describes the countercurrent mechanism of the nephron loop? Water moves out of the descending limb, sodium moves out of the ascending limb
All of the following systems aid in waste elimination except The reproduction
Which ion is reabsorbed in exchange for sodium? Potassium
The glomerular filtrate in the proximal convoluted tubule is isotonic to the plasma of the peritubular capillary TRUE
Which of the following is not a common filtrate component? Red blood cells
Ions such as chloride usually passively follow movement of cations to achieve electrical blance TRUE
During trauma with significant loss of blood the release of renin will be inhibited FALSE
Which section of the nephron follows the ascending limb of the loop of henle? Distal convoluted tubule
The glomerulus most closely resembles an area of capillaries TRUE
ADH functions to increase absorption of water from urine into blood by increasing the permeability of the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts TRUE
Which of the following would increase the rate of glomerular filtration? Increased blood pressure
Gout is a condition in which the plasma has an abnormally high concentration of URIC ACID
The presence of excessive uric acid in the blood is called All of the above
A renal corpuscle includes the Glomerulus and Bowmans capsule
70 % of the glomerular filtrate has been reabsorbed by the time it has passed through this part of the nephron Proximal convoluted tubule
The last part of a nephron is the ____ Distal convoluted tubule
Most tubular reabsorption occurs at the Proximal convoluted tubule
ANURIA Absence of urine production
Why is the plant compound known as insulin the best substance to use to measure renal clearance? Insulin is neither reabsorbed nor actively secreted into the filtrate
The ureter extends downward behind the parietal peritoneum and joins the urinary bladder from below
If a ureter is obstructed a ____ reflex causes urine production in the kidney on the affected side to be reduced A and C both
The hormone ADH functions to promote water reabsorption through the wall(S) of the Distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct
Of the following which one is not considered to be retroperitoneal All of the above are retroperitoneal
Renal pelvis Renal sinus
Most small proteins are reabsorbed by PINOCYTOSIS
The terminal portion of the urinary system is the URETHRA
Chronic glomerulonephritis is usually a renal infection associated with streptococcal bacteria FALSE
The compound used to asses the function of the kidney at the level of the glomerulus is____ Insulin
The nephrotic syndrome usually causes hypoproteinemia proteinuria and generalized edema TRUE
Creatinine clearance measures the rate of glomerular filtration TRUE
It is normal for urine and semen to mix in the male FALSE
Uric acid results from ___ metabolism PURINE
Aldosterone and ADH tend to have the same effect on blood concentration TRUE
The reabsorption of glucose occurs primarily through the walls of the Proximal convoluted tubule
The striated appearance of the pyramids is caused by Collecting tubules
The target of angiotensin II are blood vessels and_____ Adrenal cortex
In the renal corpuscle the afferent arteriole branches to form the Glomerulus
Juxtaglomerular cells Secrete Renin
Hematuria Blood in the urine
In the condition of lactose intolerance, the person develops problems because of the rapid digestion of lactose FALSE
Intrinsic factor is secreted by which cells of the gastric glands? PARIETAL CELLS
Which organ produces and secretes bile? LIVER
Which area has the greatest amount of enzyme activity? DUODENUM
The _____ nervous system division usually stimulates and promotes digestion. PARASYMPATHETIC
The enzyme salivary amylase begins to digest which molecules? CARBOHYDRATES
Which term does not belong with the others? ESOPHAGUS
The purpose of the soft palate is to_____. Close off the nasal cavity during swallowing
A disorder characterized by self-induced aversion to food(loss of appetite) is: ANOREXIA
The hormone that causes the pancreas to secrete an enzyme rich fluid is CHOLECYSTOKININ
Urea is synthesized by the liver following ____ metabolism. PROTEIN
Which gland is closest to the joint between the mandible and temporal bone? PAROTID
The liver has the ability to convert carbohydrates into amino acids. FALSE
Which of these does not increase surface area for absorption in the small intestine? RUGAE
What is the primary purpose of the liver in aiding digestion? produces bile to emulsify fats in the small intestine
The Kupffer cells are phagocytic cells found in the___. LIVER
All of the following are parts of the tooth except: DUCT
The shortest section of the intestines is the____. DUODENUM
Which salivary glands produce the msot viscous saliva? SUBLINGUAL GLANDS
Bile contains a lipase enzyme FALSE
A hiatal hernia is a weakness in the _____ muscle, which allows a portion of the digestive tract to enter the thoracic cavity. DIAPHRAGM
Biliverdin is found in bile TRUE
Another term for swallowing is DEGLUTITION
Bile slts combine with fatty acids to form complexes called___ that facilitates absorption. MICELLES
The plicae circularies are found in the stomach FALSE
What hormone does the small intestine release in response to acidic chyme? SECRETIN
The descending colon usually lies on the left abdominal wall area TRUE
The ____ prevents food from entering the small intestine. PYLORIC VALVE
Which gastrointestinal layer is characterized by having tough, fibrous connective tissue? SEROSA
The ileocecal valve prevents chyme from entering the____. LARGE INTESTINE
The esophagus passes through an opening in the diaphragm called the_____. ESOPHAGEAL HIATUS
Which of these does not belong with the ithers? LIPASE
The external anal sphincter is under voluntary control TRUE
The deciduous dentition consists of 24 teeth. FALSE
The teeth are best adapted for biting off relatively large pieces of food are: INCISORS
Which salivary gland secretes saliva that aids in digestion of carbohydrates? PAROTID
What is the primary function of the large intestine? TO COMPACT, STORE, AND ELIMINATE FECES
Gastrin secretion will stop when the stomach pH reaches_____ 1.5
Which of the following is not a function of the adult liver? ERYTHROPOIESIS
There are normally 2 common hepatic ducts from the liver. FALSE
Compared to the others listed below, which type of tooth is more likely to be involved in grinding food? MOLAR
Fatty acids and glycerol are released when___ are broken down by the liver or muscle cells. CHYLOMICRONS
The gallbladder stores and concentrates bile. TRUE
The membrane that hangs like an apron over the intestines is the ____. GREATER OMENTUM
Stensens duct conveys saliva from the submandibular gland into the oral cavity. FALSE
The common hepatic and ___ ducts merge to form the common bile duct. CYSTIC
Which lymphatic areas are most commonly the site of inflammation? PALATINE TONSILS
What is the stimulus for cholecystokinin release? LIPIDS
Where are the lacteals located? SMALL INTESTINE
Most of the absorption of nutrients occurs in the ___. JEJUNUM
Secretin from the duodenum causes the pancreas to produce secretions rich in___. BICARBONATE
The cecum is located at the inferior end of the descending colon. FALSE
Inflammation of the gallbladder is: CHOLECYSTITIS
The gallbladder is connected to the Common Bile Duct by the Hepatic Duct. FALSE
What normally holds the intestines in position within the abdominal cavity? MESENTERY
The falciform ligament seperates the right lobe from the ___ lobe. LEFT
The ___ PArt of the stomach is the portion that is connected to the esophagus. CARDIAC
Which vitamin is mainly formed by Escherichia coli? K
The term wisdom tooth refers to the ___ tooth. THIRD MOLAR
Dysentery is a severe form of gastro-intestinal disturbance. TRUE
The so-called wisdom teeth are actually the four last molars. TRUE
The defecation reflex, aids, defection and can also potentiate a heart attack. TRUE
Which of the following triggers the formation of the others? ENTEROKINASE
Gastric intrinsic factor is essential for the absorption of vitamin B12 TRUE
A viral disease of the salivary glands is MUMPS
The process by which bile causes the breakdown of fat globules into smaller droplets is EMULSIFICATION
The correct sequence for the layers within the wall of the alimentary canal from inside to outside is mucous membrane, submucosa, muscular layer, serous layer
The ____ cells secrete gastric enzyme CHIEF
The sphincter muscle located between the small intestine and the large intestine is the ____ sphincter. ILEOCECAL
The portion of the tooth above the gum is the ___. CROWN
How are the components of fats absorbed in the small intestine? Components of lipids diffuse through small intestinal cell membranes, are reconstructed in the cells, then carried off by lacteals as chylomicrons
The band of smooth muscle that cause the colon to pucker are called the TEANIA COLI
The processes of chewing are referred to as MASTICATION
The finger like extensions inside the small intestines are called ____ and increase the surface area.. VILLI
Peristalsis ends in the esophagus FALSE
What mouth part helps to mix with saliva, moves food toward the pharynx for swallowing and houses taste receptor cells? TONGUE
The area called the vermiform appendix serves no digestive function in humans TRUE
Which of the following are not active in the duodenum? PEPSIN
Secretion is a function of the digestive system TRUE
Hemorrhoids are varicose veins of the anal canal TRUE
The portal veins drain blood from the liver and convey it to the inferior vena cava FALSE
Which of the following statements about the function of saliva is not true? It initiates the chemical digestion of proteins
Which of the following has a digestive function? BILE SALTS
The ____ are lymph vessels that project into the villi and absorb fatty substances LACTEALS
During swallowing the soft palate is moved upward and the epiglottis is tilted downward TRUE
The alimentary tube is around ___ meters long. 9
Which muscle constrict to prevent air from entering the esophagus during breathing? INFERIOR CONSTRICTOR
The buildup of bile pigment in tissues that can be caused by gallstones is OBSTRUCTIVE JAUNDICE
Which of the following vitamins is not stored in the liver? C
The cartilaginous structure at the base of the tongue that helps to prevent food and liquid from entering the trachea during swallowing is the____. EPIGLOTTIS
