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processes or projections extend beyond or project out from the main body of a bone
facet small, smooth-surfaced articular process
hamulus hook-shaped process
head expanded end of a long bone
horn hornlike process
line linear elevation; not as prominent as a crest
malleolus club-shaped process
protuberance projecting prominence
spine sharp process
styloid long, pointed process
trochanter either of the two large, rounded, and elevated processes of the proximal femur
tubercle small, rounded, and elevated process
tuberosity large, rounded, and elevated process
depressions hollow or depressed areas
fissure cleft or deep groove
foramen hole in a bone for transmission of vessels and nerves
fossa pit, fovea, or hollow space
groove shallow linear channel
meatus tubelike passageway
notch indentation in the border of a bone
sinus recess, groove, cavity, or hollow space
sulcus furrow or trench
bone The porous calcified substance from which bones are made
ossification Gradual replacement of cartilage by bone cells and calcium deposits
collagen Structural protein of all connective tissue ; It is relatively inelastic and resists stretching
compact bone Dense external layer of all bones
cancellous bone Inner lattice work of thin plates of bone filled with red bone marrow pattern
trabeculae Calcified intercellular matrix of the bone
cartilage Specialized type of avascular connective tissue at the articular ends of bone
fontanel Soft spot in the skull of newborn before compete bone formation occurs
epiphysis Center of long bone growth in a child
metaphysis Region between the diaphysis and the epiphysis where the calcified matrix is replaced by bone
periosteum Membranous covering of bone rich in blood vessels and nerves
red bone marrow bone marrow of children and some adult bones required for the formation of red blood cells
yellow bone marrow Adipose cells in the diaphysis consisting of and scattered blood cells forming the chemical
osteon Functional unit of bone also known as the Haversian system
haversian canals Vascular channels running parallel to the long axis of bone
canaliculi Small channels connecting spaces between the bone layers
lamellae Interconnected sheets of bone surrounding the Haversian canal
foramen Opening in bones for the passage of blood or nerves and both
lacunae Interconnected openings in bone that house osteocytes
osteocytes Mature bone cells derived from osteoblasts
osteoblasts Bone forming cells that deposit calcium in the spaces vacated by cartilage to form bone matrix
osteoclast Bone cells that destroy the surface of bone and aid in the remodeling process
tendon Elastic connective tissue connecting muscle to bone
ligament Band of connective tissue that connects bones
meniscus Semi-lunar shaped interarticular cartilage of the knee
bursa Synovial fluid-filled sac, near to but not in the joint acting as cushions between muscles, tendons, and bone
Volkmann’s canals Vascular channels carrying blood to the bone
articulation / joint point of contact between two or more bones
synarthrodial Joint classification where the immovable joints are held together by fibrous connective tissue
amphiarthrodial Joint classification where the partially movable joints are held together by cartilage
diarthrodial Joint classification with freely movable joint united by a fibrous capsule secreting synovial fluid for lubrication
gliding Diarthrodial joint with sliding movement without angulation
hinge Diarthrodial joint with flexion and extension
pivot Diarthrodial joint with rotational movement around one axis
condyloid Diarthrodial joint with movement in 2 directions at right angles to each other
ball and socket Diarthrodial joint with the greatest range of motion with a ball shaped process that fits into a cup shaped socket
saddle Diarthrodial joint with movement in 2 directions with adjoining concave and convex surfaces
sub- under
ambi- both
peri- around
endo- within, inner
inter- between
supra- above
infra- below
dys- painful, difficult
syn- together
sym together
ex- our, away from
epi- upon, over and above
meta- change, beyond
dia- through, between
ab- away from
ad- toward
dorsi- back
poly- many
in- in, into
oste/o bone
chondr/o cartilage
arthr/o joint
synovi/o synovial membrane
myel/o bone marrow
spondyl/o vertebrae
rachi/o spinal
kyph/o hump
lord/o bend
lumb/o loins
scoli/o crooked or curved
petr/o stone-like
lith/o stone or calculus
articul/o joint
burs/o pouch, sac
rheumatic/o watery flow
styl/o pole, stake
ankyl/o stiffness
ten/o tendon
orth/o straight
sphen/o wedge
ethm/o sieve
acr/o extremity
kines/i movement
dactyl/o finger or toe
sarc/o flesh
cleid/o clavicle
-itis inflammation
-clasis break
-physis growth
-schisis fissure
-trophy development
-tome instrument to cut
-pexy surgical fixation
-algia pain
-ptosis drooping
-malacia softening
-oma tumor
-ectomy excision
-otomy incision
-porosis pore, passage
-stenosis narrowing
-listhesis slipping
-blast immature cell
-desis binding
-rrhaphy suture repair
Created by: barbarabenson