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Concept Dis. Ch.22

Pancreas & Diabetes Mellitus

combination of 2carbon acetate fragments w/complex organic compound coenzyme A acetyl coenzyme A
glucagon-secreting cells of pancreatic islets alpha cells
metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia & caused by insufficient insulin secretion/utilization of insulin diabetes mellitus
disturbance of body's acid-base balance acidosis
acidosis caused by inability to utilize glucose, requiring body's use of fat as energy source diabetic ketosis
fat metabolism generates excessive amounts of acid ketone bodies which disrupts the normal alkalinity of body fluids
long, straight-chain carbon compound containing terminal carboxyl group, which enters into formation of triglyceride fatty acid
during pregnancy elevated hormones result from elevated blood glucose caused by insulin resistance gestational diabetes
postpartum blood glucose returns to normal but women with gestational diabetes have an increased risk of diabetes later in life
storage form of glucose present chiefly in liver & muscle glycogen
hemoglobin with glucose molecules permanently attached glycosylated hemoglobin
glycosylated hemoglobin concentration is related to concentration of glucose in the blood
excessively high blood glucose concentration hyperglycemia
coma resulting from neurologic dysfunction due to severe hypoglycemia causes hyperosmolarity of body fluids hyperosmolar coma
lower than normal blood glucose concentration hypoglycemia
cluster of endocrine cells in pancreas islets of Langerhans
various derivatives of acetyl-CoA resulting from excessive mobilization of fat as an energy source ketone bodies
acetoacetic acid, beta-hydroxybutyric acid, & acetone acetyl-CoA derivatives in ketone bodies
excess of ketone bodies in blood resulting from utilization of fat as primary source of energy ketosis
pancreas excretes digestive enzymes through the pancreatic duct
hemorrhaging, elevated blood levels of pancreatic enzymes, & abdominal pain are all symptoms of acute pancreatitis
diabetes, digestive difficulties, & scarring of the pancreas are all possible outcomes of recurrent mild acute pancreatitis
cystic fibrosis affects respiratory mucous, digestive enzymes, & sweat
hereditary disease where gene mutation causes defective transport across cell membranes of chloride, sodium, & water molecules in which they are dissolved cystic fibrosis
Hyperglycemia results from elevated blood concentrations of glucose
characterized by an inadequate response to insulin as opposed to reduced insulin secretion maturity-onset diabetes
Risk factor predisposing a patient to Cystic Fibrosis and Type 1 & 2 Diabetes is genetic predisposition
glucose that has accumulated in the blood of a diabetic will be excreted through the urine
possible outcomes are diabetic acidosis, coma, & diabetic acidosis for ketosis
urine tests & blood glucose measurements must be done frequently to monitor and control diabetes
in addition to ketoacidosis & diabetic coma diabetes can also lead to arteriosclerosis & susceptibility to infections
insulin-dependent, autoimmune disease, can lead to blindness, ketoacidosis, kidney damage & higher than normal glycosylated hemoglobin test type 1 diabetes
responds to oral drugs to lower blood glucose, diet & exercise controlled, & can lead to blindness, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic coma, & damage to kidneys, & higher than normal glycosylated hemoglobin test type 2 diabetes
gallstone & excessive consumption of alcohol can predispose to pancreatitis