What does the pancreatic duct directly join to? DUODENUM
Peristalsis occurs in the digestive tract From the pharynx to the anus
Amylase could be found in all of these areas except which one? STOMACH
Which of these is a hormone name? CHOLECSTOKININ
Activities of the digestive system are fenerally increased by ____ nervous stimulation. PARASYMPATHETIC
The pancreas secretes enzymes that enter the small intestine and chemically digest chyme.Choose the enzyme that breaks down fats. PANCREATIC LIPASE
The main part of the stomach is the___ of the stomach. BODY
What initiates the swallowing reflex? Sensory receptors detecting the bolus in the pharynx
Acute pancreatitis may be the result of all of the above may contribute to the development of pancreatitis
Where does the greatest amount of digestion occur? SMALL INTESTINE
Diverticulosis is an inflammation of the diverticuli FALSE
During which stage of gastric secretion do gastric glands actually begin secreting gastric juice? CEPHALIC PHASE
The ____ is the membrane that anchors the tongue to the floor of the mouth. FRENULUM
The pyloric sphincter acts to prevent food from leaving the small intestine. FALSE
The enterogastric reflex normally inhibits the further contraction of the stomach as the duodenum fills. TRUE
The root canal of a tooth contains BLOOD VESSELS
Gallbladder stones are medically referred to as a ___ condition. CHOLELITHIASIS
Cystic fibrosis is an inherited disease that affects digestion as well as respiration TRUE
The portion of the tooth which lies within the mandible socket is called the ROOT
Ferritin is a globular protein that transports and stores ____ in the liver and blood. IRON
The liver contains special blood channels termed____. SINUSOIDS
The pancreas secretes amylase TRUE
Inflammation of the liver is: HEPATITIS
Hepatitis can be caused by viruses such as hepatitis A which can be transmitted by contaminated food. TRUE
Bile facilitates digestion by causing the ___ of fats. EMULSIFICATION
Which intestinal layer accounts for the action of the peristaltic waves? MUSCULARIS
The digestive system functins to provide cells with proper amounts of proteins, carbohydrates or fats. FALSE
Emetics cause the vomiting center in the hypothalamus to propel food by contracting stomach muscles. FALSE
The liver functions to: All the preceding
The mucous cells of the salivary glands secrete amylase which facilitates digestion of starches. FALSE
The liver stores___ for energy. GLYCOGEN
Acute pancreatitis is mainly the result of ____ activity. TRYPSINOGEN
The outer layer of the intestines is the SEROSA
Inflammation of the colon and rectum is COLITIS
Proteins are digested or broken down by the ____ in the stomach. PEPSIN
Which organ has the most metabolically active cells? LIVER
The most common type of hepatitis is hepatitis A TRUE
Which of the following acts to inhibit acid production? SOMATOSTATIN
The following are true of the tongue except which one? Attaches to the temporal bone
What blocks pancreatic secretions from entering the duodenum? Sphincter of Oddi
The ___ duct directly receives the fluids from the gallbladder. CYSTIC
The hormone that stimulates the release of bile form the gallbladder is CHOLECYSTOKININ
Without a gallbladder a person will definitely develop vitamin and lipid deficiencies because of the lack of bile. FALSE
Where would the least amount of bacteria be found? STOMACH
The alkaline tide occurs when ____ is excreted into the urine. BICARBONATE IONS
The surface area of the stomach is enhanced by the presence of folds called____. RUGAE
The process of Gluconeogenesis involves The conversion of fats to glucose
The ampulla of vater is the area that joins the common bile duct to the ____ duct. PANCREATIC
Type B hepatitis is more serious than type A. TRUE
To which structure is the appendix attached? CECUM
Intrinsic factor is secreted by the STOMACH
The ____ canal is the tube like passageway through which food actually passes. ALIMENTARY
Pepsinogen is an active form of the enzyme pepsin FALSE
Which of these is a water soluble vitamin? C
Intrinsic factor is necessary for the normal absorption of: B-12
The visceral peritoneum is a membrane which wraps around the outer layer of the intestines TRUE
Inflammation of the peridontal ligament and adjacent gums is called pyorrhea. TRUE
Where are the palatine tonsils located? PHARYNX
After much debate what has been described as being a leading cause of peptic ulcers and gastritis? A bacterial infection caused by Helicobacter pylori
Proteins are split by all of the following pancreatic factors except which one? ZYMOGEN
The ____ layer of the alimentary canal contains loose connective tissue, glands, blood and lymphatic vessels and nerves. SUBMUCOSA
Which of the following is not readily absorbed in the small intestine? Mg++
Aphagia is difficulty swallowing FALSE
Bile contains cholesterol TRUE
The following areas contain tonsils except which one? Around the frenulum
Alcohol is absorbed in the stomach TRUE
The pancreas does not secrete any enzymes to assist in lipid digestion FALSE
How many teeth will be produced in an average lifetime? 52
The frenulum is the membrane attached to the inferior surface of the TONGUE
The microvilli are found on the cells of villi TRUE
Parasympathetic stomach impulses cause all of the following except which one? Secretion of somatostatin
Which of the following statements about the function of the liver is not true? It concentrates bile
The mucosa is avascular TRUE
Which is the only area that can digest a double sugar? DUODENUM
Chylomicrons are lipoproteins aggregates that are absorbed into the intestinal villi False
The following belong together except which one? LARGE INTESTINE
A peristaltic rush which results in a failure to absorb enough colon water resluts in___. DIARRHEA
Proctitis is inflammation of the rectum and anus. TRUE
Which part of the tooth most closely resembles bone tissue? DENTIN
Hemolytic jaundice is a disease involving an excess production of erythrocytes. FALSE
Which reflex involves a spasmodic contraction of the diaphragm? HICCUP
The cartilaginous structure at the base of the tongue that helps to prevent food and liquid from entering the trachea during swallowing is the epiglottis. TRUE
Asthma affects expiration more than inhalation TRUE
The carina separates the ____ from each other PRIMARY BRONCHI
The respiratory membrane is the simple squamous epithelium of the alveoli FALSE
The pharynx is an enlargement at the top of the trachea that houses the vocal cords FALSE
Ordinary air is about 21% oxygen and 78% nitrogen TRUE
The amount of air that enters or leaves the lungs during a normal respiratory cycle is the TIDAL VOLUME
Breathing is mainly controlled by MEDULLA OBLONGATA AND PONS
What is the anatomical term for the throat? PHARYNX
The release of oxygen by hemoglobin for use in body tissues is dependent upon which of the following? LOW OXYGEN CONCENTRATION OF THE BODY TISSUE
What is the partial pressure of atmospheric oxygen? 160 mmHg
Which of the following is part of the upper respiratory tract? PHARYNX
Rhinitis is an inflammation of the sinusese FALSE
The basic rhythm of breathing is controlled by which portion of the brain? Dorsal respiratory group of the medullary rhythmicity center
The respiratory membrane across which gases diffuse is very thin and is made up of ____ Alveolar cell membrane, capillary membrane, and fused basement membranes
The most important factor that allows the blood to carry carbon dioxide in high amounts is ____ CARBONIC ANHYDRASE
What is the first structure in this respiratory sequence? PHARYNX
The exchange of gases between the lungs and lung capillaries is called EXTERNAL RESPIRATION
Most of the oxygen in the blood is found in the___ HEMOGLOBIN
Cancer that originates in the lungs is most likely to develop from EPITHELIAL CELLS
The respiratory membrane is comprised of the two layers of the alveoli FALSE
What are the most powerful stimuli for breathing? Low pH, high CO2
Where are the pharyngeal tonsils located? NASOPHARYNX
Where is the highest amount of carbon dioxide found? The arteries entering the lung
The amount of air that enters the lungs during normal, restful breathing is called the____ TIDAL AIR VOLUME
The only structure that allow gas diffusion aross them are the ALVEOLI
The condition characterized by difficulty breathing due to an allergic response is _____ BRONCHIAL ASTHMA
The conchae create the ___ MEATUSES
The vital capacity include: Tidal volume, expiratory reserve volume, inspiratory reserve volume
Even after the most forceful exhalation a certain volume of air remains in the lungs. This volume is called the _____ RESIDUAL VOLUME
The force that causes air to move into the lungs during inspiration is supplied by ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE
The primary muscle of respiration is the DIAPHRAGM
Laryngitis is a potentially dangerous condition because it may cause OBSTRUCTION OF THE AIRWAY
When swallowing the soft palate would have to move downward in order to prevent food from entering the lungs FALSE
The smooth muscle within the vocal cords allows them to change their tension for vocalization FALSE
Carbon monoxide bonds to hemoglobin more effectively than does oxygen TRUE
C shaped pieces of cartilage are found within the TRACHEA
The glottis is the opening between the vocal chords TRUE
Changes in the structure of the respiratory tube as the branches become thinner include the Epithelial lining changes from pseudo stratified ciliated columnar to cuboidal and simple squamous
Non-respiratory movements are most easily triggered by stimuli in which of these areas? LARYNX
The walls of the alveoli are composed of Simple squamous epithelium
At high altitudes it is difficult to breath because the air has a lower percent of oxygen FALSE
Which mechanism prevents over inflation of the lungs? Hering Breuer reflex
Which of the following proteins is the most important physiologically in the transport of carbon dioxide by blood? CARBONIC ANHYDRASE
The enzyme carbonic anhydrase causes Carbon dioxide to react with water
Continued hypo ventilation results in an increase in CO2 concentration TRUE
The percentage in ordinary air is about 0.04%
Bronchial asthma is a condition caused by An allergy
Which of these has highest affinity for hemoglobin? CO
The space between the two lungs is called the MEDIASTINUM
