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Med Term Ch 7 OCC

Med Term Ch 7 - OCC - Willis

angi/o vessel
vas/o vessel
vascul/o vessel
aort/o aorta
arteri/o artery
ather/o fatty (lipid) paste
atri/o atrium
cardi/o heart
coron/o circle or crown
my/o muscle
pector/o chest
steth/o chest
sphygm/o pulse
thrombo clot
ven/o vein
phleb/o vein
varic/o swollen, twisted vein
vetricul/o ventricle (belly or pouch)
atrium upper right and left chambers of the heart
endocardium membrane lining the cavities of the heart
epicardium membrane froming the outer layer of the heart
interatrial septum partition between right and left atrium
interventricular septum partition between right and left ventricle
myocardium heart muscle
pericardium protective sac enclosing the heart composed of two layers with fluid between
parietal pericardium outer layer (parietal = pertaining to wall)
visceral pericardium layer closet to the heart (visceral = pertaining to organ)
ventricle lower right and left chambers of the heart
heart valves structures within the heart that open and close with the heartbeat to regulate the one way flow of blood
aortic vavle heart valve between the left ventricle and the aorta
mitral or bicuspid valve heart valve between the left atrium and left ventricle (cuspis = point)
pulmonary semilunar valve heart valve opening from the right ventricle to the pumonary artery (luna = moon)
tricuspid valve valve between the right atrium and the right ventricle
arteries vessels that carry blood from the heart to the arterioles
aorta large artery that is the main trunk of the arterial system branching from the left ventricle
arterioles small vessels that receive blood from the arteries
capillaries tiny vessels that join arterioles and venules
venules small vessels that gather blood from the capillaries into the veins
veins vessels that carry blood to the heart from the venules
systemic circulation circluation of blood throughout the body through arteries, arterioles, capillaries and veins to deliver oxygen and nutrients to body tissues
coronary circulation circulation of blood through the coronary blood vessels to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscle tissues
pulmonary circulation circulation of blood from the pulmonary artery through the vessels in the lungs and back to the heart via the pulmonary vein, providing for the exchange of gases
diastole to expand; period in the cardiac cycle when blood enters the relaxed ventricles from the atria
systole to contract; period in the cardiac cycle when the heart is in contraction and blood is ejected through the aorta and pulmonary artery
normotension normal blood pressure
hypotension low blood pressure
hypertension high blood pressure
sinoatrial node the pacemaker; higher specialized neurological tissue, embedded in the wall of the right atrium, responsible for initiating electrical conduction of the heartbeat, causing the atria to contract and firing conduction of impulses to the AV node
atrioventricular node neurological tissue in the center of the heart that receives and amplifies the conduction of impulses from the SA node to the bundle of His
bundle of His neurological fibers, extending from the AV node to the right and left bundle brances, that fire the impulse from the AV node to the Purkinje fibers
purkinje fibers fibers in the ventricles that transmit impulses to the right and left ventricles, causing them to contract
polarization resting; resting state of a myocardial cell
depolarization change of a myocaridal cell from a polarized (resting) state to a state of contraction (de = not; polarization = resting)
repolarization recharging of the myocardial cell from a contracted state back to a resting state (re = again; polarization = resting)
normal sinus rhythm (NSR) regular rhythm of the heart cycle stimulated by the SA node (average rate of 60 to 100 beats/minute)
arteriosclerosis thickening, loss of elasticity, and calcification (hardening) of the arterial walls
atherosclerosis buildup of fatty substances within the walls of arteries
atheromatous plaque a swollen area within the lining of an artery caused by the buildup of fat (lipids)
thrombus a stationary blood clot
embolus a clot (eg, air, fat, foreign object) carried in the bloodstream that obstructs when it lodges (embolus - a stopper)
stenosis condition of narrowing of a part
constriction compression of a part
occlusion plugging; obstruction or a closing off
ischemia to hold back blood; decreased blood flow to tissue caused by constriction or occlusion of a blood vessel
perfusion deficit a lack of flow through a blood vessel caused by a narrowing, occlusion, etc
infarct to stuff; a localized area of necrosis (condition of tissue death) caused by ischemia as a result of occlusion of a blood vessel
