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Concept Dis. Ch.23

Gastrointestinal tract

bands of fibrous tissue that form subsequent to an inflammation, and bind adjacent tissues together adhesions
method for treating obesity by applying an adjustable gastric band to the stomach in order to reduce its capacity, thereby promoting weight loss adjustable gastric banding
excessive self-induced weight loss because of a false perception of being fat anorexia nervosa
tooth decay caries
loss of tooth structure caused by the combined action of mouth bacteria & organic acids derived from bacterial fermentation of retained food particles cavity
defect in upper lip of variable degrees, as result of developmental disturbance cleft lip
defect in hard palate allowing communication between oral cavity & nasal cavity, as result by developmental disturbance cleft palate
inflammation of the colon colitis
masses of bacteria, bacterial products, & salivary proteins adherent to teeth, which predisposes to tooth decay dental plaque
bony structure of the tooth dentine
diverticulitis inflammation of a diverticulum
condition characterized by an outpouching of colonic mucosa through weak areas in the muscular wall diverticulosis
outpouching from an organ, which projects through the muscular wall diverticulum
inflammation of the intestine enteritis
operation to treat massive obesity in which capacity of the stomach is reduced gastric bypass
varicosities of anal & rectal veins hemorrhoids
protrusion of a loop of bowel through a narrow opening, usually in the abdominal wall hernia
surgical procedure performed on small intestine to promote weight loss ileal bypass
congenital absence of anal opening, often associated with absence of distal rectum as well imperforate anus
telescoping of one segment of bowel into an adjacent segment intussusception
an incompetent lower gastroesophageal sphincter & cardiospasms causing gastric secretions leak back into the esophagus can cause reflux esophagitis
inflammation of the oral cavity stomatitis
rotary twisting of the intestine on its mesentery, with obstruction of the blood supply to the twisted segment volvulus
formed by two masses of tissues that grow medially and fuse at midline to separate as nose and mouth is known as cleft lip and/or palate
infection of the gums when inflammation extends to tissues that support teeth; forms small pockets of infection between teeth and gums periodontal disease
toothaches, tooth removal, periapical abscesses, & root canals are all caused by unchecked dental caries
esophageal obstruction, tears in the lining of the esophagus, & failure of the cardiac sphincter are all esophageal disorders
carcinoma of the esophagus, food impaction, & stricture are causes of esophageal obstruction
tears of the gastric mucosal lining can cause fatal bleeding
treating inflammation with COX-2 inhibitors might increase the chance of developing cardiovascular problems
when a tumor between the esophagus and the trachea becomes necrotic, an abnormal communication between the two, known as a tracheoesophageal fistula
obstructions, hemorrhages & perforations are all possible complications of peptic ulcers
activated T-lymphocytes cause inflammation and necrosis in the bowel is the final damage in chronic enteritis
volvulus, tumor, hernia, & intestinal adhesions are all common causes of intestinal obstruction
most common type of hernia is inguinal
carcinoma arising in the cecum or right half of the colon may be detected through complaints of fatigue caused by anemia
esophagus, stomach, small/lrg intestines & anus, as well as the oral cavity & related part of the face, make up the gastrointestinal tract
digestion & absorption of food are functions of the gastrointestinal tract
face and palate formed by coalescence of cell masses that merge to form facial structures happens embryologically
cleft lip/palate is a ___ leading to defects in 1/100 births maldeveloment
cleft lip/palate follows a ____ inheritance pattern multifactorial
plastic surgery to repair lip defects cheiloplasty
cleft lip may be ___ or ___ and ranges in severity unilateral; bilateral
cleft lip repair is usually done soon after birth
cleft palate repair in usually done between ages of 1-2 years
after cleft palate repair ___ therapy is necessary in early childhood speech
specialized structures that develop in tissues of the jaws teeth
there are 20 deciduous teeth
deciduous teeth are temporary, or "baby teeth"
there are 32 permanent teeth
common abnormalities of teeth include missing or extra teeth
