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Heart Master 2

Heart review

QuestionAnswer
An example of a noninvasive cardiology procedure/service is. cardiovascular stress test
What is the name of the procedure in which fluid is withdrawn from the space around the heart through a needle and a catheter is left in to allow for continued drainage. pericardiocentesis
The device that can be inserted into the body to electrically shock the heart into regular rhythm cardioverter-defibrillator
What type of cardiology is a diagnostic specialty that uses radioactive elements to aid in the diagnosis of cardiology conditions nuclear
A ___ is a mass of undissolved matter that is present in blood and is transported by the blood embolus
A blood vessel that carries oxygen-poor blood from heart to lungs. pulmonary artery
Contraction phase of the heartbeat systole
Located between the left upper and lower chambers of the heart mitral valve
Saclike membrane surrounding the heart pericardium
Sensitive tissue in the right atrium wall that begins the heartbeat sinoatrial node
Blood vessels branching from the aorta to carry oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle coronary arteries
Disease of heart muscle cardiomyopathy
Inflammation of a vein phlebitis
A local widening of an artery aneurysm
Bluish coloration of the skin cyanosis
Can lead to myocardial infarction. Blood is held back from an area. Can be caused by thrombotic occlusion of a blood vessel. May be a result of coronary artery disease. ischemia
Chest pain relieved with nitroglycerin. angina
Cardiac arrhythmia fibrillation
small, pinpoint hemorrahages petechiae
drug used to strengthen the heartbeat digitalis
Removal of plaque from an artery endarterectomy
The pacemaker of the heart is the sinoatrial node
The sac-like membrane surrounding the heart is the pericardium
The contractive phase of the heartbeat is called systole
The relaxation phase of the heartbeat is called diastole
Abnormal heart sound caused by improper closure of heart valves is murmur
Hardening of arteries arteriosclerosis
Enlargement of the heart cardiamegaly
Inflammation of a vein with a clot thrombophlebitis
Disease condition of heart muscle cardiomyopathy
Condition of rapid heart beat tachycardia
Smallest blood vessel capillary
Largest artery in the body aorta
lower chamber of the heart ventricle
Carries blood from the lungs to the heart pulmonary vein
Brings blood to heart from upper parts of the body superior vena cava
Upper chamber of the heart atrium
Valve between the left atrium and ventricle mitral valve
Small artery arteriole
Valve between the right atrium and ventricle tricuspid valve
Failure of condiction of impulses from the AV node to bundle of His heart block
Blood is held back from tissues ischemia
Mass of plaque (cholesterol) atheroma
Narrowing of a vessel vasoconstriction
Dead tissue in heart muscle myocardial infarction
Chest pain angina
Blockage of a vessel due to a clot thrombotic occlusion
High density lipoproteins HDL
Treatment to dissolve clots in blood vessels thrombolytic theraphy
Tube is introduced into a vessel and guided into the heart to detect pressures and blood flow cardiac catheterization
White blood cell with reddish gra ules; numbers increase in allergic reactions eosinophil
Protein threads that form the basis of a clot fibrin
Method of separating out plasma proteins by electrical charge electrophoresis
Foreighn material that invades the body antigens
Pigment produced from hemogloblin when red blood cells are destroyed bilirubin
Anticoagulant found in the blood heparin
Deficiency in numbers of white blood cells neutropenia
Immature red blood cell erythroblast
Derived from bone marrow myeloid
Breakdown of recipient’s red blood cells when incompatible bloods are mixed hemolysis
Sideropenia occurs causing deficient production of hemoglobin iron-deficiency anemia
Reduction in red cells due to excessive cell destruction hemolytic anemia
Failure of blood cell production due to absence of formation of cells in the bone marrow aplastic anemia
Formation of lymph lymphopoiesis
Abdominal organ that filters erythro-cytes and activates lymphocytes Spleen
Produces lymphocytes and monocytes and all other blood cells Bone marrow
Slight increase in numbers of lymphocytes Lymphocytosis
Malignant tumor of lymph nodes Hodgkin disease
Red blood cell erythrocyte
White blood cell; phagocyte and precursor of a macrophage monocyte
Thrombocyte platelet
Leukocyte formed in lymph tissue; produces antibodies lymphocyte
Leukocyte with dense, reddish granules; associated with allergic reactions eosinophil
Leukocyte (poly) formed in bone marrow and having neutral-staining granules neutrophil
Leukocyte whoes granules have an affinity for basic stain; releases histamine and heparin basophil
Deficiency in numbers erythrocytopenia
Reduction of hemoglobin ("color") hypochromic
Increase in numbers of small cells microcyctosis
Erythremia polycythemia vera
Increase in numbers of large cells macrocytosis
