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Ch 10 Vocab

the digestive System

Abdominocentesis surgical puncture through the abdominal wall to remove fluid; also known as paracentesis
Anorexia nervosa emotional eating disorder in which the patient avoids food due to a compulsion to become thin in appearance
antacid an agent that reduces the acidity of the stomach cavity
Antiemetic a drug that prevents or stops the vomiting reflex
antispasmodic a drug that reduces peristalsis activity in the GI tract
Aphagia inability to swallow; means without eating
appendectomy surgical removal of the appendix
appendicitis inflammation of the appendix
ascites an accumulation of fluid within the peritoneal cavity that produces an enlarged abdomen
botulism life-threatening food-borne illness caused by clostridium botulinum
bulimia eating disorder involving repeated gorging with food followed by induced vomiting or laxative abuse
cathartic An agent that stimulates strong waves of peristalsis of the colon
cheilitis inflammation of the lip
cheilorrhaphy procedure of suturing a lip
cheilosis condition of the lip that involves splitting of the skin on the lips and at the corners of the mouth
cholecystectomy surgical removal of the gallbladder
cholecystitis inflammation of the gallbladder, usually caused by gallstones lodged within it
cholecystography procedure of producing an X-ray image, or cholecystogram, of the gallbladder
choledochitis inflammation of the common bile duct
choledocholithiasis presence of stones within the common bile duct
choledocholithotomy surgery that involves the removal of one or more obstructive gallstones from the common bile duct
cholelithiasis generalized condition of stones lodged within the gallbladder or bile ducts
cirrhosis chronic, progressive live disease characterized by the gradual loss of liver cells and their replacement by fat and other forms of connective tissue
cleft palate a congenital defect in which the bones supporting the roof of the mouth or hard palate, fail to fuse during fetal development, leaving a space between the oral cavity and nasal cavity
colectomy surgical removal of a segment of the colon
colitis inflammation of the colon; chronic bleeding- bloody diarrhea- ulcerative colitis
colorectal cancer cancer of the colon and the rectum; often arises as a polyp and becomes an aggresive metastatic tumor
colostomy surgical creation of an opening in the colon to serve as an artificial anus
constipation infrequent or incomplete bowel movements
crohn's disease chornic inflammation of any part of the GI tract that involves ulcerations, scar tissue formation, and thickening adhesions of the organ wall, also known as regional ileitis and regional enteritis
Diarrhea frequent discharge of watery fecal material
direct inguinal hernia type of hernia that is a protrusoin into the scrotal cavity in males
diverticula small pouches that form on the wall of the colon; often present without symptoms or with mild bowel discomfort known as diverticulosis
diverticulitis condition of inflammation of divertucula, the small pouches on the wall of the colon
diverticulosis presence of small pouches called diverticula on the wall of the colon; pften without symptoms or with mild bowel discomfort
duodenal ulcer ulcer or erosion in the wall of the duodenum of the small intestine
dysentery acute inflammation of the GI tract that is caused by bacteria, protozoa, or chemical irritants
dyspepsia commonly called indigestion, it is accompanied by stomach or esophageal pain or discomfort
dysphagia difficulty in swallowing
enteritis inflammation of the small or large intestine
esophagitis inflammation of the esophagus often caused by acid reflux
esophagomalacia morbid softening of the esophageal wall caused by chronic esophagitis
fecal occult blood test ( FOBT) clinical lab test performed to detect blood in the feces
flatulence gas expelled through the anus
flatus presence of gas or air in the GI tract
food-born illness ingestion of food contaminated with harmful bacteria; can cause symptoms of diarrhea and vomiting;clostidium botulinum causes the food-borne illness know as botulism
GI endoscopy visual examination of the GI tract made possible by the use of an endoscope
GI series radiographic examination of the GI tract barium swallow, barium shake, or barium meal ( upper gi) or barium enema (BE) ( lower GI)
Gastralgia another term for gastrodynia or stomach pain
gastrectasis abnormal streching of the stomach
gastrectomy surgical removal of part of the stomach or, in extreme cases, the entire organ
gastric cancer an aggressive, metastatic cancer arising from cells lining the stomach; commonly known as stomach cancer
gastric lavage cleansing procedure in which the stomach is irrigated with the prescribed solution
Gastric ulcer ulcer or erosion in the wall of the stomach
gastritis inflammation of the stomach
gastroduodenitis inflammation of the stomach and the duodenum, the first segment of the small intestine
gastrodynia symptoms of stomach pain, also known as gastralgia
gastroenteritis inflammation of the stomach and small intestine
gastroenterocolitis inflammation of the stomach, small intestine, and colon
gastroenterologist physician who treats disease of the stomach or intestines
gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) recurring reflux of stomach contents into the esophagus