angina pectoris chest pain caused by a temporary loss of oxygenated blood to heart muscle often caused by narrowing of the coronary arteries (angina = to choke)
aneurysm a widening; bulging of the wall of the heart, the aorta, or an artery caused by congenital defect or acquired weakness
saccular a sac like bulge on one side
fusiform a spindle shape bulge
dissecting a split or tear of the vessel wall
claudication to limp; pain in a limb (especially the calf) while walking that subsides after rest; it is caused by inadequate blood supply
diaphoresis profuse sweating
heart murmur an abnormal sound from the heart produced by defects in the chambers or valves
palpitation subjective experience of pounding, skipping or racing heartbeats
vegetation to grow; an abnormal growth of tissue around a valve, generally a result of an infection such as bacterial endocarditis
arrhythmia any of several kids of irregularity or loss of rhythm of the heartbeat
dysrhythmia - bradycaria slow heart rate (<60 beats/minute)
dysrhythmia - fibrillation chaotic, irregular contractions of the heart, as in atrial or ventricular fibrillation
dysrhythmia - flutter extremely rapid but regular contractions of the heart, as in atrial or ventricular flutter (typically from 250 to 250 beats/minute)
dysrhythmia - heart block an interference with the normal electrical conduction of the heart defined by the location of the block (eg., AV block)
dysrhythmia - premature ventricular contration (PVC) a ventricular contraction preceding the normal impulse initiated by the SA node (pacemaker)
dysrhythmia - tachycardia fast heart rate (>100 beats/minute)
arterisclerotic heart a degenerative condition of the arteries characterized by thickening of the inner lining, loss of elasticity and susceptibility to rupture - seen most often in the aged or smokers
bacterial endocarditis a bacterial inflammation that affects the endocardium or the heart valves
cardiac tamponade compression of the heart produced by the accumulation of fluid in the pericardial sac as results from pericarditis or trauma, causing rupture of a blood vessel within the heart (tampon = a plug)
cardiomyopathy a general term for disease of the heart muscle (eg alcoholic cardiomyopathy - damage to the heart muscle caused by excessive consumption of alcohol)
congenital anomoly of the heart malformation of the heart present at birth (anomaly = irregularity)
atrial septal defect (ASD) an opening in the septum separting the atria
coarctation of the aorta narrowing of the descendingportion of the aorta resulting in a limited flow of blood to the lower part of th body
patent ductus arteriosus an abnormal opening between the pulmonary artery and the aorta caused by the failure of the fetal ductus arteriosus to close after birth (patent = open)
tetralogy of Fallot an anonmaly that consists of four defects: pulmonary stenosis, ventricular septak defect, malposition of the aorta and right ventricular hypertrophy - causes blood to bypass the pulmonary circulation so that deoxygenated blood goes to the systemic circul*
ventricular septal defect (VSD) an opening in the septum separating the ventricles
congestive heart failure failure of the left ventricle to pump an adequate amount of blood to meet the demands of the body, resulting in a "bottleneck" of congestion in the lungs that may extend to the veins, causing edemas in lower portions of the body
cor pulmonale a condition of enlargement of the right ventricle as a result of chronic disease within the lungs that causes congestion within the pulmonary circulation and resistance of blood flow to the lunch (cor = heart)
coronary artery diseases (CAD) a condition affecting arteries of the beart that reduces the flow of blood and delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the myocardium - most often caused by artherosclerosis
hypertension (HTN) persistently high blood pressure
essential (primary) hypertension high blood pressure attributed to no single cause but risks include smoking, obesity, increased salt intake, hypercholestrolemia and heredity factors
secondary hypertension high blood pressuer caused by the effects of another disease
mitral valve prolapse (MVP) protrusion of one or both cusps of the mitral valve back into the left atrium during ventricular contraction, resulting in incomplete closure and backflow of blood
myocardial infarction (MI) heart attack; death of myocardial tissue owing to loss of blood flow (ischemia) as a result of an occlusion of a coronary artery - usually caused by atherosclerosis
myocarditis inflammation of the myocardium most often caused by viral or bacterial infection
pericarditis inflammation of the pericardium
phlebitis inflammation of a vein
rheumatic heart disease damage to heart muscle and heart valves by rheumatic fever (a streptococcal infection)