part of the teeth that forms at specific times during the embryologic period enamel
administered during enamel formation causes permanent yellow-gray to brown discoloration of the crown Tetracycline
Tetracycline is an antibiotic
Tetracycline should not be administered to pregnant women or children from infancy to 8 years of age
dental plaque consist of a diverse collection of ___ & ___ bacteria that mix with saliva, forming sticky film on teeth aerobic; anaerobic
Plaque + action of bacteria result in tooth decay
loss of tooth structure from bacterial action dental cavity
inflammation of the gums due to masses of bacteria and debris accumulating around base of teeth gingivitis
fluoride helps to prevent cavities by promoting formation of a more ___ tooth structure that resists decay acid-resistant
irritants such as alcohol, tobacco, hot or spicy foods & infectious agents such as Herpes virus & Candida albicans fungus can cause inflammation of the oral cavity, stomatitis
trench mouth Vincent's infection
a fungus that can also cause vaginal infections, can also cause trench mouth is Candida albicans
arises from squamous epithelium of the lips, cheek, tongue, palate, &/or back of the throat carcinoma of the oral cavity
muscular tube that extends from pharynx to stomach with sphincters at both upper and lower ends esophagus
relaxes to allow passage of swallowed food upper esophageal sphincter
relaxes to allow passage of food to the stomach cardiac sphincter
the cardiac sphincter is also called the lower esophageal or gastroesophageal sphincter
dysphagia along with variable degrees of substernal discomfort/pain is associated with esophageal disease
caused from retching or vomiting esophageal tears
failure of cardiac sphincter to open properly is called cardiospasm
inability of cardiac sphincter to remain closed properly is called incompetent cardiac sphincter
cardiospasms are caused by a malfunction of the __ __ in esophagus that controls its function nerve plexus
during cardiospasms food cannot pass normally into stomach, causing the __ __ in esophagus wall to contract more vigorously to push food past constricted sphincter smooth muscle
cardiospasms cause esophageal muscles undergo marked ___ over time hypertrophy
hypertrophy, caused by cardiospasms, leads to the esophagus becoming ___ proximal to constricted sphincter due to food retention dilated
an incompetent cardiac sphincter leads to ___ and scarring of squamous mucosal lining ulceration
periodic stretching of sphincter or surgery are cardiospasm treatments
tears of the esophagus are considered a vomiting-related complication
inflammation of the gastric lining that is self-limited inflammation of short duration, and may be associated with mucosal ulceration or bleeding acute gastritis
can cause acute gastritis NSAIDs that inhibit COX
COX is the abbreviation for cyclooxygenase enzyme
aspirin, ibuprofen, Naproxen are all NSAIDs
small, curved, gram-negative organism; related to many cases of chronic gastritis Helicobacter pylori
Helicobacter pylori grows in the ___ covering epithelial cells lining the stomach mucus
Helicobacter pylori can be identified by special bacteria stains, culture, or other specialized tests
Helicobacter pylori produces an enzyme called urease
urease decomposes urea
decomposition of urea yields ___, which neutralizes gastric acid allowing Helicobacter pylori to flourish ammonia
Helicobacter pylori also produces enzymes that can break down the layer of ___ ___ that covers epithelial surface protective mucus
is caused by the ammonia & other byproducts produced by Helicobacter pylori, damaging the gastric mucosa of a susceptible person chronic gastritis
about 30% of persons under 30 years of age are colonized by Helicobacter pylori
by age 50 proportions of of those colonized by Helicobacter pylori increase to approximately 50% & as high as 65% in persons over age 65
Helicobacter pylori are spread by mouth-to-mouth & fecal-oral routes
Helicobacter pylori have been cultured from both dental plaque & fecal material
gastric mucosa is also called mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue
arises from lymphocytes in gastric mucosa malignant lymphoma & gastric carcinoma
gastric epithelium changes into an abnormal intestinal-type epithelium intestinal metaplasia
gastritis leading to atrophy of gastric mucosa and intestinal metaplasia are risks for gastric carcinoma
when gastritis overstimulates gastric mucosa, leading to unregulated growth of lymphocytes eventually progressing into gastric lymphoma
a gastric irritant; stimulates gastric acid secretion alcohol
