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RFC1 Test
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RFC1 Test
Question  Answer 

mean  averageadd up all the numbers; divide by number of numbers. Interval/ratio 
range  difference between largest and smallest numbers 
median  middle numberplace in numerical order first. Ordinal 
standard deviation  score root of the variance of a set of numbers. Used with interval and ratio data. 
mode  number that occurs most often. Nominal 
ANOVA  analysis of variance. A simple one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) is a parametric test used to determine whether scores from 2 or more groups are significantly different at a selected probality level. 
statistical error  difference between estimated and true value (random) 
systematic error  same as above (nonrandom) 
type I error  false positive  rejecting null hypothesis when true 
type II error  false negative  the error of failing to reject a null hypothesis when it is not true 
variance  a measure of the amount of variance within the values of that variable 
t test  Used to determine whether two groups of scores are significantly different from one another. It compares teh observed difference between means with the difference expected by chance. 
wilcoxon signed rank  designed to test a hypothesis about the location of a population distribution 
quartile divisions  one of the four divisions of observations which have been grouped into 4 equal sized sets based on their statistical rank 
descriptive statistics  describing what is or what the data shows 
inferential statistics  trying to reach conclusions that extend beyond the immediate data alone 
problem statement  indicates particular focus of study 
review of the literature  comprehensive, flows, relevant, primary sources, cited accurately 
hypotheses  specific, testable, expected relation 
particpants  described, adequate size, no sampling bias 
instruments  comply with IRB standards, appropriate, rational 
research design and procedures  appropriate, applied correctly, logically relates 
results  descriptive statistics presents, assumptions met 
discussion  each result discussed, generalizations consistent with results 
abstract and summary  problem stated, design identified, procedures described 
correlational  a measure of the association of 2 or more dependent variables 
Causal comparative  attempts to identify causative relationship between independent/dependent variable 
Experimental  =maintains control over all factors 
Correlational coefficient==  a linear relationship between 2 variables 
Pearson r  tells the magnitude of the assoc. between variables on a ratio scale. Used to calculate relationship for interval or ratio data. 
Prediction study  determines which variables are most highly correlated w/criterion variable 
content validity  addresses whether the test measures the intended content area 
criterion related validity  determined by relating performance on a test to performance on an alternative test or other measure 
construct validity  assesses what the test is actually measuring 
consequential validity  refers to the extent to which an instrument creates harmful effects for the user 
stability test retest  empirical item  selectionsame group/same test measure the stability of scores over time 
equivalence:equivalant forms  equalitysame group of people/different forms of test 
internal consistency  a measure based on the correlations between items on the same test 
split half  randomly divide all items into two sets 
scorer/rater reliabilty  determines consistency in which rater asigns scores 
If a test is reliable, does it also mean that it is valid?  Not necessarily 
If a test is valid, is it also reliable?  Yes 
Spearman rho  Used to calculate relationship with ordinal data. 
dependent variables  those believed to depend on or to be caused by another variable 
independent variables  the hypothesized cause of the dependent variable 
Null Hypothesis  there is little existing research or theoretical support for a hypotheisi 
Chi square  a nonparametric test used to test differences between groups when the data are frequency counts or the percentages or proportions converted into frequencies 
ethnography  the form of qualitative research that focuses on describing the culture of a group of people 
case study research  form of qualitative research that is focused on providing a deatiled account of one or more cases. 
Grounded theory  a qualitative approach to generating and developing a theory from data that the researcher collects. 
Nominal Measurement  the numerical values just name the attribute uniquely. Jersey numbers in basketball, for example. Qualitative 
Ordinal Measurement  Attributes can be rank ordered. Distances between attributes have no meaning. Years of college on a questionaire.Quantitative 
Interval Measurement  Differences between the attribues Does have meaning. Measuring temperature.Interval between values is interpretable. Quantitative 
Ratio Measurement  ABSOLUTE ZERO that is meaningful. Number of clients in 6 months. Quantitative 
raw score  number of items correct 
normrefernced scoring  student's performance compared with performance of others 
Criterion refernced scoring  student performance compared to preset standard 
selfrefernced scoring  how individual's scores change over time 
performance assessment  emphasize student process and require a project 
cognitive tests  measure intellectual processes (thinking, memorizing) 
diagnostic tests  provide scores to facilitate identification of strengths and weaknesses (tests for SDC classes) 
aptitude tests  measure prediction or potential versus what has been learned (wescler) 
affective test  measure attitude, emotion, (Likert) 
threats to validity  unclear directions, confusing or unclear items, vocabulary or reading too difficult, subjective scoring, cheating, errors in administration 
sample  a set of elements taken from a larger population 
statistic  a numerical characteristic of a sample 
parameter  a numerical characteristic of population 
random sampling  produces representative samples 
nonrandom sampling  does not produce representative samples 
EPSEM  equal probability sampling method 
systematic sampling,  SELECT EVERY NTH NUMBER IN YOUR SAMPLE, EPSEM 
stratified random sampling  divide into males/females, take a random sample from each 
proportional stratified samplng  EPSEM, subsamples (males/females) must be proportional to size in population 
disproportional stratified sampling  not prportional to size in population 
one stage cluster sampling  select random sample of clusters (classrooms) then include all individual units in the selected clusters 
two stage cluster sampling  same as above except take subsets (like 10 kids from each classroom 
convenience sampling  people most available nonrandom 
quaota sampling  setting quotas (25 Asians, 25 African Americans, etc) nonrandom 
purposive sampling  researcher specifies characteristics (7th graders with ADD)nonrandom 
snowball sampling  start with one, ask them to find one, ask them to find one, etc. nonrandom 
maximum variation sampling  wide range of cases qualitative 
homogeneous sample selection  small and homogeneous case or set of cases qualitative 
extreme case sampling  cases that represent extremes on some dimensions 
typicalcase sampling  typical or average cases 
critical case sampling  cases known to be very important 
negative case sampling  cases that diconform your generalizations 
opportunistic sampling  select useful cases as the opportunity arises 
mixed purposeful sampling  mix sampling strategies tailored to your specific needs 
Created by:
michelle219