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GeneticsExam4

QuestionAnswer
Pathogen? any disease causing organism; (bacteria, virus, fungus, pollen, incompatible blood types.)
Resistance? ability to not get sick.
Susceptibility? able to get sick.
NRAMP1? natural resistance associated macrophage protein 1; gene that provides mice with resistance to Leishmania donavonii parasite and Salmonella typhimurium.
What seems to provide some resistance to the malaria parasite? A single cell anemia allele (Ss).
Antigen? foreign substance capable of producing an immune response; large proteins that the immune system will attack.
Antibodies? your body makes against foreign antigens; plasma has antibodies to opposite blood type antigens.
Hemolysis? blood bursting from incompatible blood types.
Universal donor? can be given to anybody; type O-
Universal recipient? can receive any blood type; type AB.
Blood type A: antigens? Antibodies? Able to receive? Antigen: A; Antibodies: B; Receive: A,O.
Blood type B: antigens? Antibodies? Able to receive? Antigen: B; Antibodies: A; Receive: B,O.
Blood type AB: antigens? Antibodies? Able to receive? Antigen: A,B; Antibodies: none; Receive: all
Blood type O: antigens? Antibodies? Able to receive? Antigen: none; Antibodies: A,B; Receive: O
Hemolytic disease of the newborn? an Rh- mom makes antibodies to an Rh+ baby's blood and attacks the next fetus; prevented by giving mom synthetic Rh+ antibodies (RhoGAM)
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC)? 70 genes for proteins that present self and non-self antigens to your immune system; found on human chromosome 6.
Human leukocyte antigens (HLA) MHC proteins that are specifically on the white blood cells; doctors try to match HLA types between organ donors and recipients.
Name the diseases associated with having a particular HLA? narcolepsy, type 1 diabetes, Grave's disease, lupus.
Nonspecific resistance? works against any pathogen; innate immunity; skin, mucus, pH, inflammation, fever.
Adaptive immunity? works against a particular pathogen; B cells, T cells, antibodies.
Blood is made up of what percent water and what percent cells? 55% water and 45% cells
Red blood cells? erythrocytes; carry oxygen.
Platelets? thrombocytes; clot blood.
White blood cells? leukocytes; function in immune response.
Name the 5 different types of white blood cells? Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils, Monocytes, Lymphocytes.
Neutrophils? phagocytosis and digest marked pathogen.
Eosinophils? allergic reactions and reject parasitic worms.
Basophils? release histamine for inflammation.
Monocytes? phagocytosis and digest marked pathogens.
Lymphocytes? mark pathogens for destruction; T cells, B cells
Different numbers of the different white blood cells indicate different diseases. T or F True.
Skin? forms a barrier to most microorganisms; has antimicrobial chemicals.
Mucus membranes? trap pathogens; cilia sweeps pathogens out.
Stomach acid? low pH kills most pathogens.
Complement system? 26 different proteins working together to poke a hole in marked bacteria.
Inflammation? body raises the temp of an injured tissue; local; caused by increased blood flow.
Which destroys bacteria better--hot or cold? HOT
Fever? raise entire body temperature; caused by hormones.
Cell mediated? cellular immune response; T cells against intracellular pathogens; virus.
Antibody mediated? humoral immunity; B cells make antibodies to extracellular pathogens; bacteria.
Immunoglobulins? glycoprotein antibodies made by your body.
Fc region? main, constant part of Y that determines name of immunoglobulin.
Hypervariable region? variable part that is different for each antibody.
igG? main Ig that marks stuff for phagocytes; CAN cross placenta.
IgM? 1st type produced in an immune response; chain of 5 Ys; works best with the complement system.
IgA? comes as a dimer; 2 Ys; found in breast milk and saliva; prevent bacterial attachment.
IgE? generally involved in allergic reactions.
IgD? found on B lymphocytes, stimulates B cells to make antibodies.
Memory cells? to remember previous pathogen and act fast; identical to original cell.
Primary response? 1st time immune system encounters antigen; SLOW, low response.
Secondary response? 2nd time; FAST, high response.
Antibodies and T cell receptors are made from how many different combinations of genes? 300
Immunodeficiency disease? missing entire parts of the immune system.
SCID (Severe combined immunodeficiency disease)? missing antibody mediated cellular immunity.