thrombophlebitis inflammation of a vein associated with a clot formation
varicose veins abnormally swollen, twisted veins with defective valves, most often seen in the legs
deep vein thrombosis (DVT) formation of a clot in a deep vein of teh body, occuring most often in the femoral and iliac veins
auscultation a physical examination method of listening to sounds within the body with the aid of a stethoscope
bruit noise; an abnormal heart sound cuased by turbulence within
gallop an abnormal heart sound that mimics the gait of a horse; related to abnormal ventricular contraction
electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) an electrical picture of the heart represented by positive and negative deflections on a graph labeled with the P, Q, R, S, and T corresponding to events of teh cardiac cycle
stress electrocardiogram an ECG of the heart recorded during the induction of controlled physical exercise using a treadmill or ergometer (bicycle); useful in detecting conditions such as ischemia and infarction
Holter ambulatory monitor a portable electrocardiograph worn by the patient that monitors electrical activity of the heart over 24 hours - useful in detecting periodic abnormalities
intracardiac electrophysiological study (EPS) invasive procedure involving placement of catheter-guided electrodes within the heart to evaluate and map the electrical conduciton of cardiac arrhythmias; intracardiac catheter ablation may be performed at the same time to treat the arrhythmia
intracardiac catheter ablation use of radiofrequency waves sent through a catheter within the heart to treat arrhythmias by selectively destroying myocardial tissue at sites generating abnormal electrical pathways
magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) magnetic resonance imaging of the heart and blood vessels for evaluation of pathology
nuclear medicine imaging of the heart radionuclide organ imaging of the heart after administration of radioactive isotopes to visualize structures and analyze functions
myocardial radionuclide perfusion scan a scan of the heart made after an intravenous injection of an isotope (eg thallium) that is absorbed by moyocardial cells in proportion to blood flow throughout the heart
myocardial radionuclide perfusion stress scan a nuclear scan of the heart taken after the induction of controlled physical exercise via treadmill or bicycle or administration of a pharmaceutical agent that produces the effects of exercise stress in patients unable to ambulate
positron emission tomography (PET) scan of the heart use of nuclear isotopes and computed tomography techniques to produce perfusion (blood flow) images an study the cellular metabolism of the heart; can be taken at rest or with stress
radiology xray imaging
angiography an exray of a blodd vessel after injection of contrast medium
angiogram a record obtained by angiography
coronary angiogram an xray of the blood vessels of the heart
arteriogram an xray of a particular artery (eg coronary arteriogram, renal arteriogram)
aortogram an xray of the aorta
venogram an xray of a vein
cardiac catheterization introduction of a flexible, narrow tube or catheter through a vein or artery into the heart to withdraw blood measure pressures within the heart chambers or vessles and inject contrast media for fluoroscopic radiography and cine film imaging of the chamb*
left heart catheterization an xray of the left ventricular cavity and coronary arteries
right heart catheterization measurement of oxygen saturation and pressure readings of the right side of the heart
ventriculogram an xray visualizing the ventricles
stroke volume (SV) measurement of teh amount of blood ejected from a ventricle in one contraction
cardiac output (CO) measurement of the amount of blood ejected from either ventricle of the heart per minute
ejection fraction measurement of the volume percentage of left ventricular contects ejected with each contraction
sonography sonographic imaging
echocardiography (ECHO) recording of sound waves through the heart to evaluate structure and motion
stress echocardiogram (stress ECHO) an echocardiogram of the heart recorded during the induction of controlled physical exercise via treadmill or bicycle or administration of a pharmaceutical agent that produces the effect of exercise stress sstress in patients unable to ambulate
transesophageal ech ultraocardiogram (TEE) an echocardiogram image of the heart after placement of an ultrasonic transducer at the end of an endoscope inside the esophagus
doppler sonography an ultrasound technique used to evaluate blood flow to determne the presence of a deep vein thrombosis (DVT or carotid insufficiency or flow through the heart, chambers, valves, etc.
