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XRay Film Processing

Radiologic film processing

QuestionAnswer
1.what is the manifest image or radiographic image image that exists on film after exposure and processing
2.how is the latent image formed 3 AG atoms gather at SS from exposure
3.SS acts as a doorway allows reducing agents into crystal trapping them causing black metallic
4.what is responsible for turning the latent to manifest image the developer reacts causing grey tones
5.walls are lead lined with what thickness .16in. or equivelent with lead
6.what is the most efficient transport of cassettes pass through boxes
7.film storage shelves are stocked oldest in front, stored on edge
8.default of single locking door on darkroom people forgot to lock it when they entered and the door would be opened exposing film and processing to light
9.what are some doors and walkways for darkroom single locking, double door, maze, revolving door
10.what is the white lighting used for in the darkroom for cleaning,and stocking while processing isn't going on
11.name the different safe lights indirect-suspended from ceiling and direct-mounted on walls 3ft from counters
12.what color are the filters for a safelight amber for tungstate and red for rare earths
13.what is the enviroment in the darkroom cool relatively dry- 60-70deg 30-50% humidity
14.what were the effect of chemicals being stored in the darkroom darkroom disease-lung issues, neurological effects
15.why is cleanliness of the darkroom important prevent debry from causing artifacts on the film
16.a view box has a minimium luminescence of 5,382 flux or 500 foot candle
17.film goes through the 90 sec processor how low for each phase developer 20-25sec, fixer 20sec, wash 20sec, dry 25-30sec
18.phenidone a reducing agent that swell and softens emulsion produces what tones rapidly produces grey tones
19.what reducing agent in the developer produces slow black tones hydroquinone
20.what is the activator in the developer responsible for PH sodium carbonate
21.what does potassium bromide due in the developer decreases the reducing agent, anti-fogging
22.what is sodium sulfite do in both the fixer and developer chemicals preservative, controls oxidation, a buffer agent
23.what chemical in the developer is responsible for hardening the emulsion and protects film before rollers glutaraldehyde
24.the function of the fixer chemicals in the processor to preserve image, make permanent, 2cndary function to stop devilopment process
25.what clearing agent removes undeveloped silver halides from emulsion ammonium thiosulfate
26.acetic acid is a activator in the fixing solution, stops reduction process, PH
27.what is the hardening chemical in the fixing chemical potassium alum makes manifest permanent by hardening the emulsion
28.sodium sulfite is apreservative and its function in the fixer tank is to maintain PH
29.the function of the wash stage in a processor remove fixing solution from surface of film or will cause brown stain
30.what if the dry time was too long emulsion layer will crack
31.how much moisture from the film is the dryer responsible for removing 85-90%
32.what is the tempature for the dryer cycle 120deg
33.the transport system starts with the feed tray
34.films enter the feed tray LW or CW CW
35.entrance rollers are covered with rubber, are at the begininng of each different process
36.transport rollers are responsible for moving thefilm through each tank
37.where are the turn around rollers located on the bottom of each tank
38.what type of roller moves the film from one tank to another cross over rollers
39.what are guide plates or shoes, and their location slightly curved metal plates that properly align the edge ofthe film through processor, located on the top and bottom of tanks when film changes direction
40.how is chemical fog created during processing if film stays in developer too long, more density
41.name too ways to change the density of the film while in the processor if temp is 5 deg above 92-96 too much density, if film stays in developing tank too long, too much density
42.what are someproblems with thetransport system artifacts, scratches from misaligned guide shoes, Pi lines from new processors, dark smudges from pressure smudges
43.function of replenishment system to replace or refresh chemicals due to processing
44.what is a flood or timed replenish system periodically dumps more into the tank
45.what system of replenishment is film orientated volume replenishment system, concentration more stable
46.what are the replenishment rates for the developer and fixer tanks 4-5ml per in of developer. 6-8ml per inch per fixer
47.if there is a over replenishment problem what is the effect increase density and decrease contrast, wastes solution
48.if there is an under replenishment problem what is the effect on density decrease in density
49.3 functions of therecirculation system agitate chemicals, stabilize temp., filter out reation particles and impurities from solution