The greatest amount of carbon dioxide transported in the blood is in the form of dissolved carbon dioxide FALSE
The alveoli exchange gases between the air and the capillaries within them FALSE
Respiratory distress syndrome in an infant results from an inability to breathe because of excess surfactant production in the aveoli by type I FALSE
This muscle can cause a forced exhalation INTERNAL INTERCOSTAL
Gas is exchanged in the aveoli by a process of ____ SIMPLE DIFFUSION
What prevents the alveoli from collapsing during exhalation? SURFACTANTS
Which of the following is (are) a function of the mucus-covered nasal passages? All of the above
Emphysema is characterized by an increase in None of the above
Carbon dioxide is sometimes added to the air that a patient breathes in order to Increase the rate and depth of breathing
During the act of swallowing the epiglottis moves upward and the glottis appears as a triangular slit FALSE
The intensity of a vocal sound is a result of the Force of air passing over the vocal cords
The main function of the pleural membranes is to ____ REDUCE FRICTION
The effects of carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions on the respiratory center are similar because Carbon dioxide combines with water to form carbonic acid
Microorganisms removed from incoming air by sticky mucus are most liekly to be destroyed by The digestive action of gastric juice
During maximal expiration the lungs can be completely emptied of air FALSE
Which of the following is true as a result of the dead air space of the respiratory tract? Air exchange is more complete
What is the normal pO2 of the alveolar air? 104 mmHg
The interlobular bronchioles enter the ___ of the lungs LOBULES
The mucous membrane lining the nasal cavity functions to All of the above
The unit of the respiratory system most directly involved in external respiration is the ALVEOLUS
The choreceptors in the carotid and aortic bodies are most sensitive to changes in blood OXYGEN CONCENTRATION
The epiglottis is part of the ____ and covers the glottis LARYNX
The condition characterized by alveolar fibrosis with difficulty exhaling is EMPHYSEMA
If a flashlight is placed just below the eyebrow in a darkened room it may be possible to illuminate the FRONTAL SINUS
The layer of serous membrane that is firmly attached to the surface of a lung is called parietal pleura FALSE
The relative amount of smooth muscle is highest in the bronchioles
The trachea contains rings of cartilage that surround the windpipe to keep it rigid TRUE
The trachea is about 15 inches long FALSE
The utilization of oxygen by metabolic processes is correctly referred to as Cell respiration
The pharynx functions as a ____. Whereas the larynx functions as a Common passageway for air and food;passageway for air only
The movement of air in and out of the lungs is correctly referred to as_____ Ventilation
The tissue that prevents food from entering the lungs is the EPIGLOTTIS
Atmospheric pressure is around______ mmHg 760
Which principle normally prevents the alveoli from collapsing during expiration? SECRETION OF SURFACTANT
Pleurisy result from an accumulation of fluid in the PLEURAL CAVITY
The tissue lining the alveoli is ___epithelium SIMPLE SQUAMOUS
How many alveoli are there in an average adult lung? 300,000,000
The main force causing the exhalation of air is the____ ELASTIC RECOIL
Which of the following does not contain a sinus? ZYGOMATIC BONE
Oxygen is carried in the blood in the form of bicarbonate ions and is bound to hemoglobin FALSE
The most sensitive areas os the air passages are located in the LARYNX and BRONCHI
Which of these functions cannot be attributed to the mucous membrane that line the nasal cavity? Initial gas exchange between air and blood occurs here
The procedure used to directly examine the trachea and bronchial tree is called BRONCHOSCOPY
Which of the following factors favors a release of oxygen form hemoglobin? DECREASED pH
During moderate physical exercise blood concentrations of Oxygen and carbon dioxide remain nearly unchanged
The walls of the alveoli are composed of SIMPLE SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM
A significant factor in maintaining the normal pH of body fluids is the loss of which gas during external respiration? CO2
The functional (terminal) unit of the respiratory system is the ALVEOLI
During inspiration the diaphragm moves upward while thorax expands and moves outward FALSE
Thin walled outpouchings of the alveolar ducts of the lings are the ALVEOLAR SACS
The left lung is larger than the right lung and is divided into three lobes FALSE
Which part of the respiratory tree has the greatest relative percentage of smooth muscle fibers? BRONCHIOLES
Decreasing blood oxygen and increasing carbon dioxide causes the major increases seen in breathing rate during strenuous exercise FALSE
The ____ cartilage marks the lowermost portion of the larynx CRICOID
The pectralis minors and the sternocleidomastoid are useful in aiding forced expiration FALSE
What is the entrance into the lungs called? HILUS
The respiratory system functions in pH balance TRUE
The main purpose for cellular oxygen is to provide a means of producing most of the cell energy TRUE
They thyroid cartilage is the largest cartilage of the larynx TRUE
A sudden contraction of a diaphragm while the glottis is closed produces a sneeze FALSE
The condition in which air enters the pleural cavity is called PNEUMOTHORAX
Which of the following factors favors an increase in breathing rate? Increased blood carbon dioxide
The true vocal cords are those that produce the sounds of the human voice. Where are these located? Inferior to the false vocal cords
Within the bronchial tree which tubes are small branches that enter the lobules of the lungs? INTRALOBULAR BRONCHIOLES
The maximum amount of air a person can exhale after taking the deepest breath possible is the ____ VITAL CAPACITY
ARDS is a condition of lung collapse or atelectasis in a newborn FALSE
Carbon monoxide is toxic because it attacks and destroys the respiratory center in the brain FALSE
The area directly superior to the soft palate is the NASOPHARYNX
Within the blood oxygen is primarily transported____ while the bulk of carbon dioxide is transported____ As oxyhemoglobin; as bicarbonate ions
The true vocal cords move because they are attached to the ____ cartilage CORNICULATE
Where is most carbon dioxide transported? As the bicarbonate ion
The force of exhalation is primarily due to____ Elastic recoil of thoracic muscles
The amount of oxygen released from oxyhemoglobin increases when carbon dioxide concentration increases
MOst CO2 is carried as CO2 dissolved in the plasma FALSE
Which is the most common cause of hyperventilation? ANXIETY
Of the respiratory air volumes listed which one has the largest volume? VITAL CAPACITY
Which sinus are not paranasal sinuses? MASTOID
A pneumothorax occurs when the thoracic pleural pressure_____ compared to the atmospheric pressure IS EQUAL TO
The trachea can be described as All the above
What is the opening to the larynx called? GLOTTIS
Which condition is characterized by inflammation and infection involving the alveoli? PNEUMONIA
Which is the most abundant gas in the atmosphere? NITROGEN
The lipoprotein known as _____ reduces surface tension within the alveoli so they do not collapse during exhalation SURFACTANT
Which of the following is not found in the pharynx? VOCAL CORDS
The right lung is composed of ____lobes; the left lung is composed of ____lobes Superior, middle and inferior; superior and inferior
Which of these is not a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease? LUNG CANCER
At high pO2 levels, where is most oxygen located? OXYHEMOGLOBIN
Which area exerts its effect on the primary breathing control areas? Pneumotaxic area of pons
The exchange of gases between the blood and the cells of the body is called Internal respiration
Which of the following statements about the C-shaped rings of cartilage of the trachea is incorrect? They form a complete circle in the trachea
The respiratory tree contain a ciliated mucous lining that helps remove foreign particles from them TRUE
The temporary absence of breathing is called APNEA
The glottis is the opening between the vocal cords TRUE
During an asthma attack the patient usually finds it most difficult to EXHALE
The first event in inspiration is The diaphragm moves downward and the external intercostal muscles contract
The force that causes air to move into the lungs during inspiration is supplied by Atmospheric pressure
The PO2 in the pulmonary veins is less than the PO2 in the alveolar air TRUE
Which of the following bones does not posses sinuses? ZYGOMATIC
The portion of the respiratory center that is responsible for the basic rhythm pattern of breathing is the DORSAL RESPIRATORY GROUP
Which of the following is (are) a function of the mucous covered nasal passages? All of the proceeding
Where are the palatine tonsils located? OROPHARYNX
The chemo receptors in the aortic and carotid bodies are very sensitive to fluctuations in the levels of blood FALSE
What is the normal pCO2 of the capillary blood? 45 mmHg
Most carbon dioxide is carried through the blood in the form of carboxyhemoglobin FALSE
The condition of newborns called respiratory distress syndrome is caused by a LACK OF SURFACTANT
Whether oxygen diffuses from the alveoli into the blood or not is dependent upon______ The partial pressure of oxygen in the lungs to expand or collapse
What is the Adam's apple directly part of? Thyroid cartilage
The primary force responsible for air moving into the lungs during inhalation is ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE
Most of the respiratory passage surface is lined with_____ PSEUDOSTRATIFIED COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM
All of the following are organs of the respiratory system except the ESOPHAGUS
Which of these is the sum of the other three? VITAL CAPACITY
The amount of air that enters or leaves the lungs during a normal respiratory cycle TIDAL VOLUME
The exchange of gases between the atmosphere and the blood occurs in the LUNGS
Which structures play the greatest role in warming and humidifying air? CONCHAE
The total amount of air that cannot be exchanged is termed the____ Physiologic dead space
Carbon dioxide and oxygen compete for binding sites with the heoglobin FALSE
The respiratory membrane consists of Two thickness of epithelial cells and basement membranes
