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# 7th Math Vocab

### Definitions for 7th grade math

Question | Answer |
---|---|

acute angle | an angle that measures less than 90° |

acute triangle | a triangle with three acute angles |

addend | a number added to one or more other numbers |

algebraic expression | an expression containing a variable Example: 2(x-9) |

angle | two rays with a common endpoint |

area | the number of square units needed to cover a figure |

arithmetic sequence | a sequence where the difference between consecutive terms is always the same. Example: 3, 6, 9, ... |

associative property | the fact that grouping does not affect the product or sum |

base (in numeration) | a number multiplied by itself the number of times shown by an exponent. Example: 5² = 5⠂5 |

base (in polygon) | any side of the polygon, or the length of that side |

bisect | to divide an angle or segment into two congruent angles or segments |

box-and-whisker plot | a graph showing how a collection of data is distributed |

capacity | the volume of a figure, given in terms of liquid measure |

center | the point at the exact middle of a circle or sphere |

circle | a plane figure whose points are all the same distance from its center |

circle graph | a circular graph that uses wedges to represent portions of the data set |

circumference | the perimeter of a circle |

combination | a selection of items where the order does not matter |

common denominator | a denominator that is the same in two or more fractions |

common factor | if a number is a factor of two or more numbers, it is a common factor of that set of numbers |

common multiple | a number that is a multiple of each of two given numbers. Example: 24 is a common multiple of 4 and 3 |

commutative property | the fact that ordering does not affect the sum or product of two or more numbers |

complementary angles | two angles whose measures add up to 90° |

composite number | a solid with one circular base |

cone | a solid with one circular base |

congruent angles | two angles that have equal measures |

congruent segments | two segments that have equal lengths |

constant | a quantity whose value cannot change |

coordinates | a pair of numbers used to locate a point on a coordinate plane |

corresponding angles | angles formed by two lines and a transversal. |

corresponding angles (in similar figures) | matching angles on similar figures |

cross product | in a proportion, the product of a numerator on one side with the denominator on the other |

cube (geometric figure) | a 6-sided prism whose faces are congruent squares |

cube (in numeration) | a number raised to the third power Example: 5³ = 5˙5˙5 |

cylinder | a solid with two parallel circular bases with the same radius |

decagon | a polygon with 10 sides |

degree (°) | a unit of measure for angles |

denominator | the bottom number in a fraction |

diameter | the distance across a circle through its center |

difference | the answer to a subtraction problem |

distributive property | the fact that a(b+c) = ab+ac |

dividend | the number to be divided in a division problem. In 8/4=2, 8 is the dividend, is the divisor, and 2 is the quotient |

equally-likely outcomes | outcomes that have the same probability |

equation | a mathematical statement that two expressions are equal Example: x-10=6 |

equilateral triangle | a triangle whose sides are all the same length |

equivalent fractions | two fractions representing the same number, such as 1/2 = 2/4. |

equivalent ratios | ratios corresponding to equivalent fractions |

exponent | a number telling how many times the base is being used as a factor Example: 8³ = 8˙8˙8, where 3 is the exponent and 8 is the base |

expression | a mathematical phrase made up of variables and/or numbers and operations Example: 3x-11 |

factor | a whole number that divides another whole number evenly |

fraction | a number in the form ¾ |

function | a rule that matches two sets of numbers |

greatest common factor (GCF) | the largest factor two numbers have in common Example: 6 is the GCF of 24 and 18 |

height | on a triangle or quadrilateral, the distance from the base to the opposite vertex or side on a prism or cylinder, the distance between the bases |

hexagon | a six-sided polygon |

hypotenuse | the side opposite the right angle in a right triangle |

improper fraction | a fraction greater that 1 |

integer | a whole number, its opposite, or zero |

interval | the space between marked values on a bar graph's scale |

inverse operation | operations that "undo" each other, such as addition and subtraction |

isosceles triangle | a triangle with at least two congruent sides |

least common multiple (LCM) | the smalles common multiple of two numbers Example: 56 is the LCM of 8 and 14 |

line | a straight set of points that extends without end in both direction |

line graph | a graph that uses a line to show how data changes over time |

line of symmetry | the imaginary "mirror" in line symmetry |

line segment | two points, called the ENDPOINTS of the segment, and all points between them |

lowest terms | a fraction with a numerator and denominator whose only common factor is 1 |

mean | the sum of the values in a data set divided by the number of values (also known as the AVERAGE) |

median | The middle value in a data set when the values are arranged in order |

midpoint | the point that divides a segment into two congruent smaller segments |

mode | the value(s) that occur most often in a data set |

multiple | the product of a given number and another whole number Example: since 3⠂7 = 21, 21 is a multiple of both 3 and 7 |

negative numbers | numbers that are less than zero |

numerator | the top number in a fraction |

obtuse angle | an angle that measures more than 90° and less that 180° |

octagon | an eight-sided polygon |

odds | the ratio of the number of ways an event can happen to the number of ways it cannot |

ordered pair | a pair of numbers, such as (12, -8), used to locate points on a coordinate plane |

order of operations | a rule telling in what order a series of operations should be done. The order of operations is (1) compute withing grouping symbols; (2) compute powers; (3) multiply and divide from left to right; (4) add and subtract from left to right |