promotes synthesis of prostaglandin that protects gastric mucosa COX-1
promotes synthesis of prostaglandin that mediate inflammation COX-2
drugs that selectively inhibit COX-2 increase risk for heart attack & stroke
abbreviation for mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue is MALT
gastric acid and pepsin are digestive enzymes
peptic ulcers are chronic ulcers involving distal ___ or proximal ___ stomach; duodenum
___ ulcer results from digestion of mucosa by acid gastric juice peptic
persons prone to ulcers secrete large volumes of acidic gastric juice
block acid secretion by gastric epithelial cells antacids
biopsy by means of gastroscopy is used to diagnose a carcinoma of the stomach
surgical resection of affected part, surrounding tissue and lymph nodes is treatment for a carcinoma of the stomach
relatively poor long-term survival rate & is often far-advanced at time of diagnosis carcinoma of stomach
usually caused by known pathogens or their toxins, of short duration & subside without specific treatment, with manifestations of nausea, vomiting, abdominal discomfort, loose stools acute enteritis
in severe infections of acute enteritis, the bowel mucosa may be ulcerated leading to bloody stools
the 2 important types of chronic enteritis Crohn disease & chronic ulcerative enteritis
Crohn disease & chronic ulcerative enteritis are grouped under general term chronic inflammatory bowel disease
chronic inflammation and ulceration of mucosa with thickening and scarring of bowel wall often involving distal ileum; involves "skip areas" Crohn disease
normal intervening segments of bowel between areas of severe disease "skip areas"
Crohn disease was originally called ___ ___ because inflammatory process often localized to the distal ileum regional ileitis
treatments for Crohn disease includes drugs and possible surgical resection of affected bowel area
ulcerative colitis targets the large intestines & colon
inflammation limited to mucosa of bowel, often beginning in rectal mucosa but progressively spreads to entire colon ulcerative colitis
in severe cases of ulcerative colitis the inflammatory process can lead to ___ of colon perforation
perforation of colon, in ulcerative colitis, causes leakage of bowel contents into the peritoneal cavity
long-standing disease may develop into colon or rectal carcinoma
surgical resection, immunosuppressive drugs, antibiotics, corticosteroids to control flare-ups & symptomatic and supportive measures are all treatments for ulcerative colitis
broad-spectrum antibiotics destroy normal intestinal flora, which causes antibiotic-associated colitis
severe bloody diarrhea w/abdominal pain, fever & other systemic manifestations, which can be life-threatening symptoms of antibiotic-associated colitis
in a more severely affected person antibiotic-associated colitis can lead to multiple ulcerations of the colonic mucosa
when a more severely affected person suffering from antibiotic-associated colitis develops multiple ulcerations of colonic mucosa, ulcerated areas are covered by masses of fibrin & inflammatory cells
antibiotic-associated colitis allows growth of anaerobic spore-forming bacteria called Clostridium difficile
Clostridium difficile, is not inhibited by the antibiotic and produces two toxins that cause intestinal inflammation & necrosis
stool culture to identify the toxin is used to diagnose antibiotic-associated colitis
most common inflammatory lesion of the bowel; characterized by manifestations of generalized abdominal pain localizing in right lower quadrant; rebound tenderness; rigidity appendicitis
in an appendicitis laboratory tests reveal the number of ___ ___ are increased in the blood as result of infection polymorphonuclear leukocytes
ultrasound, CT scan, & laparoscopy are also used to diagnose an appendicitis
severe inflammation may lead to rupture of appendix or peritonitis
surgery to remove the appendix is usually necessary when an appendicitis is identified
inflammation of congenital small bowel diverticulum Meckel's diverticulitis
extensive necrosis of small bowel & proximal colon mesenteric artery thrombosis
hypersensitivity to wheat protein/gluten nontropical sprue
deficiency of lactase enzyme lactose intolerance
disturbed bowel function without structural change irritable bowel syndrome
protrusion of mucosa through weak area in bowel wall colon diverticulosis
inflammation of colon diverticula diverticulitis
telescoping of proximal colon into distal colon intussusception
rotary twist of sigmoid colon on its mesentery colon volvulus