Respiratory alkalosis is caused by Removal of too uch CO2
When the diaphragm contracts the pressure within the thoracic cavity decreases TRUE
Which reflex is caused by local alveolar decreases in oxygen content? YAWN
The respiratory center is located in the medulla oblongata and the hypothalamus of the brain stem FALSE
The organs of the upper respiratory tract are located outside the thorax TRUE
Which of these laryngeal cartilages occurs singly rather that in pairs? CRICOID
Which of the following does not stimulate the medullary breathing center chemo-sensitive neurons? LOW BLOOD OXYGEN
Hyperventilation causes its symptoms mainly because it results in respiratory acidosis FALSE
Hyperventilation is most likely to be accompanied by a(n) Decrease in blood CO2 concentration and a rise in pH
The force responsible for normal expiration is supplied by the Elastic recoil of tissues and surface tension
In order to maintain homeostasis chloride ions move in as bicarbonate moves out of the erythrocyte TRUE
The amount of air that cannot be expelled is the RESIDUAL VOLUME
The pitch of a vocal sound is controlled by changing the TENSION ON THE VOCAL CORD
Which of the following is not a property of the mucous lining of the respiratory tract? CONTAINS MICROVILLI
The pleural cavity is the space between the lung and____ PARIETAL PLEURA
Which of the following air volumes cannot be measured using simple spirometer? RESIDUAL VOLUME
The functional gas exchanging units termed____ ALVEOLI
The olfactory nerves pass through openings in the CRIBIFORM PLATE
The pitch of a vocal sound controlled by changing the _____ Tension of the vocal cords
During inspiration the intra-alveolar pressure reaches_____ 758 mmHg
The intensity (volume) of a vocal sound is a result of the Force of air passing over the vocal cords
Of the respiratory air volumes listed which one has the largest volume? VITAL CAPACITY
The alveoli are filled with pleural fluid FALSE
The visceral and parietal pleural membranes are normally held together by Surface tension
There are____ secondary bronchi? 5
Aphagia is difficulty swallowing false
The firs event in expiration is The diaphragm and external respiratory muscles relax
Which passageway serves as a common route for food or air? OROPHARYNX
The vocal cords are located within the LARYNX
The inflation reflex is activated when stretch receptors are stimulated during inspiration TRUE
The function of the countercurrent multiplier is to_____ Increase the concentration of NaCl
Which of these could appear in the urine from dieting or the utilization of excess lipids? KETONE
Enuresis UNCONTROLLED URINATION
The mucosa of the bladder is comprised of____ Transitional epithelium
The outermost structure of a kidney is the CAPSULE
Whcih blood vessels surround the loop of Henle? VASA RECTA
The internal urethral sphincter is under, involuntary control TRUE
The reason that most persons only have trace amounts of albumin in the urine is that most of it is returned to the blood by reabsorption FALSE
Tubular reabsorption occurs from the nephron tubles into the _____ Peritubular capillaries
Aldosterone causes the retention of Na+ and water and the wasting of____ POTASSIUM
This is the correct term for a "floating kidney"______ Nephroptosis
Which of these has the highest concentration in the urine? Sodium
Which of the following is not considered a function of the kidneys? Formation of plasma proteins
The location of the kidneys can be best described as____ Retroperitoneal
Persons with spinal cord damage in the lumbar area will no longer have voluntary control over urination TRUE
The epithelial cells of the proximal convoluted tubule are adapted for reabsorption by Having microscopic projections called microvilli
An increase in glomerular hydrostatic pressure will result in ____ the rate of glomerular filtration An increase in
Each minor calyx receives urine from the____ Renal papillae
The triangular area on the internal floor of the urinary bladder comprise the_____ TRIGONE
Where are most microvilli found? Proximal convoluted tubule
The average glomerular filtration rate is____ ml/ minute 125
The glomerular capsule is composed of two layers of squamous epithelial cells TRUE
Which factor does not affect glomerular filtration rate? Concentration of leukocytes in the blood
Given 500 ml glomerular filtrate approximately how much will ultimately be excreted as urine? 5 ml
Which of the following is not associated with the glomerulus? Minor calyx
Kidney stones are least likely to be composed of Cholesterol
Which of the following is not normally found in the glomerular filtrate? Protein
Water will move from a hypotonic to a hypertonic area by osmosis TRUE
Uric acid results from the metabolism of____ Nucleic acids
The functional unit of the kidney is the Nephron
Which structure is the first to collect the urine? Calyx
ADH is produced by cells within the_____ Hypothalamus
There are about one million nephrons in each kidney TRUE
An increase in the level of blood urea usually indicates renal dysfunction TRUE
As a consequence of widespread edema blood volume Decreases and blood pressure drops
Glomerular pressure is due to a characteristic of the afferent arteriole. The afferent arteriole: Has a larger diameter
The countercurrent mechanism functions primarily in the Nephron loop
The composition of glomerular filtrate compares to that of plasma by containing The same substances as plasma except for larger protein molecules
Albuminuria The presence of (a protein) in the urine
Which blood vessel conveys blood out of the glomerulus? Efferent arteriole
ADH Water retaining hormone
Where does ADH have its greatest effect? Distal convoluted tubule
Higher blood pressure resulting from vigorous exercise could release high amounts of____ Albumin
____is an enzyme that is released when the blood pressure drops. Renin
The membranous urethra is the portion found in males as well as females TRUE
Which of these is not usually secreted by the kidneys? Creatine
Filtration rate in the glomerulus is increased by Both vasodilation of the afferent ateriole and vasoconstriction of the efferent arteriole
Which of the following is not part of the male urethra? Glandular urethra
Which of the following is correct concerning the location of the kidneys? They are located behind the peritoneum
Infants have a greater probability of dehydrating than adults True
How much of the cardiac output passes through the kidneys? 25%
What is the function of the renal system? All of these
A renal corpuscle is a ____, whereas a renal tubule is a_____ Tangled cluster of blood capillaries;highly coiled tubule that leads away from the glomerular capsule
PAH is a plasma clearance test that can be used to assess plasma flow through the kidneys TRUE
Cystitis could spread from the bladder to the kidneys through the urethra FALSE
The secretions of H+ and reabsorption of the bicarbonate anions are important pH regulating mechanisms of the kidney TRUE
The largest quantity of hydrogen ions is secreted Actively from the distal convoluted tubule
The transport of urine from the renal pelvis into the bladder is a function of the Ureter
During a kidney transplant procedure the renal artery and vein of the donor kidney are connected to the recipients Iliac artery and vein
What is the main factor does not promote bladder infections in the female? Dietary factors
The triangular area formed by the entrances of the ureters and the exit of the urethra is called the___ Trigone
Water reabsorption occurs throughout the length of the renal tubule by the process of___ Osmosis
Which process is most affected by blood pressure? Glomerular filtration
In which of the following portions of the nephron is water actively transported? None of the above
Micturation is under this type of control Both A and B
What is the purpose of the countercurrent mechanism in the nephron? It creates a highly concentrated interstitial fluid so that urine can be concentrated by the collecting ducts when they are permeable to water
The entrance into the kidney is called the___ Hilum
Conscious control of micturation involves inhibiting the micturation reflex by using nerve centers in the Brain stem and cerebral cortex
The action of aldosterone is to increase Sodium reabsorption
Inulin and para-aminohppuric acid (PAH) can be used to determine glomerular filtration rate and the rate of blood flow through the kidneys TRUE
An increase in sodium reabsorption increases water reabsorption TRUE
The structure which receives the filtrate from the glomerulus is the Bowman capsule
High blood pressure is inversly proportional to the rate of urine formation FALSE
Tubular reabsorption is responsible for retaining nutrients the body requires. Most tubular reabsorption occurs in the ____ where microvilli and their numerous carrier proteins increase the surface area available for reabsorption Proximal convoluted tubule
Sympathetic nerve impulses usually cause proportional degrees of vasodilation in the afferent arterioles FALSE
Which best describes the main function of the urinary system To help keep the body in homeostasis by controlling the amount and composition of the blood
The ureter directly receives urine from the___of the kidney Pelvis
The renal medulla is composed of___ whereas the renal cortex is composed of____ Renal pyramids; granular tissue composed of nephron tubules
____ acts on the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts of the kidneys and causes them to increase their reabsorption of sodium. Aldosterone
Which of these does not operate under a renal threshold mechanism? Water
Which of these is not a function of the kidneys? The kidneys deactivate vitamin D
The appearance of glycosuria indicates that the renal plasma threshold has been exceeded TRUE
The juxtaglomerular apparatus consists of the juxtaglomerular cells and the cells of the____. Macula densa
Whenever the plasma glucose concentration exceeds the renal plasma threshold Glucose will appear in the urine
Whenever sodium ions are reabsorbed through the wall of the renal tubule by active transport chloride ions are Reabsorbed by passive transport
When the concentration of water in body fluids increases the secretion of ADH increases FALSE