intravascular sonography ultrasound images made after a sonographic transducer is placed at the tip of a catheter within a blood vessel - done to evaluate pathological conditions such as buildup of plaque
coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) grafting of a portion of a blood vessel retrieved from another part of the body (such as a length of saphenous vein from the leg or mammory artery from the chest wall) to bypass an occluded coronary artery, restoring ciruclation to myocardial tissue **
anastomosis opening; joining of two blood vessels to allow flow from one to the other
endarterectomy incision and coring of the lining of an artery to clear a blockage caused by a clot or atherosclerotic plaque buildup
transmyocaridal revascularization (TMR) a laser technique used to open tiny channels in the heart muscle to restore blood flow, thereby relieving angina in patients with advanced coronary artery disease; an option for patients not treatable with angioplasty or coronary artery bypass
valve replacement surgery to replace a diseased heart valve with an artificial one - types tissue - most common made from animal tissue (pig or cow), mechanical - made from synthetic material
valvuloplasty repair of heart valve
angioscopy use of a flexible fiberoptic angioscope accompanied by an irrigation system, a camera, video recorder and a monitor that is guided through a specific blood vessel to visually assess a lesion and selct the mode of therapy
atherectomy excision of atheromatous plaque from within an artery utilizing a device housed in a flexible catheter that selectively cuts away or pulverizes tissue buildup
percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty a method of treating the narrowing of a coronary artery by inserting a specialized catheter with a balloon attachment, then inflatting it to dilate and open the narrowed portion of teh vessel and restore blood flow to the myocardium; incl stint most times
intravascular stent implantation of a device used to reinforce the wall of a vessel and ensure its patency (openness) most often used to treat a stenosis or a dissection (a split or tear in the wall of a vessel) or to reinforce patency of a vessel after angioplasty
defibrillation termination of ventricular fibrillation by delivery of an electrical stimulus to the heart, most commonly by applying electrodes of the defibrillator externally to the chest wall but can be performed internally at the time of open heart surgery or via **
defibrillator a device that delivers the electrical stimulus in defibrillation
cardioversion termination of tachycardia either by pharmaceutical means or by delivery of electrical energy
implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) an implanted, battery operate device with rate sensing leads that monitors cardiac impulses and initiates an electrical stimulus as needed to stop ventricular fibrillation or tachycardia
pacemaker a device used to treat slow heart rates (brachycardia) by electrically stimulating the heart to contract, most often implanted with lead wires and battery circuitry under the skin but can be temporarily placed externally with lead wires inserted into **
thrombolytic therapy dissolution of thrombi using drugs (eg, streptokinase, tissue plasminogen activator TPA)
angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor a drug that suppresses the conversion of angiotensin in the blood by the angiotensin-converting enzyme; used in the treatment of hypertension
antianginal a drug that dilates coronary arteries, restoring oxygen to the tissues to relieve the pain of angina pectoris
antiarrhythmic a drug that counteracts caridac arrhythmia
anticoagulant a drug that prevents clotting of the blood commonly used in treating thrombophlebitis and myocardial infarction
antihypertensive a drug that lowers blood pressure
beta-adrenergic blocking agentsbeta blockers agents that inhibit response to sympathetic adrenergic nerve activity causing a slowing of electrical conduction and heart rate and a lowering of the pressure within the walls of the vessels; used to treat angina pectoris and hypertension
calcium channel blockers agents that inhibit the entry of calcium ions in heart muscle cells causing a slowing of the heart rate, lessening the demand for oxygen and nutrients, and relaxing of the smooth muscle cells of the blood vessels to cause dilation, used to prevent or **
cardiotonic a drug that increases the force of myocardial contractions in the heart commonly used to treat congestive heart failure
diuretic a drug that increases the secretion of urine commonly prescribed in treating hypertension
hypolipidemic a drug that reduces serum fat and cholesterol
statins agents that lower cholesterol in the blood by inhibiting the effect of HMG-CoA reductase, a liver enzyme responsible for producing cholesterol
thrombolytic agents drugs used to dissolve thrombi (blood clots) (eg, streptokinase, tissue plasminogen activator TPA or tPA)
vasoconstrictor a drug that causes narrowing of the blood vessels, decreasing blood flow
vasodilator a drug that causes dilation of the blood vessels, increasing blood flow
ACE angiotensin-converting enzyme
ASD atrial septal defect
ASHD arteriosclerotic heart disease
AV atrioventricular
BP blood pressure
CABG coronary artery bypass graft
CAD coronary artery disease
CHF congestive heart failure
CO cardiac output
DVT deep vein thrombosis
ECG, EKG electrocardiogram
ECHO echocardiography
EPS electrophysiological study
HTN hypertension
ICD implantable cardioverter-defibrillator
MI myocardial infarction
MRA magnetic resonance angiography
MVP mitral valve prolapse
NSR normal sinus prolapse
PDA patent ductus arteriosus
PET positron emission tomography
PTCA percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
PVC premature ventricular contraction
SA sinoatrial
SV stroke volume
TEE transesophageal echocardiogram
TMR transmyocardial revascularization
tPA, TPA tissue plasminogen activator
VSD ventricular septal defect
Created by: leahrussell