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Superior / Cephalic Toward the head; toward the upper part of a structure
Inferior / Caudal Away from the head; toward the lower part of the body
Anterior / Ventral / Frontal Nearer to or at the front of the body
Posterior / Dorsal Nearer to or at the back of the body; of the top of the foot
Medial Nearer to the midline of the body
Lateral Farther from the midline of the body
Proximal Nearer to the attachment of a limb to the trunk
Distal Away from the attachment of a limb to the trunk
External / Superficial Toward the surface of the body
Internal / Deep Away from the surface of the body
Palmar Palm of the hand
Plantar Sole of the foot
Dorsum Top of the foot
Unilateral One side of the body
Bilateral Both sides of the body
Ipsilateral Same side of the body
Contralateral Opposite side of the body
Sagittal plane Divides body into left and right sections
Mid sagittal or Median sagittal plane Right and left sides are equal
Coronal or Frontal plane Divides body into front and back sections
Horizontal or Transverse plane Divides body into top and bottom sections
Abduction Movement away from the axis of the trunk
Adduction Movement toward the axis of the trunk
Circumduction Circular movement of joint
Flexion Bringing bones together; bending
Extension Moving bones apart; straightening
Eversion Turning the sole of the foot outward
Inversion Turning the sole of the foot inward
Dorsiflexion Bringing the top of the foot toward the anterior surface of the tibia
Plantar flexion Moving the sole of the foot downward toward the floor
Supine Lying on back, face up
Prone Lying face down
Recumbent position Lying down ventral, dorsal, lateral
Erect position Upright; standing or sitting
Lateral postion Patient’s side against the surface
Oblique position Part is angled to the surface; RPO, LPO, RAO, LAO
Fowler’s position Patient in bed with the head of the bed elevated 45o – 60o
Trendelenburg position Recumbent with the feet higher than the head
Sim’s position Semi-prone on left side with right leg bent and drawn forward
Cranial cavity Brain and pituitary gland
Spinal cavity Nerve tissue of the spinal cord
Thoracic cavity Upper cavity houses pericardial cavity, pleural cavity and mediastinum
Abdominal cavity Lower cavity houses digestive organs , peritoneum & retroperitoneal space
Pelvic cavity Portions of intestines, reproductive organs, ureters, bladder, urethra
Cervical spine Bones of the neck C1- C7
Thoracic spine Bones of the upper back T1-T12
Lumbar spine Bones of the lower back L1-L5
Sacrum and Coccyx Distal portion of the spine; the sacrum is 5 fused vertebrae and the coccyx is 3
Skeletal System Protection, Support, Movement, Hematopoiesis, Mineral Homeostasis, Energy Storage
Muscular System Posture, Movement,Generate heat
Cardiovascular System Pump blood throughout the body
Lymphatic &Immune Systems Protect the body from harmful substances. Transport system for capillary seepage.
Respiratory System Bring oxygen into the body and carry carbon dioxide waste out
Digestive System Digestion, Absorption,
Urinary System Filtration, Excretion, Reabsorption
Fluid and electrolyte balance
Nervous System Transmits messages through the body. Coordinates the reception of stimuli
Integumentary System Protection, Thermoregulation, Cutaneous Sensation, Secretion, Synthesis
Endocrine System Glands that secrete hormones that integrate and control the body's metabolic activity
Reproductive System Production of germ cells
needed for procreation
Created by: barbarabenson