Within the renal tubule two hormones play a role in determining the final volume and sodium concentration of the urine. The hormone ____ regulates sodium reabsorption while ___ regulates water reabsorption Aldosterone; antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Which of the following is an abnormal constituent of urine? None of the above
A decrease in the glomerular hydrostatic pressure of the glomerular capsule will result in ___ the rate of glomerular filtration A decrease in
About 50% of urea is absorbed from filtrate by diffusion whereas uric acid is absorbed by active transport TRUE
The renal pyramids are located within the Medulla
Choose the statement that does not correctly characterize the kidneys The right kidney is udually 5 to 2 centimeters higher than the left one
Urine formation involves which of the following processes? Glomerular filtration and tubular reabsorption and tubular secretion
What structure is the last in the sequence of urine flow? Urethra
The final branches of the interlobular arteries give rise to the ____ that carry blood to the nephrons Afferent arterioles
The portion of the renal cortex that extends between the renal pyramids form areas called the renal _____. Renal Column
If the arteriole that supplies blood to the glomerulus becomes constricted The glomerular filtration rate decreases
Gout is a disease that causes uric acid crystals to form in joints TRUE
Large amounts of hydrogen ions are secreted between plasma and urine by the nephron loop FALSE
The urinary bladder is located internal to the parietal peritoneum FALSE
An increase in ADH production will tend to make the blood more hypertonic FALSE
______ is a term referring to inflammation of the urinary bladder CYSTITIS
Which of the following is usually not found in the urine? GLUCOSE
The micturation reflex center is located in the Sacral segments of the spinal cord
PYURIA Pus in the urine
Humanes secrete urine that is ___ to the plasma Hypertonic
The countercurrent multiplier mechanism occurs at the _____ Loop of Henle
Active transport mechanisms have limited transport capacities because the renal tubule is not very permeable to the absorption of molecules FALSE
Which vessel directs blood into the glomerulus? Afferent arteriole
Which of the following indicates the parts of a renal tubule in the correct sequence from begining to end? Proximal convoluted tubule, descending limb, ascending limb, distal convoluted tubule
Excessive sweating will usually cause a person to withold their secretion of ADH FALSE
What causes urine to flow from the kidneys to the bladder? Peristalisis
Which of the following correctly lists the order of structures through which urine flows after its formation in the nephron? Calyx, renal pelvis, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra
Renal calculi are commonly comprised of urea and calcium salt preciitates FALSE
The outer most covering of the kidney is the____ Capsule
As a result of excessively low arterial blood pressure glomerular hydrostatic pressure Drops and filtration decreases
How much urine is formed in 24 hours? 1.5 Liters
The efferent arteriole supplies blood to the capillary of the glomerulus glomerular filtrate has a composition similar to tissue fluid FALSE
Which area actually secretes renin into the blood? Juxtaglomerular cells
OLIGURIA Small amount of urine produced
Eating large amounts of meat will increase the levels of ___ in the blood UREA
The kidneys have the capability of controlling their own blood flow independent of general controls for circulation of organs such as the pancreas TRUE
In the female the urinary bladder lies posterior to the uterus and vagina FALSE
Twenty percent of the blood volume is removed as it passes through the glomerulus. This fluid as it enters the capsular space is termed ____ Glomerular secretion
Proteins of smaller molecular size may be reabsorbed from the glomerular filtrate by the process of _______ Pinocytosis
Which vessels surround a nephron unit in order to reabsorb portions of the glomerular filtrate? Pertibular capillaries
Which muscle metabolism waste product is eliminated by the kidneys? Creatinine
During urine formation some substances move from the plasma in the peritubular capillary into the renal tubule by the process called tubular____ Secretion
The micturation reflex can be voluntarily controlled by the Cerebral cortex stimulating or inhibiting the external urethral sphincter
The urethra transports urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder FALSE
What affect does ADH have on urine output? Decreases
The juxtaglomerular regulates the filtration rate by the____ and by ____ Vasoconstriction of the afferent ateriole, renin-angiotensin II causing vasoconstriction of the renal artery
Vitamin C will appear in the urine when an excess is consumed in the diet or supplements TRUE
The concentrations of substances in the plasma in the glomerular filtrate and in urine differ in what way? Plasma and glomerular filtrate are virtually identical but urine contains proportionately more waste products
Kidney stones are also called Calculi
If the osmotic pressure of the blood plasma is decreased the glomerular filtration rate is increased TRUE
Aldosterone from the adrenal cortex causes sodium ions to be Conserved and water to be conserved
Urine is forced along the length of the ureter by peristalic waves TRUE
Where does most selective reabsorption occur? Proximal convoluted tubule
Aldosterone Produced in the adrenal cortex
Which of the following occurred by active transport? Reabsorption of amino acids
The openings at the inferior tip of the renal pyramids are called____ Renal papilla
A drug that is an ACE inhibitor will lower blood pressure by inhibiting conversion of angiotensinogen to aniotensin I FALSE
How much sodium is reabsorbed by the proximal segment of the nephron? 70%
Which of the following statements about the functions of the nephron is false? It produces Aldosterone
Reabsorption is carried out by Active transport and passive transport
Infants are more likely to become dehydrated that adults because Infant kidneys are less able to conserve water
Which of these is under voluntary control? External sphincter
An increased production of urine is called DIURESIS
In which area can the term urine be correctly used? Renal pelvis
What enables the urinary bladder to stretch? Transitional epithelium
The capsule hydrostatic pressure is usually higher than the glomerular hydrostatic pressure FALSE
Which of the following correctly describes the countercurrent mechanism of the nephron loop? Water moves out of the descending limb, sodium moves out of the ascending limb
All of the following systems aid in waste elimination except The reproduction
Which ion is reabsorbed in exchange for sodium? Potassium
The glomerular filtrate in the proximal convoluted tubule is isotonic to the plasma of the peritubular capillary TRUE
Which of the following is not a common filtrate component? Red blood cells
Ions such as chloride usually passively follow movement of cations to achieve electrical blance TRUE
During trauma with significant loss of blood the release of renin will be inhibited FALSE
Which section of the nephron follows the ascending limb of the loop of henle? Distal convoluted tubule
The glomerulus most closely resembles an area of capillaries TRUE
ADH functions to increase absorption of water from urine into blood by increasing the permeability of the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts TRUE
Which of the following would increase the rate of glomerular filtration? Increased blood pressure
Gout is a condition in which the plasma has an abnormally high concentration of URIC ACID
The presence of excessive uric acid in the blood is called All of the above
A renal corpuscle includes the Glomerulus and Bowmans capsule
70 % of the glomerular filtrate has been reabsorbed by the time it has passed through this part of the nephron Proximal convoluted tubule
The last part of a nephron is the ____ Distal convoluted tubule
Most tubular reabsorption occurs at the Proximal convoluted tubule
ANURIA Absence of urine production
Why is the plant compound known as insulin the best substance to use to measure renal clearance? Insulin is neither reabsorbed nor actively secreted into the filtrate
The ureter extends downward behind the parietal peritoneum and joins the urinary bladder from below
If a ureter is obstructed a ____ reflex causes urine production in the kidney on the affected side to be reduced A and C both
The hormone ADH functions to promote water reabsorption through the wall(S) of the Distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct
Of the following which one is not considered to be retroperitoneal All of the above are retroperitoneal
Renal pelvis Renal sinus
Most small proteins are reabsorbed by PINOCYTOSIS
The terminal portion of the urinary system is the URETHRA
Chronic glomerulonephritis is usually a renal infection associated with streptococcal bacteria FALSE
The compound used to asses the function of the kidney at the level of the glomerulus is____ Insulin
The nephrotic syndrome usually causes hypoproteinemia proteinuria and generalized edema TRUE
Creatinine clearance measures the rate of glomerular filtration TRUE
It is normal for urine and semen to mix in the male FALSE
Uric acid results from ___ metabolism PURINE
Aldosterone and ADH tend to have the same effect on blood concentration TRUE
The reabsorption of glucose occurs primarily through the walls of the Proximal convoluted tubule
The striated appearance of the pyramids is caused by Collecting tubules
The target of angiotensin II are blood vessels and_____ Adrenal cortex
In the renal corpuscle the afferent arteriole branches to form the Glomerulus
Juxtaglomerular cells Secrete Renin
Hematuria Blood in the urine
Which of the following would have a diuretic effect? Drinking alcohol
In the bicarbonate buffer system ______ acts as a base Bicarbonate ion
Which of these conditions leads to a severe life threatening water loss? Diabetes insipidus
Carbonic acid is H2CO3 TRUE
Respiratory alkalosis is caused by Removal of too much CO2
During periods of physical exercise there is An increased production of carbonic acid and the pH of body fluids tends to fall
A protein functions as an acid base buffer system by the COO group of a molecule accepting hydrogen ions in the presence of excess acid and the NH3 group of a molecule releasing hydrogen ions in the presence of excess base TRUE