formation of red cells erythropoiesis
Destruction of red cells hemolysis
Relieving, but not curing palliative
Deficiency of all blood cells pancytopenia
Increase in numbers of granulocytes; seen in allergic conditions eosinophilia
Symptoms of disease return relapse
Multiple pinpoint hemorrhages; blood accumulates under the skin purpura
Separation of blood into its components apheresis
Measures the percentage of red blood cells in a volume of blood hematocrit
Determines the number of clotting cells per cubic millimeter platelet count
Ability of venous blood to clot in a test tube coagulation time
Measures the speed at which erythrocytes settle out of plasma erthrocyte sedimentation rate
Determines the numbers of different types of WBCs WBC differential
Determines the presence of antibodies in infants of Ph-negative women or patients with autoimmune hemolytic anemia Coombs test
Blood is collected from and later reinfused into the same patient autologous transfusion
process of recording heart sound, studies structures & motions of the heart echocardigraphy
decreased blood supply of oxygen to body part ischemia
local abnormal dilation of a vessel. usually an artery aneurysm
irregularity in heart action arrhythmia
consist of the cardiovascular sytem (heart and blood vessels) and the lymphatic system (conveyance of the fluid lymph) circulatory Sytem
the fluid portion of the blood in which corpuscles are suspended plasma
the sac that is made up of a double membrane which encloses the heart pericardium
inflammation of the pericardium. peritcarditis
forms the lining inside of the heart endocardium
often caused by infective organisms that invade the endocardium endocarditis
heart muscle itself myocardium
inflammation of the heart muscle myocarditis
general dyognostic term that designates primary heart disease cardiomyopathy
blood vessels that supply oxygen to the heart coronay arteries
severe pain and constriction about the heart caused by an insufficient supply of blood to the heart angina pectoris
irregularity or loss of rhythm of the heart beat arrhythmia
enlarged size of the heart cardiomegaly
a severe cardiay arrhythmia in which contractions are too rapid and to uncoordinated for effective blood circulation fibrillation
an electronic apparatus that delivers a shock to the heart to restore a proper rhythm defribillator
cessation of the heartbeat; a clinical condition resulting from failure of the heart to pump the blood effectively and to maintain adequate circulation of the blood heart failure
a condition characterized by weakness, breathlessness and edema in the lower portions of the body congestive heart failure
a soft blowing or rasping sound that may be heard when listening to the heart heart murmur
excessive blood in heart hyperlipemia
formation of a localized area of tissue that under goes necrosis (death of tissue) following lack of blood supply to that area. infarction
death of an area of the heart muscle that occurs as a result of oxygen deprivation myocardial infarction
defeciency of blood supply to the myocardium myocardial ischemia
a serious condition in which blood flow to the heart is reduced to such an extent that the body tissues do not receive enough blood shock
refers to operative procedures on the heart after it has been exposed through an incision of the chest wall open heart surgery
is the method used to divert blood away from the heart and lungs temporarily while surgery of the heart and major vessels is performed Cardiopulmonary bypass
artificial pacemaker implanted to keep the heart rhythm within a desirable range in patients who suffer from severe arrhythmia pacemaker implant
tha passage of a long flexible tube into the heart chambers through a vein in an arm or a leg or the neck cardiac catherterization
uses sound waves bounced off tissue to produce a record called a sonogram ultrasound
is the term generally associated with the use of ultrasonography in diagnosing heart disease echocardiograph
is the record of the heart obtained by directing ultrasonic waves through the chest wall echocardiogram
is produced by recording the electrical currents of the heart muscle using a device calle an electrocardiograph electrocardiogram
is recommended as an emergency first aid procedure to re-establish heart and lung action if breathing or heart action has stopped Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
is an increase in the diameter of the blood vessel vasodilation
drugs that dilate the blood vessels are sometimes used to treat hypertension vasodilators
Build-up of plaque on the walls of the coronary arteries. Coronary Heart Disease
reduction of the platelet count below the normal range of 150,000 to 400,000/ul (150 x 400 x 109/L) thrombocytopenia
thrombocyte platelet
a process by which WBC’s ingest or engulf any unwanted organism and then digest and kill it phagocytosis
marked decrease in the number of RBC’s, WBC’s, and platelets pancytopenia
a reduction of the neutrophil count to less than 1000 to 1500/ul (1 to 1.5 x 109/L) neutropenia
