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Question | Answer |
---|---|

mean | average-add up all the numbers; divide by number of numbers. Interval/ratio |

range | difference between largest and smallest numbers |

median | middle number-place in numerical order first. Ordinal |

standard deviation | score root of the variance of a set of numbers. Used with interval and ratio data. |

mode | number that occurs most often. Nominal |

ANOVA | analysis of variance. A simple one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) is a parametric test used to determine whether scores from 2 or more groups are significantly different at a selected probality level. |

statistical error | difference between estimated and true value (random) |

systematic error | same as above (non-random) |

type I error | false positive - rejecting null hypothesis when true |

type II error | false negative - the error of failing to reject a null hypothesis when it is not true |

variance | a measure of the amount of variance within the values of that variable |

t test | Used to determine whether two groups of scores are significantly different from one another. It compares teh observed difference between means with the difference expected by chance. |

wilcoxon signed rank | designed to test a hypothesis about the location of a population distribution |

quartile divisions | one of the four divisions of observations which have been grouped into 4 equal sized sets based on their statistical rank |

descriptive statistics | describing what is or what the data shows |

inferential statistics | trying to reach conclusions that extend beyond the immediate data alone |

problem statement | indicates particular focus of study |

review of the literature | comprehensive, flows, relevant, primary sources, cited accurately |

hypotheses | specific, testable, expected relation |

particpants | described, adequate size, no sampling bias |

instruments | comply with IRB standards, appropriate, rational |

research design and procedures | appropriate, applied correctly, logically relates |

results | descriptive statistics presents, assumptions met |

discussion | each result discussed, generalizations consistent with results |

abstract and summary | problem stated, design identified, procedures described |

correlational | a measure of the association of 2 or more dependent variables |

Causal comparative | attempts to identify causative relationship between independent/dependent variable |

Experimental | =maintains control over all factors |

Correlational coefficient== | a linear relationship between 2 variables |

Pearson r | tells the magnitude of the assoc. between variables on a ratio scale. Used to calculate relationship for interval or ratio data. |

Prediction study | determines which variables are most highly correlated w/criterion variable |

content validity | addresses whether the test measures the intended content area |

criterion related validity | determined by relating performance on a test to performance on an alternative test or other measure |

construct validity | assesses what the test is actually measuring |

consequential validity | refers to the extent to which an instrument creates harmful effects for the user |

stability test retest | empirical item - selection-same group/same test measure the stability of scores over time |

equivalence:equivalant forms | equality-same group of people/different forms of test |

internal consistency | a measure based on the correlations between items on the same test |

split half | randomly divide all items into two sets |

scorer/rater reliabilty | determines consistency in which rater asigns scores |

If a test is reliable, does it also mean that it is valid? | Not necessarily |

If a test is valid, is it also reliable? | Yes |

Spearman rho | Used to calculate relationship with ordinal data. |

dependent variables | those believed to depend on or to be caused by another variable |

independent variables | the hypothesized cause of the dependent variable |

Null Hypothesis | there is little existing research or theoretical support for a hypotheisi |

Chi square | a nonparametric test used to test differences between groups when the data are frequency counts or the percentages or proportions converted into frequencies |

ethnography | the form of qualitative research that focuses on describing the culture of a group of people |

case study research | form of qualitative research that is focused on providing a deatiled account of one or more cases. |

Grounded theory | a qualitative approach to generating and developing a theory from data that the researcher collects. |

Nominal Measurement | the numerical values just name the attribute uniquely. Jersey numbers in basketball, for example. Qualitative |

Ordinal Measurement | Attributes can be rank ordered. Distances between attributes have no meaning. Years of college on a questionaire.Quantitative |

Interval Measurement | Differences between the attribues Does have meaning. Measuring temperature.Interval between values is interpretable. Quantitative |

Ratio Measurement | ABSOLUTE ZERO that is meaningful. Number of clients in 6 months. Quantitative |

raw score | number of items correct |

norm-refernced scoring | student's performance compared with performance of others |

Criterion refernced scoring | student performance compared to preset standard |

self-refernced scoring | how individual's scores change over time |

performance assessment | emphasize student process and require a project |

cognitive tests | measure intellectual processes (thinking, memorizing) |

diagnostic tests | provide scores to facilitate identification of strengths and weaknesses (tests for SDC classes) |

aptitude tests | measure prediction or potential versus what has been learned (wescler) |

affective test | measure attitude, emotion, (Likert) |

threats to validity | unclear directions, confusing or unclear items, vocabulary or reading too difficult, subjective scoring, cheating, errors in administration |

sample | a set of elements taken from a larger population |

statistic | a numerical characteristic of a sample |

parameter | a numerical characteristic of population |

random sampling | produces representative samples |

non-random sampling | does not produce representative samples |

EPSEM | equal probability sampling method |

systematic sampling, | SELECT EVERY NTH NUMBER IN YOUR SAMPLE, EPSEM |

stratified random sampling | divide into males/females, take a random sample from each |

proportional stratified samplng | EPSEM, subsamples (males/females) must be proportional to size in population |

disproportional stratified sampling | not prportional to size in population |

one stage cluster sampling | select random sample of clusters (classrooms) then include all individual units in the selected clusters |

two stage cluster sampling | same as above except take subsets (like 10 kids from each classroom |

convenience sampling | people most available nonrandom |

quaota sampling | setting quotas (25 Asians, 25 African Americans, etc) nonrandom |

purposive sampling | researcher specifies characteristics (7th graders with ADD)nonrandom |

snowball sampling | start with one, ask them to find one, ask them to find one, etc. nonrandom |

maximum variation sampling | wide range of cases qualitative |

homogeneous sample selection | small and homogeneous case or set of cases qualitative |

extreme case sampling | cases that represent extremes on some dimensions |

typical-case sampling | typical or average cases |

critical case sampling | cases known to be very important |

negative case sampling | cases that diconform your generalizations |

opportunistic sampling | select useful cases as the opportunity arises |

mixed purposeful sampling | mix sampling strategies tailored to your specific needs |

Created by:
michelle219
on 2010-04-11