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Concept Dis. Ch.24

Water, Electrolyte, & Acid-Base Balance

disturbance in acid-base balance of the body, in which body fluids have a lower pH than normal acidosis
disturbance in body's acid-base balance in which the pH of the extracellular fluids is shifted toward the alkaline side of normal alkalosis
ion carrying a negative charge anion
ion that carries a positive charge cation
compound that in solution dissociates into positive & negative ions electrolyte
excess of ketone bodies in blood resulting from utilization of fat as the primary source of energy ketosis
access of urea & other waste products in the blood, resulting from renal failure uremia
overall electrical neutrality of the body is always maintained
decrease in PCO2 & increase in bicarbonate can lead to respiratory alkalosis hyperventilation
the kidneys form additional bicarbonate to restore the pH to the physiologic range in respiratory acidosis
in order to successfully maintain a metabolic alkalosis an existing ___ ___ must be addressed potassium deficiency
can be a cause of respiratory alkadosis pulmonary emphysema
potassium depletion frequently accompanies ___ ___ caused by excess corticosteroids metabolic alkalosis
primary cause of ketosis is type 1 diabetes
acidosis in the term for blood pH becoming acidic
the lungs & kidneys control the body's acid-base balance
sufferers of decreased renal function, infants & athletes are all at greatest risk for overhydration
diarrhea & vomiting most commonly results in dehydration
A & D are the principal extracellular ions
overall electrical neutrality of the body is always maintained
in diabetes when excessive ketone bodies formed & in kidney failure with retention of nonvolatile acids metabolic acidosis
impaired lung function caused by chronic pulmonary disease respiratory acidosis
excessive loss of gastric juices (i.e. vomiting) & excessive corticosteroid hormones metabolic acidosis
hyperventilation; fall in alveolar PCO2 & blood carbonic acid respiratory alkalosis
the units of concentration of electrolytes are expressed in milliequivalents per liter
abbreviation for milliequivalents per liter mEq/L
acidosis occurs when blood pH shifts to acid side of pH 7.4
alkalosis occurs when blood pH shifts to alkaline side of pH 7.4
electrolytes are salts that dissociate in solution into positively and negatively charged ions
expression of the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution, expressed as the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration pH