a total white blood count less than 4,000/ul leukopenia
destruction of erythrocytes hemolysis
a protein-iron molecule that is the major compnent of erythrocytes and transports oxygen hemoglobin
blood cell production hematopoieses
the study of blood and blood-forming tissues hematology
vomiting of blood that indiacates bleeding in the upper GI tract; may be bright red or of "coffee ground" character hematemesis
process of red blood cell production erythropoiesis
a manifestation of a pathologic process characterized by a reduction below normal in the number of erythrocytes, quantity of hemoglobin, and/or the volume of packed red cells (hematocrit) in the blood anemia
a disease in which the patient has peripheral blood pancytopenia (decrease of all blood cells types) and hypocellular bone marrow aplastic anemia
in transplantation, denotes removal of the patients own tissue and the fiving back of the tissue to that person autologous
a serious bleeding disorder resulting from abnormally initiated and accelerated clotting disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)
an autosomal recessive disease characterized by increased intestinal iron absorption and, as a result, increased tissue iron depostition hemachromatosis
an anemia caused by destruction of RBC’s at a rate that ex ceeds production hemolytic anemia
heraditary bleeding disorders caused by defective or deficient clotting factors; classic hemophilia A is a sexlinked recessive genetic disorder caused by deficient factor VIII; hemophilia B is a deficiency of factor IX hemophilia
anemia caused by inadequate iron for hemoglobin production iron-deficiency anemia
process by which blood is withdrawn from a vein, white blood cells are selectively removed, and the remaining blood is reinfused into the donor leukapharesis
general term used to describe a group of malignant disorders affecting the blood and blood-forming tissues of the bone marrow, lymph system, and spleen leukemia
enlargement of the lymph nodes or lymph vessels lymphadenopathy
large immature cells that normally develop into lymphocytes lymphoblasts
defect in proliferation and maturation of lymphocytes lymphocytic leukemia
a heterogeneous group of malignant neoplasms involving lymphoid tissue non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
type of megaloblastic anemia resulting from inadequate gastric secretion of intrinsic factor necessary for absorption of cobalamin (vitamin B12) pernicious anemia
production and presence of increased numbers of red blood cells polycythemia
an exacerbation of sickle cell anemia when sickle cell hemoglobin assumes various crescent or sickle shapes, occluding small blood vessels sickle cell crisis
group of inherited, autosomal recessive disorders characterized by the presence of an abnormal form of hemoglobin in the erythrocyte sickle cell disease
abnormal hemoglobin that caused development of deformed crescent-shaped red blood cells when oxygen tension is lowered sickle cell hemoglobin
heterozygous state in which an individual has only one sickle cell gene paired with a normal homoglobin gene sickle cell trait
abnormal enlargement of the spleen splenomegaly
an autosomal recessive genetic disorde of inadequate production of normal hemoglobin thalassemia
a reduction of the platelet count below the normal range of 150,000 to 400,000/ul thrombocytopenia
What is the term for vomiting blood? hematemesis
Leading cause of death for smokers coronary heart disease
excessive number of red corpuscles in the blood polcythemia
deficiency of RBCs anemia
substance that prevents the blood from clotting anticoagulant
destruction of RBCs hemolysis
stoppage of blood flow from a damaged blood vessel hemostasis
malignant overproduction of WBCs leukemia
liquid portion of blood plasma
clear yellow fluid that remains after the clotted blood has been centrifuged and separated serum
protein produced by exposure to antigen antibody
substance that stimulates the formation of antibodies antigen
procedure that matches patient and donor blood before a transfusion compatibility (crossmatch)
component of fresh plasma that contains clotting factors cryoprecipitate
plasma collected from a unit of blood and immediately frozen fresh frozen plasma
blood from which the plasma has been removed packed cells
405-409 mL of blood collected from a donor for a transfusion unit of blood
the study of the immune system immunology
another name for antibody immunoglobulin
the study of serum serology
glucose in the urine glycosuria
blood or hemoglobin in th urine hematuria (hemoglobinuria)
What is a normal hgb? Men - 14.0-17.4 ,women - 12.0-16.0
What is a normal Hct %? Men - 42-52, Women - 36-48
What is normal for Platelets? 140-400
What is the pupose of a Sedimentation Rate aka Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)? Non-specific test. Increase found in anemia from acute or chronic disease, Normal in iron-deficiency anemia alone
superficial veins of the arm and hand; most common site peripheral venous sites
