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Concept Dis. Ch.25

Endocrine Glands

condition resulting from excessive secretion of growth hormone in the adult acromegaly
disease caused by chronic adrenal cortical hypofunction, leading to atrophy/destruction of both adrenal glands Addison disease
hormone secretes by anterior pituitary lobe, stimulating adrenal cortex manufacturing & secreting of adrenal cortical hormones adrenocorticotrophic hormone
clinical disorder of adrenal function characterized by overproduction of adrenal sex hormones adrenogenital syndrome
steroid hormone produced by adrenal cortex that regulates rate of sodium absorption from renal tubules aldosterone
absence of menses amenorrhea
posterior lobe pituitary hormone regulating urine concentration by altering permeability of renal collecting tubules antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
cell containing numerous variable-sized granules that stain intensely purple w/basic dyes basophil
hormone that lowers calcium; produced by interfollicular cells of thyroid gland calcitonin
adrenal medullary hormones epinephrine & norepinephrine catecholamines
anterior lobe pituitary epithelial cells containing sparse poorly stained granules chromophobe cells
autoimmune disease in which autoantibody directed against thyroid epithelial cells causes progressive destruction of thyroid gland, leading to hypothyroidism chronic thyroiditis
chronic thyroiditis is also known as Hashimoto
eosinophilic material present within thyroid follicles colloid
major glucocorticoid cortisol
hypothyroidism in an infant cretinism
condition resulting from failure of posterior lobe to secrete ADH diabetes insipidus
chemical mediator released by hypothalamic neurons dopamine
drug that combines w/cell dopamine receptors & causes same cell response the would be produced by dopamine dopamine agonist
an example of a dopamine agonist would be bromocriptine
bromocriptine is a dopamine agonist that inhibits prolactin secretion
cell whose cytoplasm is filled w/large, uniform granules that stain intensely red w/acid dyes eosinophil
one of the catecholamines secretes by adrenal medulla epinephrine
named for protrusion of eyes seen in many patient's with this disease. another name for Graves disease exophthalmic goiter
autoimmune thyroid disease in which autoantibodies resembling thyroid-stimulating hormone stimulate excessive output of thyroid hormone, causing hyperthyroidism Graves disease
1 of gonoadotropic hormones secreted by anterior lobe of pituitary, which regulates growth & function of gonads follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
secretion of milk by breast not associated w/pregnancy/normal lactation galactorrhea
adrenal cortical hormone that regulates carbohydrate metabolism glucocorticoid
enlargement of thyroid gland goiter
anterior lobe pituitary hormone that stimulates growth of bone & other body tissues growth hormone
portion of brain stem that forms floor of 3rd ventricle; contains clusters of nerve cells that regulate various body functions hypothalamus
1 of gonadotropic hormones secretes by anterior lobe of pituitary; regulates growth & function of gonads luteinizing hormone (LH)
hormone produced by pituitary; causes darkening of skin melanin-stimulating hormone (MSH)
adrenal cortical hormone that regulates salt & water metabolism mineralocorticoid
hypothyroidism in adult myxedema
1 of the catecholamines secretes by adrenal medulla norepinephrine
hormone stored in posterior lobe of pituitary that causes uterine contraction during labor & ejection of milk from breast lobules into larger ducts oxytocin
failure of secretion of all anterior lobe pituitary hormones panhypopituitarism
catecholamine-secreting tumor of adrenal medulla pheochromocytoma
hormone produced by anterior lobe of pituitary that stimulates milk secretion prolactin
hypothalamic hormone that suppresses release of prolactin from anterior lobe of pituitary prolactin inhibitory factor (PIF)
spasm of skeletal muscles caused by subnormal level of ionized calcium in blood tetany
protein within colloid of thyroid follicles to which thyroid hormone is attached thyroglobulin
hormone secreted by anterior lobe of pituitary; regulated thyroid function thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
secrete hormones directly into the blood endocrine glands
characterized by an increased production of hormones, or hypersecretion dysfunctional endocrine gland
this gland secretes nine hormones the pituitary gland
prolactin is a pituitary hormone that is regulated through an inhibitory factor
thyroid gland, adrenal glands, & gonads are all affected by panhypopituitarism
leads to a deceleration of all bodily functions hyperthyroidism
rapid, pulse, weight loss, tremors & irritability are all symptoms of a toxic goiter
Exposure of the head and neck to high levels of radiation can result in well-differentiated tumors
iodine deficiency, enzyme deficiencies, & increased hormone requirements are major factors leading to development of a toxic goiter
Myxedema is accompanied by a decreased level of TSH
blood glucose levels, sodium, potassium, & increased pigmentation are all affected by Addison's disease
can cause precocious puberty and masculine development in females Adrenogenital Syndrome
decreased calcium in the bones, usually secondary to an adenoma, hypercalcemia, & fragile bones all accompany hyperparathyroidism
pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal cortex & medulla, pancreatic islets, & ovaries/testes are the major endocrine glands
controls amount of hormone synthesized and released by an endocrine gland level of hormone in circulation
endocrine gland disorders consist of hypersecretion or hyposecretion
degree of dysfunction & the age/sex of affected individual are the factors considered when determining clinical effects of disturbance of endocrine gland function
due to the thyroid gland affecting growth & development as well as metabolic processes disturbed function will produce different clinical pictures in an adult & a child
masculinization of the female/feminization of the male virilism
contains an anterior lobe, intermediate lobe (rudimentary structure), & posterior lobe; suspended by stalk from hypothalamus at base of brain pituitary
hormones secrete by the pituitary gland & influences the activity of other endocrine glands tropic hormones
composed of cords of epithelial cells containing hormones that are synthesized & stored within anterior lobe of pituitary
supplies blood to anterior lobe of pituitary through veins connecting capillaries of median eminence of hypothalamus w/those of anterior lobe pituitary portal system
release of hormones stored in pituitary's anterior lobe is regulated by hormonal substances called releasing hormones (or releasing factors)
releasing hormones are synthesized in the hypothalamus
releasing hormones are carried to cells of pituitary's anterior lobe in the blood flow through the portal system
hormone response of target gland reflects net effect of interaction between releasing/inhibiting hormones hypothalamic hormones that inhibit
consists of meshwork of nerve fibers intermixed w/modified neuroglial cells; connected through bundles of nerve fibers through pituitary stalk pituitary posterior lobe
hormones in the posterior lobe are synthesized within the hypothalamus, then transmitted down ___ ___ in pituitary stalk to posterior lobe for storage nerve axons
stored posterior lobe hormones are released in response to ___ ___ transmitted from hypothalamus down pituitary stalk nerve impulses
controls release of hormones from both anterior/posterior pituitary lobes the hypothalamus
to some extent influences by emotional stimuli (i.e. anxiety, rage, & fear) pituitary secretions
pituitary secretions are also influenced by ___ ___ that enter nervous system & are in turn relayed to the hypothalamus sensory impulses
tropic hormones are regulated by the level of hormone produced by the target gland
tropic hormones have a ___ ___ that maintains uniform hormone output self-regulating mechanism
secretion of the tropic hormone prolactin is controlled by the prolactin inhibitory factor
TSH stimulates the release of ___ & thyroid hormones prolactin
somatropin is another name for growth hormone
growth hormone stimulates the liver to produce somatomedin, exerting its __ effects on tissues indirectly growth-promoting
any of several endogenous peptides produced especially in the liver that are dependent on and probably mediate growth hormone activity somatomedin
growth hormone, prolactin, TSH, ACTH, FSH, & LH are all anterior lobe hormones
ADH & oxytocin are all posterior lobe hormones
ADH causes more concentrated urine
deficiency of growth hormone & stunts growth and development pituitary dwarfism
failure of kidney to respond to ADH nephrogenic diabetes insipidus
unable to absorb H2O, excretion of large volume of very dilute urine, & caused by injury,tumor, or other disease of posterior lobe characteristics of diabetes insipidus
if the posterior lobe is the cause of diabetes insipidus, treatment consists of supplying ADH
if the kidneys are the cause of diabetes insipidus, treatment consists of drugs to make kidneys more responsive to ADH
hormone-secreting tumor in an endocrine gland functional tumors
generally each type of functional tumor produces a characteristic clinical syndrome
tumor that is in an endocrine gland but does not secrete hormones nonfunctional tumors
although no hormones are produced a nonfunctional pituitary tumor may cause problems because its is located close to the optic chiasm, optic nerves, & other vital structures at base of brain
may erode pituitary fossa, encroach on optic chiasm, & disrupt hormone-producing functions of adjacent normal anterior lobe cells by compression from enlargement of tumor are all effects of enlarging nonfunctional pituitary tumor
resection of pituitary tumor via endoscopy through the nasal cavity & sphenoid sinus transsphenoidal resection
determined by type, hormones produced, & size treatment of pituitary tumor
the usual treatment of a pituitary tumor is surgical removal
after removing a pituitary tumor surgically some patients may also required radiation treatment
overproduction of growth hormone; causes giantism in children, acromegaly in adults, & may cause visual disturbances pituitary adenoma
spontaneous secretion of milk from breasts & cessation of menstrual periods, in a non-pregnant woman, due to excess secretion of prolactin amenorrhea-galactorrhea syndrome
an important cause of amenorrhea-galactorrhea syndrome prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma
very small tumor microadenoma
causes few symptoms other that those related to excessive prolactin production prolactin-secreting pituitary microadenoma
larger prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas can cause ___ of pituitary fossa & visual disturbances enlargement
prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas can be surgically excised
prolactin-secreting pituitary microadenomas can often be inhibited by a dopamine agonist drug
presence of an abnormally high concentration of prolactin in the blood hyperprolactinaemia
estrogen, antihypertensive drugs, & phenothiazine drugs & antidepressants can raise prolactin levels resulting in amenorrhea or galactorrhea
2 lateral lobes connected by isthmus; located in neck overlying upper trachea & regulated by pituitary TSH thyroid gland
located on posterior surface of thyroid are four parathyroid glands
thyroid gland is composed of __ __ that produce and store hormones thyroid follicles
hormone production of the thyroid gland is regulated by thyroid stimulating hormone, or (TSH)
triiodothyronine (T3) & thyroxin (T4) is synthesized by the follicular cells of thyroid
regulate body's metabolic processes & are required for normal development of nervous system T3 & T4
general term referring to the 2 metabolic hormones T3&T4 thyroid hormone
the numbers attached to T3 & T4 indicate the number of ___ atoms attached to the molecule iodine
majority of thyroid hormone is attached to thyroid-binding globulin and is biologically inactive
the small amount of thyroid hormone that circulates unattached, is the ___ ___ form physiologically active
rapid pulse, increased metabolism, hyperactive reflexes, emotional lability, GI effect: diarrhea, & warm/moist skin are all symptoms/signs of hyperthyroidism
slow pulse, decreased metabolism, sluggish reflexes, placid/phlegmatic, GI effect: constipation, cold/dry skin hypothyroidism
uniformly enlarged thyroid gland diffuse goiter
multiple nodules of proliferating thyroid tissue nodular goiter
enlarged thyroid that produces excessive amount of hormone & causes symptoms of hyperthyroidism toxic goiter
enlarged thyroid that does not produce excessive amount of hormone nontoxic goiter
inadequate secretion of thyroid hormone is the basic cause for nodular & diffuse goiter
when there is an iodine deficiency, enlargement of the thyroid is in response to TSH stimulation in an attempt to __ __ from the blood to make enough hormone extract iodine
in Graves disease an antithyroid antibody stimulates thyroid, mimics TSH function, and is not subject TSH control mechanisms
drugs that block synthesis of hormone by the hyperactive gland antithyroid drugs
surgical excision to remove hyperactive thyroid will reduce source of the hormone
irradiation destroys part of the gland & reduces its hormone output radioactive iodine
myxedema received its name due to localized accumulations of __ material in the skin mucinous
individuals have low levels of circulating thyroid hormone & high levels of TSH trying to ___ the thyroid gland to increase hormone output stimulate
treated by supplying the deficient hormone, which results in clinical improvement hypothyroidism
hypothyroidism in a newborn infant is called congenital hypothyroidism
congenital hypothyroidism can be caused by failure of gland to develop or from genetically determined __ __ __ necessary for thyroid hormone synthesis deficiency of enzymes
if congenital hypothyroidism is not detected the infant will remain permanently stunted in growth & mentally retarded
congenital hypothyroidism is called cretinism
antithyroid antibodies & activates T lymphocytes are directed against thyroid antigens, attacking & destroying the thyroid Hashimoto thyroiditis
Hashimoto thyroiditis is the most common cause of hypothyroidism in adults, & occurs predominantly in middle-aged women
one of the autoantibodies in Hashimoto thyroiditis is directed against TSH receptors on thyroid cells, which prevents TSH from attaching to thyroid cells to stimulate it
autoantibodies destroy TSH receptors in Hashimoto thyroiditis
autoantibody stimulates TSH receptors in Graves disease
thyroid usually enlarged by diffuse infiltration of activated T lymphocytes & plasma cells destroying the thyroid gland chronic thyroiditis
Hashimoto thyroiditis does not have a specific treatment available
physicians are guided by the level of thyroid hormone in blood & level of TSH when determining how much thyroid hormone to prescribe
well-circumscribed tumors composed of mature follicles that often contain large amounts of colloid thyroid adenomas
well-differentiated, undifferentiated, & medullary are the three type of thyroid carcinoma
usually occurs in your adults & very low-grade malignancy well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma
most common, tumor composed of well-differentiated papillary processes covered by well-differentiated thyroid epithelial cells papillary carcinoma
less common, tumor cells form colloid-filled follicles which resemble normal thyroid tissue follicular carcinoma
surgical resection of thyroid gland thyroidectomy
develops in older persons, composed of rapidly growing bizarre tumor cells, & has poor prognosis undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma
uncommon, derived from calcitonin-secreting parafollicular cells of thyroid, & characteristic histologic pattern medullary thyroid carcinoma
measurement of calcitonin levels in blood has been used as a __ __ for medullary thyroid carcinoma because tumor cells often secrete calcitonin diagnostic test
lowers blood calcium calcitonin
increases incidence of benign and malignant thyroid tumors after latent period of 5-10 years radiation
most thyroid tumors are well-differentiated and easily treated
