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CNS path 2

pathology of the CNS

conjunctivitis most commonly caused by adenovirus, but can also be caused by bacterial infection
retinopathy of prematurity ( retrolental fibroplasia) due to toxicity of therapeutic oxygen, most often administered bacause of neonatal respiratory distress--> leads to blindness
nonporliferative retinopathy includes microaneurysms, dilation of veins, hemorrhages, sof exudates, and hard exudates; includes increased capillary permeability, edema, and diffuse thickening of basement membranes
porliferative retinopathy characterized by retinal new vessel formation and fibrosis, both extending into the vitreous; can lead to hemorrhage and retinal detachment
retinitis pigmentosa is characterized by hereditary night blindness with progressive loss of central vision, caused by early loss of rods and later loss of cones
macular degeneration is major cause of impaired vision in the elderly; characterized by loss of central vision and pigmentary changes or hemorrhages in the macula
open angle glaucoma most common form of glaucoma; characterized by gradually increasing intraoclar pressure
angle closure caused by narrow anterior chamber angle; is manifest by increase in intraocular pressure upon dilation of pupil
retinoblastoma malignant retinal tumor childhood, demonstrates homozygous deletion of the Rb gene
portals of entry of infection into the CNS hematogenous, trauma local spread fom paranasal sinuses, dental infections, etc., via peripheral nerves
pyogenic meningitis manifests clinically by fever, headache, prostration, and nuchal rigidty; can lead to fibroblastic arachnoiditis with scarring, obliteration of the subarachnoid space, and hydrocephalus caused by impedance of the flow of CSF
pyogenic meningitis can lead to leptomeningeal venulitis and venous occlusion and hemorrhagic infarts; has it's peak incidence in children, with a second peak in the elderly
CSF findings in pyogenic meningitis numerous neutrophils, decreased glucose, increased protien
meningitis in neonates and infants group B strep, E. Coli listeria
causes of meningitis in older infants, children and young adults strep pneumoniae and N. meningitidis
causes of meningitis in older adults S. pneumoniae and gram negative rods
cerebral abcess can result from penetrating skull injuries or from spread of infection originating elsewhere; sources of infection include the paranasal sinuses,or middle ear, bronchopulmonary infections, infective endocarditis
tuberculosis occurs as tuberculsosis of the brain substance or as tuberculous meningitis; is secondary to tuberculous infection occuring elsewhere in the body
fungal infection caused most often by cryptococcus neoformans, coccidiodes immitis, aspergillus, or histoplasma; can involve the brain substance or the meninges
toxoplasmosis in neonates, is transmitted transplacentally; is also spread by ingestion of foods contaminated by animal urine or feces; in newborns results in hydrocephalus, mental reatardation, and other neurologic abnormalities; periventricular calcifications
toxoplasmosis in adults is most often manifest as lymphadenitis; CNS involvement may occur in immunosuppressed persons
viral meningitis is manifest clinically by fever, headache, and nuchal regidity; CSF demonstrates an increase in lymphocytes, moderately increased protien and normal glucose
meningoencephalitis and encephalitis demostrates: perivascular cuffing, inclusion bodies, and glial nodules
CMV infection generally in immunosupressed; results in encephalomyelitis as well as lesions of the kidneys, live, lungs and salivary glands
CMV infection is chracterized by giant cells with eosinophilic inclusions involving both the nucleus and cytoplasm
CMV infection in infants may be characterized in severe cases by mental retardation. microcephaly, chorioretinitis, and hepatosplenomegaly
prion diseases defined by a long incubation period and a progressive course
Kuru characterized by cerebellar degeneration with marked tremor, ataxia, slurred speech and progressive mental deficiency, followed by death withina few months
CJD exhibits morphologic changes similar to those of kuru, has been linked to corneal transplant,Mad cow, characterized by ataxia, rapidly progressive dementia, and early death
multiple sclerosis frequent occurence of CSF immunoglobin, often amnifest as multiple oligoclonal bands on electrophoresis
multiple sclerosis incidence is directly proportional to distance from the equator
multiple sclerosis morphologic changes are confined to the CNS; characterized by depletion of myelin-producing oligodendrocytes; the optic nerve, brain stem, and paraventricular areas are favored sites
multiple sclerosis manifests clinically as: exaxerbations with long asymptomatic remissions and often a progressive course, manifests by early findings of lower extremity weakness, visual disturbances and retrobulbar pain, sensory disturbances, and possible bladder problem
acute disseminated encephalomyelitis follows viral illnesses and is often known as postinfectious encephalitis, may be a manifestation of a delayed hypersensitivity reaction
AD morphologic abnormalities--> neurofibrillary tangles, neuritic plaques, granulovacuolar degeneration, amyloid angiopathy, generalized cerebral atrophy with moderate neuronal loss
pick disease more frequent in women, characterized by marked cortical atrophy, especially of th temporal and frontal lobes, by swollen neurons, and by pick bodies
huntigton disease autosomal dominant, striatum and frontal cortex, characterized by delay of clinical abnormalities until age 30-40, increased numbers of CAG trinucleotide repeats, especially affects cholinergic and GABA
ALS degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons, degeneration of the lateral corticospinal tracts as well as the anterior motor neurons, manifests clinically by symmetric atrophy and fasciculation as well as hyperreflexia, spacticity and pthologic reflexes,
Werding-Hoffman syndrome autosomal recessive lower motor disease that manifests clinically in infancy
oligodendroglioma presents as a slow growing tumor in middle age, chracterized morphologically by: closely packed cells with fried egg appearance, site of orgin in the cerebral hemispheres, tumor divided into groups of cells by delicate capillary strands, foci of calcifica
ependymoma most frequently occurs in 4th ventricle, peak incidence in childhood and adolescence,may result in obstruction of CSF, histologically characterized by tubules with cells encircling vessels
meningioma second most common primary intracranial neoplasm, benign, slowly growing, originates in arachnoidal cells of the meninges, occurs most frequently in the convexities of the cerebral hemispheres and parasagittal region, occurs after age 30
Created by: swohlers