Any factors that alters water balance will also alter electrolyte balance TRUE
The thirst mechanism is usually not triggered until the volume of the body water has been decreased by 5-10% FALSE
Hyponatremia is Characterized by extracellular fluid that is hypotonic
What buffering system is found in both extracellular and intracellular fluids? Bicarbonate
Astrong acid is one that____ and an example is_____ Ionizes more completely;HCL
Acids react to release Hydrogen ions, whereas substances that combine with hydrogen ions are called salts FALSE
Which of the following would result in edema? Both low plasma protein concentration and increases in venous pressure
Extracellular fluids are characterized by realtively High sodium and low potassium concentrations
The phosphate buffer system consists of Sodium monohydrogen phosphate and sodium dihydrogen phosphate
Synovial fluid is an example of extracellular fluid TRUE
The average adult human body is about 45% to75% water FALSE
Which factor accounts for the ability of the body to conserve high levels of sodium? Kidney function
The respiratory center is most likely to cause an increase in the breathing rate if the ph of body fluids is decreasing
Which of the following could not act as a buffer? H2SO4
The hormone ADH and aldosterone regulate the concentrations of____ in the body potassium ions and sodium ions
The primary source of body fluid is water from The digestive tract
An antacid is any substance that neutralizes an acid TRUE
The hormone ADH is released from the anterior lobe of the pirtuiatry gland FALSE
Either hyperkalemia could be associated with muscle paralysis or cardia arrhythmias TRUE
Which of the following acts as a base in body fluids? HCO3-
Transcellular fluid includes the water and electrolytes within the Joint cavities
The greatest amount of body water is lost through _____ Urine
Metabolic alkalosis All of the above
Which of these is not effect of parathyroid hormone? Increase in renal elimination of CA++
Which mechanism requires the most time to regulate pH? Renal
Hyperparathyroidism usually causes an increase in_____ Calcium
Carbon dioxide reacts with water to form carbonic acid TRUE
What reacts with the excess bases in protein buffers? NH3+
A lower than normal level of potassium called hypokalemia may result from vomiting diarrhea high sodium intake and kidney disease TRUE
What is the normal pH of the blood? 7.35-7.45
The main hormone that causes the kidney to conserve water is ________ ADH
Hyperkalemia can be caused by All of the above
The "Carbonic acid-Bicarbonate" buffering system is an important regulator of blood pH TRUE
Metobolic alkalosis caused by nonrespiratory loss of acid by the body or excessive intake of alkaline drugs TRUE
Respiratory acidosis can be Caused by a decreaseed breathing rate and compensated for by the secretion of more hydrogen ions from the kidneys
How is it possible for the rate and depth of breathing to affect hydrogen ion concentrations in body fluids? During increased air exchanged more carbon dioxide is given off returning hydrogen ion concentrations to normal
Hyperventilation from anxiety usually causes Respiratory alkalosis
Obstruction of the airways lead to Repiratory Acidosis
During the drinking of water the stretching of the stomach causes a hypothalamic reflex to send impulse to the nervous system causing the person to stop TRUE
The most serious consequence of potassium imbalances is Cardiac abnormalities
Parathyroid hormone increases phosphate reabsorption from the renal tubules FALSE
Water intoxication is All of the above
When an acid reacts with the bicarbonate buffer system ____ is formed as an end product Carbonic acid
During periods of acidosis the kidney will secrete ____ into the urine H+
The thirst center is located in the Hypothalamus
Metabolic acidosis results from an increase in acidic products not related to the malfunction of the respiratory system TRUE
When sodium ions are reabsorbed in response to the action of aldosterone potassium ions are Secreted
Intracellular fluids are characterized by relatively high concentrations of potassium and phosphate
Homeostasis of a narrow range of pH is essential to survival and depends on three major mechanisms buffer systems respirations and kidney excretion TRUE
What happens to HCL in the phosphate buffer reaction? Forms a weak acid
Lung cancer usualy causes the tendency towards_____ Respiratory Acidosis
Water obtained as a byproduct of the oxidation of various nutrients is called plasma FALSE
Water balance and electrolyte balance are interdependent due to electrolytes being dissolved in water
ADH has a direct effect on All of these
The accumulation of nitrogenous wastes in the blood is a condition known as_______ Azotemia
In a healthy person the pH of the extracellular fluid is stabalized between 6.35 and 6.45 FALSE
Where is most water found in the body? In cells
The kidneys help to regulate the hydrogen ion concentration of body fluids by altering the rate at which hydrogen ions are secreted TRUE
Fluid contained within the cells is termed Intracellular fluid
What of the following is not likely to cause acidosis? Fever
Which of the following would most likely be most helpful in treating hypocalcemia? Administering high doses of Vitamin D
The three most important buffer systems in body fluids include the bicarbonate buffer system, the ____ buffer system and the protein buffer system Phophate
The most abundant extracellular cation is Na+
The primary stimulus for the secretion of aldosterone is Rising potassium concentration
Which of the following body compartments is correctly matched with its location in the body? Extracellular fluid within the tissue spaces, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels
Oosteoclasts cells are bone cells that help to add Ca++ and PO4- to the blood TRUE
Excessive vomiting usually results in the phenomenon of____ Dehydration
The primary regulator of water output involves urine production TRUE
Buffering systems consist of a weak acid and weak base and help maintain blood pH TRUE
Cerebrospinal fluid, fluid within the eyes, joints, and body cavities, and fluid secretions of exocrine glands are all classified specifically as ____ fluid Trasncellular
What is the most abundant extracellular cation? Sodium
Which of the following is an effect of acidosis? Mental confusion
About ____% of the total daily intake of water is derived from internal cell metabolism 10
In an attempt to remove acid from the blood the kidney tubules increase the production of _____ Ammonia
What buffers the addition of hydrogen in blood cells following the uptake of carbon dioxide? Hemoglobin
What reacts with excess acids in protein buffers? COO-
Which of the following is the major constituent of body fluids? Water
Which ion is usually exchanged for sodium absorption? K+
Hypernatremia is All of the above
Which of these is a transcellular fluid? Synovial
What causes the edema seen in inflammation? Histamine
Which factor greatly increases the reaction betwen carbon dioxide and water? Carbonic Anhydrase
Which of these values would be the smallest? Metabolic water
Buffer systems usually consist of a weak acid and a weak base TRUE
What is the normal pH of the blood? 7.35-7.45
If fluid intake exceeds 8 glasses of water per day water intoxication will occur FALSE
Which of these is not a transcellular fluid? Interstitial Fluid
What can be a direct cause of ascites? Hepatic Disease
Respiratory alkalosis can be Compensated for by a decreased respiratory rate
Which of these is not associated with acidity? Glucose
The intracellular fluid compartment includes all water and electrolytes enclosed by a _____ Cell membrane
The primary regulator of water intake is the mechanism of _____ Thirst
A person in a moderate environment probably would lose the greatest amount of water by Urine
Of the compartments of the extracellular water which is the largest? Intersitial fluid
The effects of water intoxication are usually related to Low sodium
What is the most significant plasma buffer? Bicarbonate
A so-called "salt craving" is primarily the result of A severe electrolyte deficiency
Which is the most abundant extracellular ion? Sodium
What are the two major factors that regulate the movement of water and electrolytes from one fluid compartment to the next? Hydrostatic pressure and osmotic pressure
High concentration of blood sodium could cause tissue cells to expand from taking excess water in TRUE
Edema can be caused by all of these factors except An increase in the plasma protein concentration
Normally fluid enters the lymphatic capillaries as a result of active transport FALSE
The intracellular fluid compartment includes all the water and electrolytes enclosed by cell membranes TRUE
ADH is secreted from the Posterior pituitary
If the reabsorption of sodium by the renal tubule is inhibited, the All of the above
The hormnone aldosterone functions to promote the Reabsorption of sodium
The ability to sweat is the major method of regulating body water and ceoncentration FALSE
All of the following are etracellular fluids except Cytoplasm
This is probably the greatest source of H+? Carbon dioxide
Which cells are most sensitive to electrolyte changes? Neurons
Which of the following does not occur as a result of a shift in the acid base balance of the body? An increase in metabolic efficiency within the cells
The concentration of calcium ions in extracellular fluid is regulated primarily by a hormone secreted by the parathyroid glands TRUE
How does alcohol function as a diuretic? Alcohol prevents the distal convoluted tubule from reabsorbing water from the filtrate
What is the greatest regulator of water intake? Hypothalamus
Excessive secretion of PTH is accompanied by Increased bone reabsorption and increased blood calcium concentration
The acid base buffer system in blood include All of the above
When a strong base reacts with the bicarbonate buffer system ____ is formed from the base Bicarbonate ion
Loss of blood from trauma wll usually reduce the amount of urine that is produced TRUE
The greatest amount of electrolytes normally occurs by way of fecal elimination FALSE
Which of the following does not play a significant role in maintaining aid base balance? Stomach
What trigger signals the brain to increase the output of ADH for water conservation? Osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus detect the increase in osmotic pressure of body fluids and signal the posterior pituitary to release ADH