inserted in antecubital area until just before axilla used for those with limited peripheral veins or require extended IV therapy midline catheter
delivered into large vein such vena cava and inserted into the jugular or subclavian vein central venous catheter
Peripheral IV change 72 hours
surgically implanted threaded into r. side heart Porta Catheter
What is the cycle of firing starting at the SA node to....? the AV node, down the bundle of His, which divides into right and left bundle branches , through the purkinje fibers (in the ventricles)
What does the P wave represent? atrial depolarization
What happens to the atria when they deplarize? they contract
What does the QRS complex represent? ventricular depolarization
What happens to the ventricles during depolarization? they contract
What occurs to the atria during the QRS complex they repolarize
What is repolarization representative of? relaxation
What does the T wave represent? ventricular repolarization
When the ventricles repolarize what are they doing? relaxing
What is the U wave representative of? hypokalemia
What signs may present with sinus tach? dyspnea or angina
What is a PAC premature atrial contraction
what is an PAC in layman terms early beat
What causes a PAC? the atria fire before the SA node fires
What is atrial flutter? when the atria contract rapidly
What is the differentiation between atrial flutter and atrial fibrillation? the rate in fibrillation is more rapid and more chaotic than flutter
What causes atrial flutter? rheumatic or ischemic heart disease, CHF, hypertension, pericarditis, PE and post op CABG
What is the treatment for atrial flutter? cardioversion
What meds control atrial flutter? calcium channel blockers and beta blockers, digoxin, quinidine, propranolol, procainamide
What causes atrial fibrillation? aging, rheumatic or ischemic heart disease, heart failure, HTN, pericarditis, PE and post op CABG
What is the treatment for atrial fibrillation if patient is unstable? cardioversion
function of the heart a 4 chamber double pump
function of the atria (right and left) pump blood into the ventricles
function of arteries carry blood away from the heart
function of the veins carry blood toward the heart
function right ventricles right pumps to pulmonary circulation
function left ventricle pumps blood to systemic circulation
What are the AV valves? AV valves, tricuspid and mitral
what are the semilunar valves pulmonic and aortic
Systole takes place when the _________contract ventricles
Diastole is the time between ____________ when ventricles are ___________ and are being filled with blood. contractions, relaxed
As ventricles begin to contract, the pressure in the ventricles_______which cause the ____valves to close and produce__________. rises, AV(mitral and tricuspid), S1-LUB
As pressure continues to rise it forces the ________________ and __________valves to open and the blood is ejected into either the pulmonary artery or aorta pulmonic and aortic valves
which sound is made during artial closure S4
which sound is made during aortic valve closure S2
which sound is made during ventricular filling from LA>LV S3
which sound is made during mitral valve closing S1
What is turbulent flow within the heart a murmur
What is turbulent flow outside heart in arteries called bruit
Where is the heart located? mediastinum
What encloses the heart? 3 pericardial membranes
What prevents friction between the three layers of the pericardial sac? serous fluid
What are the upper chambers of the heart called? atria
what are the lower chambers of the heart called? ventricles
Which has thicker walls the atria or the ventricles ventricles
Which of the ventricles has thicker wall right or left ; why left because it is pumping the blood back into the body
what are the valves called that separate the atria and ventricles? right-tricuspid and left is mitral valve
What is the pacemaker of the heart? SA node
What causes the cardiac sounds S1 and S2 (or lub-dupp) The closure of the AV valves during ventricular systole for S1 and the S2 is created by the closure of the aortic and pulmonary semilunar valves
the amount of blood pumped by the left ventricle in 1 minute cardiac output
a measure of ventricular efficiency ejection fraction
Epinephrine is secreted by the...? adrenal medulla
What is epinephrines function in the cardiac system? increases the HR and force of contraction and dilates the coronary vessels
What does Aldosterone do in relation to the cardiac system? it helps regulate blood levels of sodium and potassium
What does ANP do? increases excretion of sodium by the kidneys
What causes ANP secretion? high blood pressure or greater blood volume that streches the walls of the atria
Where are valves most numerous in the circulatory syste? in the legs to carry blood back to the heart without backflow
If blood flow through the kidneys what happens to preserve blood volume? the low BP stimulates the kidneys to secrete renin which will initiate renin angiotensin aldosterone mechanism.