blood calcium level is in ___ with calcium in the bone equilibrium
1/2 blood calcium is present as __ __ and is the active form calcium ions (Ca2+)
1/2 blood calcium is bound to __ and is biologically inactive proteins
required for normal cardiac/skeletal muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, & coagulation of blood adequate concentration of ionized calcium
caused increased excitability of nerve & muscle cells, leading to tetany subnormal level of ionized calcium
diminishes neuromuscular excitability & leads to generalized muscular weakness high level of ionized calcium
regulates level of ionized calcium in blood by regulating release of calcium from bone, absorption from intestines, & rate of excretion by kidneys parathyroid glands
regulated by level of ionized calcium in blood rather than by tropic hormone from pituitary secretion of parathyroid hormones
if ionized calcium levels rise, parathyroid hormone secretion declines
if ionized calcium levels decrease, parathyroid hormone secretion increases
any abnormality in parathyroid hormone secretion will eventually alter amount of calcium deposited in bones
hyperparathyroidism can lead to __ __ from excessive calcium excreted in urine renal calculi
hyperparathyroidism can occasionally lead to calcium precipitating out of the blood & become deposited in kidneys, lungs, & other tissues
treatment for hyperparathyroidism removal of tumor through surgical excision
accidental removal of parathyroid glands during thyroid surgery can lead to hypoparathyroidism
blood calcium falls abruptly causing neuromuscular excitability and tetany effects of hypoparathyroidism
high-calcium diet & supplementary vitamin D are treatments to raise calcium levels in hypoparathyroidism
glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, & sex hormones are the three classes of steroid hormones secreted by adrenal cortex
secreted in response to stimulation by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) & feedback mechanism controlled by same negative feedback mech. as thyroid glucocorticoids
major glucocorticoid cortisol
regulate electrolyte/water balance; promote absorption sodium/water & excretion of potassium by renal tubules mineralocorticoids
major mineralocorticoid & regulated by more than one mechanism aldosterone
most potent stimulus for aldosterone secretion renin-angiotensin system
adrenal cortex produces weak ___ steroid hormones in response to ACTH stimulation, further metabolized according to individual's sex androgenic (testosterone-like)
in most cases Addison's disease results from an ___ ___ in which destructive autoantibodies directed against adrenal cortical cells & cytotoxic lymphocytes destroy cortex autoimmune disorder
less common, destruction caused by tuberculosis, histoplasmosis, or metastatic carcinoma involving both adrenal glands
caused by secretion of ACTH along with MSH, which produced from same precursor molecule giving rise to ATCH increased pigmentation with Addison's disease
can lead to high sodium/blood volume/blood pressure, low potassium level leading to neuromuscular manifestations over production of aldosterone
congenital adrenal hyperplasia & sex-hormone-producing tumors are an effect of overproduction of adrenal sex hormones
produced by chromaffin cells & stored within; released in response to nerve impulses transmitted to medulla by sympathetic nervous system catecholamines
benign tumor of adrenal medulla, arises from chromaffin cells; secretes large amounts of catecholamines & severely effects heart/vascular system pheochromocytoma
due to severe hypertension pheochromocytoma can lead to cerebral hemorrhage
mineralocorticoid deficiency from Addison's disease leads to low blood volume & pressure
treatment for Addison's disease is administration of corticosteroids
disturbed carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism glucocorticoid excess
high blood volume and high blood pressure mineralocorticoid excess
glucocorticoid & mineralocorticoid excess are effects of Cushing disease
hormone-producing pituitary microadenoma/adrenal cortex adenoma, hyperplastic adrenal glands, administration large amount of corticosteroids, other tumors are all causes of cushing disease
overproduction of aldosterone is usually due to aldosterone-secreting adenoma
pancreatic tissue that functions as an endocrine gland pancreatic islets
cells responsible for insulin production Beta cells
cell responsible for glucagon Alpha cells
cells responsible for somatostatin delta cells
hormones secreted by non-endocrine tumors that are identical with or mimic action of true hormones ectopic hormones
ectopic hormones originate from malignant tumors
any event that disturbs homeostasis stress
injury, surgery, prolonged exposure to cold, vigorous exercise, pain, or strong emotional stimulus such as anxiety or fear cause stress to endocrine system
fear-fight-flight reaction which is mediated by sympathetic nervous system and adrenal medulla acute response to stress
alters metabolism, taxes CV system, impairs inflammatory and immune responses chronic response to stress
chronic response to stress involves adrenal cortex
chronic response to stress predisposes to illness
occurs when caloric intake > requirements obesity
obesity is usually NOT result of endocrine or metabolic disturbance
cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, musculoskeletal problems & impaired pulmonary function are all health consequences of obesity