gastromalacia softening of the stomach wall
gastromegaly abnormal enlargement of the stomach
gavage process of feeding a patient through a tube inserted into the nose that extends through the esophagus to enter the stomach
Giardiasis infection by the intestinal protozoa giardia intestinalis or giardia lamblia: produces symptoms of diarrhea, cramps, nausea and vomiting
gingivectomy surgical removal of diseased tissue in the gums or gingiva
gingivitis inflammation of the gums or gingiva
glossitis inflammation of the tongue often caused by exposure to allergen, toxic substances, or extreme heat or cold
glossopathy disease of the tongue
glossorrhaphy surgical repair of the tongue
halitosis condition of bad breath
head and neck specialist physician who treats disease of the mouth or throat
hematemesis vomiting blood,a sign of sever digestive disorder
hemmorrhoidectomy surgical removal of hemmorrhoids
hemorrhoids varicose, or swollen, condition of the veins in the anus that produces painful swelling that may break open and bleed
hepatitis viral-induced inflammation of the liver; the five known forms are categorized with the letters A through E
hepatobiliary specialist physician who treats disease of the liver
hepatoma tumor arising from cells within the liver; also called hepatocellular carcinoma or HCC
hepatomegaly abnormal enlargement of the liver
hiatal hernia protrusion of the cardiac portion of the stomach through the hiatus of the diaphragm to enter the thoracic cavity
lleostomy surgical creation of an opening through the abdominal wall and into the ileum of the small intestine to establish an alternative anus for the passage of feces
inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) includes the conditions uncerative colitis and crohn's disease
inguinal hernia type of hernia that involves a protrusion of a segment of the intestine through the abdominal wall in the inguinal region
internal medicine area of medicine that treats digestive disorders
intusseusception condition of infolding of a segment of the small intestine within another segment
irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) Chronic disease characterized by periodic disturbances or large intestinal bowel function without clear physical damage
jaundice yellowish-orange coloration of the skin, sclera or the eyes, and deeper tissues that is collective sign of liver disease
Lactose intolerance lack of an enzyme in the small intestine that breaks down lactose, the primary sugar in milk and milk products
Laparotomy surgical procedure that involves an incision through the abdominal wall, often from the base of the sternum to the pubic bone
lipopenia life-threatening malabsorption snydrome that involves the inability to absorb fat molecules
malabsorption syndrome disorder characterized by difficulty in absorbing one or more nutrients
Mumps common term for parotitis; inflammation of one or both parotid glands that is caused by a virus
Nausea symptom of dizziness that includes an urge to vomit
pancreatitis inflammation of the pancreas
parotitis inflammation of one or both parotid glands; if caused by a virus, it is usually referred to as mumps
peptice ulcer erosion into the inner wall of an organ along the GI tract
peritonitis inflammation of the extensive membrane that lines the inner wall of the abdominopelvic cavity and covers most of its organs
polyp abnormal mass of tissue that projects from the wall of the organ into the interior like a mushroom
polypectomy surgical removal of polyps
polyposis condition of polyps usually occurring in the colon or rectum of the large intestine; increase the risk for colorectal cancer
proctitis inflammation of the anus, and usually the rectum as well
proctologist physician who treats disease of the rectum
proctoptosis prolapse of the rectum
pyloroplasty surgical repair of the pylorus region of the stomach, which may include repair of the pyloric valve
reflux backward flow of the material in the GI tract; also known as regurgitation
regional enteritis chronic inflammation of any part of the GI tract that involves ulcerations, scar tissue formation, and thickening adhesions of the organ wall; also known as regional ileitis or crohns disease
regional ileitis chronic inflammation of any part of the GI tract
Sialoadenitis inflammation of one or both parotid glans; also known as parotitis or mumps
steatorrhea abnormal levels of fat in the feces; means discharge of fat
Stool culture and sensitivity (SCS) test that includes obtaining tool (fecal) samples, using the samples to grow microorganisms in culture, and identifying the microorganisms
strangulated hernia hernia that restricts blood flow to the protruding organ, requiring medical intervention to avoid the loss of the affected organ
ulcerative colitis condition of chronice bleeding of the colon wall, forming bloody disrrhea; a form of chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
umbilical hernia hernia that involves a protrusion of a small intestinal segment through a tear in the membrane covering the abdominal wall at the umbilical (navel) region
vagotomy the surgical dissection of branches of the vagus nerve to reduce acid secretion in the stomach
volvulus servere twisting of the intestine that leads to obstruction
Created by: Buddy5707