What are the two pathways of circulation pulmonary and systemic
Where does pumonary circulation begin? right ventricle
Where does systemic circulation begin? left ventricle
What is atherosclerosis? deposits of lipids on and in the walls of the arteries
What is arteriosclerosis? gradual deterioration of walls of arteries
What is another name for orthostatic hypotension? postural hypotension
What does a pulse quality of 2+ mean? normal pulse quality
one that disappears when slight pressure is applied and returns when pressure is removed thready pulse
a vibration in the vessel felt on palpation thrill
humming heard on on auscultation of a vessel as a result of turbulent blood flow bruit
What does pink frothy sputum indicate? acute heart failure
nailbeds swell due to oxygen deprivation clubbing
reddish brown discoloration found in LE rubor
What does rubor indicate? decreased arterial blood flow
How do the LE present on venous insufficiency? brown , cyanotic
What is JVD? jugular vein distention
What is the most common cause of JVD? right sided heart failure
What does a cap refill of >3 sec indicate? anemial or decrease in blood flow to the extremity
What causes a pericardial friction rub? inflammation of the pericardium
What position would you have a patient be in to best hear the friction rub? sitting and leaning forward
Where would you best hear a friction rub? left of the sternum
protein found only in cardiac cells troponin
What does an elevated troponin indicate? myocardial damage
how soon after damage does the troponin increase? 4-6 hours
When do troponin levels peak? 10-24 hours after damage
How long after damage do the troponin levels remain high? 7 days
What cardiac enzymes are released after myocardial damage? CK,CPK,LDH
Why are CK, CPK less indicative of myocardial damage? because these are enzymes that are found in other tissues as well as cardiac so elevations may be result of other than cardiac damage
What information can a lipid profile provide? screen for increased risk for coronary artery disease
High levels of what is linked to an increase in CAD? LDL
deficient number of red blood cells or deficient hemoglobin anemia
substances produced by the body that destroy or inactivate a specific substance (antigen) that has entered the body antibodies
substances that, when introduced into the body, cause formation of antibodies against them antigens
white blood cell that stains readily with basic dyes basophil
the compound formed by the union of carbon dioxide with hemoglobin carbaminohemoglobin
obstruction of a blood vessel by foreign matter carried in the bloodstream embolism
a blood clot or other substance (bubble of air) that is moving in the blood and may block a blood vessel embolus
white blood cell that is readily stained by eosin eosinophil
a disease that may develop when an Rh-negative mother has anti-Rh antibodies and gives birth to an Rh-positive baby and the antibodies react with the Rh-positive cells of the baby erythroblastosis fetalis
red blood cells erythrocytes
insoluble protein in clotted blood fibrin
soluble blood protein that is converted to insoluble fibrin during clotting fibrinogen
volume percent of blood cells in whole blood hematocrit
iron-containing protein in red blood cells hemoglobin
substance obtained from the liver; inhibits blood clotting heparin
blood cancer characterized by an increase in white blood cells leukemia
white blood cells leukocyte
abnormally high white blood cell numbers in the blood leukocytosis
abnormally low white blood cell numbers in the blood leukopenia
one type of white blood cell lymphocytes
a phagocyte monocyte
white blood cell that stains readily with neutral dyes neutrophil
deficiency of red blood cells because of a lack of vitamin B12 pernicious anemia
white blood cells that engulf microbes and digest them phagocytes
an excessive number of red blood cells polycythemia
a protein present in normal blood that is required for blood clotting prothrombin
a protein formed by clotting factors from damaged tissue cells and platelets; it converts prothrombin into thrombin, a step essential to forming a blood clot prothrombin activator
blood plasma minus its clotting factors, still contains antibodies serum
protein important in blood clotting thrombin
also called platelets; play a role in blood clotting thrombocytes
protein important in blood clotting thrombin
also called platelets; play a role in blood clotting thrombocytes
formation of a clot in a blood vessel thrombosis
stationary blood clot thrombus
Created by: Nerd on 2006-04-13



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