outcome (in probability) | one way an experiment or situation could turn out |

parallel lines | lines in a plane that never meet |

parallelogram | a quadrilateral with parallel and congruent opposite sides |

pentagon | a five-sided polygon |

percent | a ratio compare a number to 100 Example: 29% = 29/100 |

perimeter | the distance around |

permutation | one of the ways to order a set of items |

perpendicular | lines, rays, or line segments that intersect at right angles |

perpendicular bisector | a line, ray, or line segment that intersects a segment at its midpoint and is perpendicular to it |

pi (π) | the ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter: π = 3.14159265 |

place value | the value given to the place a digit occupies |

plane | a flat surface that extends forever |

point symmetry | a figure has point symmetry if it looks unchanged after a 180° rotation |

polygon | a geometric figure with at least three sides |

polyhedron | a solid whose faces are polygons |

positive numbers | numbers greater than zero |

power | a number produced by raising a base to anm exponent Example: 16 = 2⁴ , so 16 is the 4th |

prime factorization | writing a number as a product of prime numbers Example: 60 = 2²⠂3⠂5 |

prime number | a whole number greater than 1 whose only factors are 1 and itself |

prism | a polyhedron whose bases are congruent and parallel |

probability | the number of ways an event can occur divided by the total number of possible outcomes |

product | the answer to a multiplication problem |

proportion | a statement showing two ratios are equal |

protractor | a tool for measuring angles |

pyramid | a polyhedron with one polygonal base |

Pythagorean Theorem | in a right triangle where "c" is the length of the hypotenuse and "a" and "b" are the lengths of the legs, a²+b²=c² |

quadrants | the four regions determined by the axes of a coordinate plane |

quadrilateral | a four-sided polygon |

quotient | the answer to a division equation |

radius | the distance from the center of a circle to a point on the circle |

pyramid | a polyhedron with on polygonal base |

range (in statistics) | the difference between the least and greatest numbers in a data set |

rate | a ratio showing how quantities with different units are related |

ratio | a comparison of two quantities, often written as a fraction |

ray | part of a line that has one endpoint and extends forever |

reciprocals | Two numbers whose product is 1 Example: 5/7 and 7/5 are reciprocals |

rectangle | a quadrilateral with four right angles |

reflection | a transformation that flips a figure over a line |

regular polygon | a polygon with all sides and angles congruent |

rhombus | a parallelogram with all sides congruent |

right angle | an angle that measures 90° |

right triangle | a triangle with one right angle |

rotation | a transformation that turns a figure around a point |

rounding | estimating a number to a given place value |

scale factor | the ratio used to enlarge or reduce similar figures |

scalene triangle | a triangle whose sides have different lengths |

scatterplot | a graph showing paired data values as points |

scientific notation | a number written as a decimal greater than or equal to 1 and less than 10 Example: 937 = 9.37 x 10² |

sector | a wedge-shaped part of a circle |

sequence | a list of numbers, such as -1, 4, 9, 14, ... |

similar figures | figures with the same shape but not necessarily the same size |

simulation (in probability) | a model of a probability experiment |

solid | a three-dimensional object |

solutions of an equation or inequality | values of a variable that make an equation or inequality true |

solve | to find the solutions of an equation or inequality |

sphere | a solid whose points are all the same distance from the center |

square (geometric figure) | a quadrilateral with four congruent sides and four right angles |

square (in numeration) | a number raised to the second power |

square root | the length of the side of a square with an area equal to a given number |

standard form | the usual way of writing number (in contrast to scientific notation) |

stem-and-leaf diagram | a table showing the distribution of values in a data set by splitting each value into a stem and a leaf |

straight angle | an angle that measure 180° |

substitute | to replace a variable with a known value |

sum | the answer to an addition problem |

supplementary angles | two angles whose measures add up to 180° |

surface area | for a solid, the sum of the areas of its surfaces |

symmetry | the correspondence in size, form, and arrangement of parts on opposite sides of a plane, line, or point; regularity of form or arrangement in terms of like, reciprocal, or corresponding parts. |

tangent line | a line that touches a circle at only one point |

tangent ratio | in a right triangle, the tangent of an angle is the ratio of the length of the side opposite the angle to the length of the side adjacent to it |

term | one number in a sequence |

terminating decimal | a decimal number that ends Example: 2.31 |

tessellation | a set of repeating figures that fills a flat surface with no gaps or overlaps |

theoretical probability | the ratio of the number of ways an event can happen to the total number of possible outcomes |

transformation | a transformation that slides a figure |

transversal | a line intersecting two or more lines |

trapezoid | a quadrilateral with exactly two parallel sides |

tree diagram | a branching diagram showing all possible outcomes for a given situation |

trend | a clear direction in a line graph suggesting how the data will behave in the future |

trend line | a line drawn through a set of data points to show a trend in the data values |

triangle | a three-sided polygon |

unit price | a unit rate giving the cost of one item |

variable | a quantity whose values may vary |

Venn diagram | a diagram that uses regions to show relationships |

vertex | on an angle, the endpoint of the rays forming the angle. On a polygon, a corner where two sides meet. On a polyhedron, a corner where edges meet |

vertical angles | angles on opposite sides of the intersection of two lines |

volume | the amount of space taken up by a solid (LxWxH) |

whole number | a number in the set |

x-axis | the horizontal line in an x-y coordinate system |

x-coordinate | the first number in an ordered pair |

x-y coordinate plane | a coordinate system for locating points based on two number lines, the x- and y-axes |

y-axis | the vertical line in an x-y coordinate system |

y-coodinate | the second number in an ordered pair |

zero pair | a number and its opposite Example: 23 and (-23) |

Created by:
lonniewood