Sometimes the carboxyl groups of proteins release hydrogen ions TRUE
Holding one's breath tends to make the blood more acidic TRUE
The pH survival range of arterial blood is 6.6-8.0
Which of these is relatively high in extracellular fluids? Sodium
Hypokalemia could result from all of these except which one? Addison's Disease
Prolonged vomiting in which only the stomach contents are lost leads to Metabolic alkalosis
The sodium level in the blood is controlled primarily by the hormone PTH False
The primary mechanism that regulates the concentration of sodium ions in extracellular fluid involves a hormone secreted by the parathyroid glands TRUE
Which of the following is an example of a physiological buffer? Renal mechanism
Erythrocytes will swell in a hypertonic solution FALSE
Dehydration is All of the above
Sodium ions account for nearly 100% of the positively charged ions in the extracellular fluid FALSE
Metabolic acidosis can be Compensated for by an increased breathing rate and depth
The thirst center in the hypothalamus is stimulated by ______ of the extracellular fluid and is inhibited by_____ An increase in the osmotic pressure; distention of the stomach by water
Which of the following is not true in Addison's disease? Potassium decreases
Which of these is considered secondary defense against changes in pH? Renal excretion of hydrogen ions
An electrolyte exerts a far less effect on osmosis because it dissociates into at least two particles FALSE
Which of the following will not produce H+ ions? Synthesis of phophoproteins
Which ion is directly related to calcium homeostatsis PO4=
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is released when the sodium level in the blood is low FALSE
Acid base buffer systems minimize pH changes by Converting strong acids to weak acids
Which of the following is not related to hypocalcemia? Muscle weakness
Vomiting can result in either metabolic acidosis or alkalosis TRUE
Respiratory acidosis is caused by Not enough removal of CO2
Why does an electrolyte exert a far greater effect on osmosis than a nonelectrolyte? An electrolyye molecule dissociates into at least two solute particles
The movement of water and electrolytes between fluid compartments is regulated primarily by Hydrostatic pressure and osmotic pressure
Which body compartment contains the greatest relative amount of water? Intracellular
Water obtained as a byproduct of the oxidation of various nutrients is called ____ water Metabollic
If the pH of the blood were 7.2 the respiratory center in the brain stem would be inhibited and the carbon dioxide level would decrease FALSE
Water moves in and out of the body compartments primarily by what method? Osmosis
Where are most electrolytes normally lost? Urine
Chemical buffer systems function rapidly against shift in pH whereas physiological buffer systems function more slowly TRUE
In a healthy body the quantity of water within the body remains relatively stable at all times TRUE
What is the term for a condition of widespread edema? Anasarca
What is a likely cause of hypernatremia? Diabetes insipidus
Choose the factor that is not a major metabolic source of hydrogen ions in the body Dehydration synthesis of nucleic acids
Which of these is not a common consequence of vomiting? Respiratory alkalosis
How is excess tissue fluid mainly returned to the blood? lymphatic vessels
Diabetes mellitus in which fatty acids are converted to ketone bodies leads to Metabolic acidosis
Compared to the average adult female the average adult male body contains relatively More water and less adipose tissue
Surgical removal of the breast can cause edema in the arm TRUE
Diabetic ketoacidosis is an example of which imbalance? Metabolic acidosis
The volume of urine produced is regulated mainly by the activity in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct TRUE
The osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus cannot detect the change in body fluids until the loss is decreased to around 10% of body water FALSE
Which blood parameter is directly affected by breathing? Carbon dioxide
Which of these is not a usual cause of hypoproteinemia Diuresis
Fluid output of the body totals an average of 1500ml per day FALSE
Kidneys help to regulate acid base balance of the blood by secreting hydroxyl ions FALSE
Prolonged diarrhea in which the intestinal secretions are lost excessively leads to Metabolic acidosis
Hypokalemia is characterized by Muscular weakness, respiratory difficulty, and ventricular arrhythmias
Drinking alcohol produces its diuretic effect by Inhibiting the release of ADH
The purpose of a buffer system is to Prevent pH changes
Addisons disease is charaxterized by Aldosterone deficiency and loss of extracellular sodium
Metabolic alkalosis could develop in persons being treated for peptic ulcers TRUE
Diuretics can have an effect of reducing blood pressure TRUE
Hyperventilation leads to Respiratory alkalosis
Which condition is generalized accumulation of body edematous tissues? Anasarca
Based on the following equation what is the effect of an increase in the CO2 concentration in body fluids? H20+CO2->H+ + HCO3- A lowering of the pH
What is the main force that causes fluid to leave the plasma compartment? Hydrostatic pressure
What is the main force that causes water to move among the various fluid compartments? Osmosis
During the act of drinking water the desire for water is usually inhibited by Distention of the stomach
Edema is Characterized by abnormal accumulation of extracellular fluid within the interstitial spaces
If excessive amounts of water are taken into the body Osmoreceptors in the brain begin to swell
Which of the following most closely represents the average percentage of water by weight in an adult male? 65%
An abnormal accumulation of interstitial fluid is termed_____ Edema
____ is the most common extracellular cation while ____ is the most abundant intracellular cation Sodium; Potassium
What is the pH range compatible with life? 6.8-8.0
Which of the following favor the development of edema? Hypoproteinemia
Which of the following favor the development processes is likely to serve as a source of hydrogen ions in body fluids? All of the above
Which of the following does not become involved with maintaining blood calcium balance? Skeletal muscle
Ingestion of excessive amounts of sodium bicarbonate to relieve the symptoms of indigestion may lead to Metabolic Alkalosis
The primary organs of the female reproductive system are the uterus and vagina FALSE
Within the female ovary primordial follicles begin their development During prenatal development
MAles have a number of internal accessory organs. Which one(s) is/are responsible for secreting fluid containing fructose and prostaglandins? Seminal vesicles
Ciliated epithelium and peristaltic waves help move the oocyte through the fallopian tubes TRUE
Which male accessory gland lies inferior to the urinary bladder and surrounds the urethra like a donut? Prostate
Which of the following is are the most reliable form of contraception? Oral contraceptives
The outer serosal layer of the uterus is the_____ Perimetrium
A procedure used to obtain enough fetal tissue for genetic disorders without culturing cells is called Chronic Villi biopsy
After birth, the formen ovale is closed as a result of Increasing pressure in the left atrium
A person with type A blood could have the genotype lAlA or lAlO
The ____ is the early pre-embryonic stage that implants in the uterine lining Blastocyst
Which of the following terms is/are correctly defined? All of the above
The first female menstrual cycle is called menarche TRUE
Which factors favors spermatozoa development Temperature of 34oC
Cleavage is an early process of division that causes an increase in the size of the embryo FALSE
The foramen ovale is an opening that allows fetal blood to pass from the Right atrium to the left atrium
A major difference between fetal blood flow and adult blood flow is that in the fetus the Inferior vena cava contains blood high in oxygen
Which of the following is true regarding egg cells? They always contain an X chromosome
The hormone responsible for the development and maintenance of males secondary sexual characteristics is Testosterone
Following birth the infants metabolic rate Increases and its oxygen consumption increases
Sperm cells die immediately when they are released from the body and are placed in a petri plate FALSE
A number of hormonal secretions begin or increase during puberty. Which hormone appears to initiate the process of puberty? Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
Women athletes sometimes experience disturbances in their menstrual cycles because of Decreased synthesis of estrogens
If a Y bearing sperm fertilizes a normal egg the zygote should exhibit the make genotype TRUE
In a fetus the umbilical arteries arise from the renal arteries FALSE
The movement of an egg down a uterine tube is aided by ciliary action TRUE
Which layer of the uterus is shed once monthly during menstruation? The endometrium
As a rule during adulthood All of the above
Hemophilia is Characterized by a defect in the clotting mechanism
The process of growing old is called senescence TRUE
Females produce hundreds of oocytes each month in comparison to the millions of sperm cells produced int he same age male FALSE
The superior region of the vagina is the ___ Fornix
Ovulation appears to be triggered by a midcycle surge in Luteinizing hormone (LH)
A color blind male always receives the colorblind gene from his mother TRUE
The first step in oogenesis is a Primary oocyte divides to form a secondary oocyte and a first polar body
In an adult the proximal portions of the umbilical arteries persist and supply blood to the urinary bladder TRUE
The Y chromosone is the same size as the X chromosome the only difference is in the type of genes they contain FALSE
The particular combination of genes present within a zygote constitutes its genotype TRUE
Hyperemesis gravidarium is excessive vomiting during pregnancy TRUE
The placenta is composed of tissues from the Mother and embryo
What portion of the sperm cell contains they twenty three chromosomes? HEAD
Egg cells are transported in the female reproductive tract by ____ whereas sperm are transported in the male reproductive tract by the ____ Action of ciliated epithelium in the uterine tubes; movement of their tails