AIDs (acquired immunodeficiency disease)? virus enters T cells, takes over, and forces T cells to do viral things; person loses immunity.
A deletion of how many bases of the CCR5 gene may provide genetic resistance to HIV by creating a nonsense mutation. a deletion of 32 bases.
Autoimmune disorders? your immune system attacks your normal cells; Type 1 (juvenile) diabetes.
Allergies? your immune system reacts to something that doesn't actually pose a threat like pollen.
T or F. Most people who are allergic to penicillin are very allergic to it. TRUE.
Vaccine? living or dead microorganisms.
Live vaccines? give you a small dose of a weakened bacteria or virus and let you get sick from it; measles, mumps, old polio vaccine, a new FluMist.
Dead vaccines? have an important part removed so you can't get sick; new polio, rabies, flu.
Toxoid? modified toxins; tetanus and diphtheria are caused by toxins from bacteria.
T or F. Antibodies to different blood types are special because you are born with the memory cells; at the FIRST exposure, your immune system attacks. TRUE.
Monoclonal antibodies? a particular B cell produces the same antibody; can be used to mass produce antibodies.
When they do organ transplants, they try to match ________ between the donor and the recipient. antigens.
Why are scientists having trouble using antibodies to fight cancer? Because cancer cells are "self" that grew too much.
T or F. They have got some promising viruses to infect only cancer cells. TRUE.
What normal body cells don't do mitosis at all? Skeletal muscles and nerves.
What cells divide only with special cues? Liver cells.
Anchorage dependence? Normal cells must be anchored to something.
Density dependent inhibition? Normal cells grow up until a certain point and then they stop; they are inhibited at high densities.
Cancer cells? keep dividing and dividing and dividing; lack density dependent inhibition; they don't care how many other cells there are.
Tumor? abnormal mass of cells.
Benign tumor? abnormal mass or regular cells.
Malignant tumor? abnormal mass of cancer cells which can spread to other body parts.
Metastasis? when the cancer has spread beyond the original site.
Carcinoma? cancer of epithelial tissue; skin cancer.
ABC's of skin cancer? Asymmetrical, Border irregularity, Color variations, Diameter (>5 mm or pencil eraser sized), Enlarging.
Sarcoma? cancer of bone or muscle.
Leukemia? cancer of blood or bone marrow.
Lymphoma? cancer of immune system.
T or F. Most cancer treatments target actively dividing cells. TRUE.
Warning signs of cancer? 1. sore won't heal, 2. lingering cough, 3. change in mole or wart, 4. change in bowel or bladder habits, 5. unusual bleeding or discharge, 6. lump, 7. indigestion or difficulty in swallowing.
Oncology? study of cancers.
Oncogenes? cancer causing genes, often found in retroviruses.
Proto-oncogenes? normal genes that stimulate normal cell growth and division; mutations might cause cancer; ras.
Ras? mutated in 30% of cancers; activates proteins that turn on cell division genes.
Tumor suppressor gene? gene that normally stops cancers from developing; p53, APC, BRCA1, BRCA2.
p53? mutated in 50% of cancers; transcription factor that keeps cell division genes from working; lack of p53 means cell division.
APC? tumor suppressor gene; regulates cell migration and adhesion.
BRCA1, BRCA2? breast cancer genes; tumor suppressor genes; don't know how they are supposed to work.
About half of cancers are caused by... over-expression of proto-oncogenes.
The other half of cancers are caused by... non-functioning suppressor genes.
Somatic mutation? a mutation of normal body cells; only affects the one individual.
Germline mutation? a mutation of sperm or eggs; affects future generations.
T or F. Most cancers are the result of one mutation. FALSE (of several mutations)
Normal cells vs. Cancer cells: Cancer cells generally divide _________ frequently than regular cells, so it takes over. More
Normal cells vs. Cancer cells: A group of cancer cells is more rounded because... cancer lacks anchorage dependence.
Normal cells vs. Cancer cells: Cancer cells express different _______ than regular cells. antigens.
Normal cells vs. Cancer cells: T or F. Cancer cells are dedifferentiated; they are more specialized. FALSE...they are less specialized.
Normal cells vs. Cancer cells: T or F. Many cancer cells are aneuploid; they have different numbers of chromosomes. TRUE.
PSA (Prostrate specific antigens)? they are specific to prostate cancer, not normal prostate cells.
Created by: mamcdonald on 2010-04-12



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