50.what are reaction particles and how are they removed by the rollers gelatin, Br-, I-, rid by bending film through rollers
51.what is the most likely problem if thefilm is still wet or tacky when removed from the receiving bin under replenish problem, insufficiently hardened
52.what is the function of the emulsion layer to form latent image
53.describe the composition of the emulsion layer silver halide crystal and gelatin
54.what do the initials H&D stand for Hurter and Drifield
55.diagnostically useful range of densities are between .5 and 2.5
56.in the silver halyde crystal what part of the make up is missing an electron silver
57.the sensitivity speck is usually made of sulfide
58.the first material used for the base was glass
59.the current film base material is polyester plastic
60.what is the purpose of the blue tint that is applied to the base ease eye strain on the radiologist
61.some other names for the H&D curve characteristic curve, D log E curve, sensotometric curve
62.what is the daily processor maintance clean crossovers, entrance rollers, monitoring temp. drain wash tank daily to prevent algae, fill wash tank daily
63.what is the weekly processor maintance remove racks for cleaning and check gears
64.how often do filters have to be changed in the processor and who replaces them after 5,000 films, or an estimate if no counter, repair person replaces them
65.what is done during monthly processor maintance tanks drained, cleaned and refilled, check gears and temp, overall check
66.what test identifys problems in processing before repeats occur sensitometer testing
67.what part of the processor does silver recovery take place fixer, where undeveloped crystals are removed from film
68.during automatic processing the time the film is in the processing solutions is controlled by the transport system
69.possible causes of under replenishment solutions in an automatic processor include faulty micro switches, air in replenishment lines, faulty replenishment pump
70.decreasing the developer temp. decreases density
71.what is long scale low contrast, high kV low mAs,
72.what is short scale contrast high contrast, low kV high mAs, major difference in densities
73.what are the geometric properties for image detail recorded detail, size distortion, shape distortion
74.as distortionincreases the recorded detail decreases
75.true distortion is_______ and is caused by shape distortion, part alignment to IR and CR angle
76.OID affects recorded detail
77.focal spot affects recorded detail
78.magnification is only affected bu OID and SID
79.principles that govern sharpness are called geometric properties
80.factors that govern visibility of recorded detail are called photographic properties
81.some things that influence recorded detail are motion, film speed contact, IS, OID, SID, size of focal spot
82.contrasts controlling factor is kV
83.contrasts influencing factors are patient factors, fog, secondary and scatter radiation, grid, beam limitation and film
84.contrast secondary influences are mAs, IS, film processing, compression, SID
85.Densitys controlling factor mAs
86.densitys secondary influences patient factors, kV, SID, IS, film processing
87.density secondary influences are fog, beam limitation, film, grid, filteration, anode heel effect
88.what make up photographic properties ( image visibility) density and contrast
89.how does electrolyte recovery work uses electrolysis, 2-electrodes a cathode and anode, electrical current passes between the two while submerged, the silver is attracted to the cathode(-) side so then just scrape silver off cathode
90.what is the purpose of the blue tint that is applied to the base ease eye strain on the radiologist
91.what is the tempature for the dryer cycle 120deg
92.what is the weekly processor maintance remove racks for cleaning and check gears
93.what is the white lighting used for in the darkroom for cleaning,and stocking while processing isn't going on
94.what make up photographic properties ( image visibility) density and contrast
95.what part of the processor does silver recovery take place fixer, where undeveloped crystals are removed from film
96.what reducing agent in the developer produces slow black tones hydroquinone
97.what system of replenishment is film orientated volume replenishment system, concentration more stable
98.what test identifys problems in processing before repeats occur sensitometer testing
99.what type of roller moves the film from one tank to another cross over rollers
100.what were the effect of chemicals being stored in the darkroom darkroom disease-lung issues, neurological effects
101.where are the turn around rollers located on the bottom of each tank
102.why is cleanliness of the darkroom important prevent debry from causing artifacts on the film
Created by: StudyGroup on 2010-03-24



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