The neonatal period of development extends from birth to the end of one year FALSE
The selnder projections that grow out from the trophoblast into the uterine wall are called the amniotic cavities FALSE
As a group the structures of the femal reproductive system that surrounds the openings to the urethra and vagina comprise the mons pubis False
The tubular portion of the uterus that extends downward into the upper part of the vagina is the CERVIX
An ovary is held in position by the broad ligament suspensory ligament and ovarian ligament TRUE
Which cells are the earliest in the male sequence of meiosis? PRimary spermatocyte
The implantation of an embryo is aided by digestive enzymes that the embryo secretes TRUE
The epididymis is a ___ and it functions to____ Tightly coiled tube on the outside of the testis; store immature sperm as they mature
The testes in the male and ovaries in the female can both be found in the pelvic cavity of an early fetus TRUE
The superior portion of the uterus is the _____ Fundus
The female structure that corresponds to the male penis is the Clitoris
Which structure is formed following ovulation? Corpus luteum
The amount of testosterone in the blood is increased by LH causing the interstitial cells to release testosterone
The interstitial cells of the testes produce Testosterone
The largest component of the uterus by weight is the____ Myometrium
Sperm cells are produced by the germinal epithelial cells that line the seminiferous tubules TRUE
A vasectomy is the male equivalent of tubal ligation regarding efficiency of contraception TRUE
In females what structure is located immediately anterior to the vagina? Urethra
The cells of a blastocyst that gives rise to the body of the developing offspring constitute the Inner cell mass
What is the source of the male androgen testosterone? Interstitial cells
An eptopic pregnancy occurs when an embryo begins development Outside the uterus
The initiation of puberty and menses in a female involves increased levels of _____ FSH and LH
What is the name for the primary human sex organs? Gonads
Which sexually transmitted disease is also associated with pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility in females? Chlamydia infection
In females egg cell production begins at birth TRUE
Oral contraceptives usually contain doses of estrogen and progesterone and act by disrupting FSH and LH TRUE
The adolescent period begins at the end of the first year and is completed at puberty FALSE
Whcih gland lies at the inferior base of the urinary bladder? PROSTATE
In an adult heart the previous location of the formen ovale is marked by a depression called the fossa ovalis TRUE
Within a set of human chromosomes 22 pairs are called autosomes TRUE
The hormone oxytocin aids the birth process by stimulating Uterine wall contractions
About the time of ovulation the anterior pituitary gland releases a relatively large quantity of LH
The amount of testosterone produced is regulated by a positive feedback system FALSE
The vagina is anterior to the bladder and posterior to the rectum FALSE
How many mature functional follicles will a female produce in a lifetime? 400
The hormones mainly responsible for maintaining the uterine wall during the last 5-6 months of pregnancy are Placental estrogen and pregesterone
The hormone mainly responsible for the development and maintenance of female secondary sexual characteristics is Estrogen
In the menstrual cycle estrogen functions to ______ whereas progesterone functions to _____ Stimulate uterine wall development; stimulate the uterine lining to become more glandular
Hysterectomy involves removal of the uterus and uterine tubes, therapeutically TRUE
Which sperm structure contains enzymes that help penetrate ova? Acrosome
Which of the following combinations would be needed to cause the development of dizygotic twins? two egg cells and two sperm cells
The mature follicle is also called a ____ Graafian follicle
The ductus arteriosus allows fetal blood to move from the pulmonary trunk into the aorta
Undifferentiated spermatogenic cells are called Spermatogonia
Specifically where are sperm cells formed within the testes? Within the seminiferous tubules
The detection of the hormone ____ is the basis of most pregnancy tests Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)
The last fluid to be expelled from the urethra during ejaculation comes from the Seminal vesicles
An egg cell with XX xhromosomes is fertilized by a Y bearing sperm and results in an individual with ____ which is characterized Klinefelter's syndrome; tall stature, feminine musculature and partial development of the breasts
The outer layer of an ovary is similar to the tunica albuginea outer testis layer TRUE
Amniotic fluid functions to Protect the embryo against being jarred by movements of the Mother's body
Which of the following is true in regard to the determination of the gender of a baby? The sex chromosome in the sperm determines the gender of the baby
As many as twenty primary follicles may reach full development at any one time FALSE
Compared to males, who train for endurance events females who train for such events typically Maintain a higher percentage of body fat
The period of development during which the contents of a zygote are divided into smaller and smaller cells is cleavage TRUE
The total number of chromosomes found in a human zygote is 23 FALSE
The symptoms of fetal alcohol syndrome include All of the above
Male reproductive functions are controlled mainly by hormones from the hypothalamus and Anterior pituitary gland and testes
Which of the following correctly describes the mechanism that causes an erection? None of the above
As a result of the foramen ovale blood is allowed to bypass the Lungs
Female atheletes usually experience menstrual cycles with excessive loss of blood FALSE
Which of the following structures are unpaired? Prostate gland
The vas deferens connects to the urethra at the base of the penis FALSE
The primary function of surfactant is to increase surface tension within the newborns lungs FALSE
The epididymis is a coiled tubule on the surface of the testes that store sperm cells TRUE
The ductus venosus is a fetal vessel that functions to transport blood from the umbilical vein to the inferior vena cava
The functions of the placenta are to allow Oxygen and nutrients to diffuse from maternal blood through the placental membrane into the embryo
The testes originate from tissue located behind the parietal pleura FALSE
Which structure is not found within the spermatic cord? Urethra
MEnopausal females often experience unpleasant symptoms such as "hot flashes" as a result of An increase in gonadotropin concentration and a decrease in estrogen concentration
An increase in the hormone FSH at approximately 14 causes ovulation FALSE
Most commonly a blastocyst becomes implanted in the uterine Upper posterior wall
Following ovulation a human egg cell can survive approximately 24 hours
The embryonic membrane that functions to form blood cells and gives rise to cells destined to become sex cells is chorion FALSE
A blastomere is a ____ and a blastocyst is ____ cell produced by cleavage; a hollow ball of cells
Spermicidal foams and creams are an effecive means of contraception FALSE
Which of the following terms is correctly defined? Cryptorchidism is the failure of testes to descend into scrotum
The most commonly usec oral contraceptives contain Synthetic estrogen and progesterone
If an egg cell without an X chromosome is fertilized by an X bearing sperm cell then this will result in Turner's Syndrome
If the parent genotypes are AA and aa the offspring are expected to be All Aa
An inguinal hernia occurs when the testes is pushed into the inguinal canal and enters the pelvic cavity FALSE
If the testes fail to descend a male is infertile because sperm cell formation is prevented by Relatively high internal body temperature
Choosing from the following list the most effective means of preventing ceonception is Tubal ligation
The placental membrane is composed of A double layer of epithelial cells
Some factors that help to stimulate the newborns first breath are increasing CO2, decreasing pH, decreasing O2, decreasing body temperature, and mechanical stimulation TRUE
The major hormonal changes that occur in the maternal body during pregnancy are Placental tissues secrete high amounts of estrogen and progesterone
A pap smear is used to detect the presence of abnormal cells in the Cervix
During spermatogenesis which stage is the first to be haploid in number of chromosomes? Secondary spermatocyte
Teh fetal blood that passes through the ductus venosus is relatively High in oxygen and nutrients
During ovulation a(n) _______ is released from the ovary Secondary oocyte
Factors that can cause congenital malformations by affecting an embryo during its periods of rapid growth and development are called teratogens TRUE
If the parent genotypes are both Aa and Aa the only possible genotype for the offspring is Aa FALSE
Which of the following is not a charcteristic of childhood? Becoming reproductively functional
The term new born refers to the period from birth through ____ whereas the term infant refers to the period from____ T he first four weeks; the first month to 1 year
Fertilization normally occurs in the Uterine (fillopian) tube
What is the purpose of polar bodies during oogenesis? Polar bodies serve both serve both as a dumping ground for extra sets of chromosomes and ensure that the ovum will have most of the cytoplasm
For most women who decide to breast feed it will be easier to become pregnant during the first month after delivery than it will be one year later FALSE
Which of the following provides the main source of energy for a newborn duing its first few days? FAT
Down syndrome is caused by An extra
A gene that is not expressed in the heterozygous condition is called Recessive
Incomplete dominance is defined as Gene pairs occuring in 2 forms that are expressed differently and neither is dominant to the other
The yolk sac functions to Form blood cells in early development
After birth the ductus arteriosus constricts and becomes the ligamentum arteriosum TRUE
When the alleles of a gene pair are identical they are said to be Homozygous
Created by: jmpaden01 on 2010-04-19



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