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7th Math Vocab

Definitions for 7th grade math

acute angle an angle that measures less than 90°
acute triangle a triangle with three acute angles
addend a number added to one or more other numbers
algebraic expression an expression containing a variable Example: 2(x-9)
angle two rays with a common endpoint
area the number of square units needed to cover a figure
arithmetic sequence a sequence where the difference between consecutive terms is always the same. Example: 3, 6, 9, ...
associative property the fact that grouping does not affect the product or sum
base (in numeration) a number multiplied by itself the number of times shown by an exponent. Example: 5² = 5⠂5
base (in polygon) any side of the polygon, or the length of that side
bisect to divide an angle or segment into two congruent angles or segments
box-and-whisker plot a graph showing how a collection of data is distributed
capacity the volume of a figure, given in terms of liquid measure
center the point at the exact middle of a circle or sphere
circle a plane figure whose points are all the same distance from its center
circle graph a circular graph that uses wedges to represent portions of the data set
circumference the perimeter of a circle
combination a selection of items where the order does not matter
common denominator a denominator that is the same in two or more fractions
common factor if a number is a factor of two or more numbers, it is a common factor of that set of numbers
common multiple a number that is a multiple of each of two given numbers. Example: 24 is a common multiple of 4 and 3
commutative property the fact that ordering does not affect the sum or product of two or more numbers
complementary angles two angles whose measures add up to 90°
composite number a solid with one circular base
cone a solid with one circular base
congruent angles two angles that have equal measures
congruent segments two segments that have equal lengths
constant a quantity whose value cannot change
coordinates a pair of numbers used to locate a point on a coordinate plane
corresponding angles angles formed by two lines and a transversal.
corresponding angles (in similar figures) matching angles on similar figures
cross product in a proportion, the product of a numerator on one side with the denominator on the other
cube (geometric figure) a 6-sided prism whose faces are congruent squares
cube (in numeration) a number raised to the third power Example: 5³ = 5˙5˙5
cylinder a solid with two parallel circular bases with the same radius
decagon a polygon with 10 sides
degree (°) a unit of measure for angles
denominator the bottom number in a fraction
diameter the distance across a circle through its center
difference the answer to a subtraction problem
distributive property the fact that a(b+c) = ab+ac
dividend the number to be divided in a division problem. In 8/4=2, 8 is the dividend, is the divisor, and 2 is the quotient
equally-likely outcomes outcomes that have the same probability
equation a mathematical statement that two expressions are equal Example: x-10=6
equilateral triangle a triangle whose sides are all the same length
equivalent fractions two fractions representing the same number, such as 1/2 = 2/4.
equivalent ratios ratios corresponding to equivalent fractions
exponent a number telling how many times the base is being used as a factor Example: 8³ = 8˙8˙8, where 3 is the exponent and 8 is the base
expression a mathematical phrase made up of variables and/or numbers and operations Example: 3x-11
factor a whole number that divides another whole number evenly
fraction a number in the form ¾
function a rule that matches two sets of numbers
greatest common factor (GCF) the largest factor two numbers have in common Example: 6 is the GCF of 24 and 18
height on a triangle or quadrilateral, the distance from the base to the opposite vertex or side on a prism or cylinder, the distance between the bases
hexagon a six-sided polygon
hypotenuse the side opposite the right angle in a right triangle
improper fraction a fraction greater that 1
integer a whole number, its opposite, or zero
interval the space between marked values on a bar graph's scale
inverse operation operations that "undo" each other, such as addition and subtraction
isosceles triangle a triangle with at least two congruent sides
least common multiple (LCM) the smalles common multiple of two numbers Example: 56 is the LCM of 8 and 14
line a straight set of points that extends without end in both direction
line graph a graph that uses a line to show how data changes over time
line of symmetry the imaginary "mirror" in line symmetry
line segment two points, called the ENDPOINTS of the segment, and all points between them
lowest terms a fraction with a numerator and denominator whose only common factor is 1
mean the sum of the values in a data set divided by the number of values (also known as the AVERAGE)
median The middle value in a data set when the values are arranged in order
midpoint the point that divides a segment into two congruent smaller segments
mode the value(s) that occur most often in a data set
multiple the product of a given number and another whole number Example: since 3⠂7 = 21, 21 is a multiple of both 3 and 7
negative numbers numbers that are less than zero
numerator the top number in a fraction
obtuse angle an angle that measures more than 90° and less that 180°
octagon an eight-sided polygon
odds the ratio of the number of ways an event can happen to the number of ways it cannot
ordered pair a pair of numbers, such as (12, -8), used to locate points on a coordinate plane
order of operations a rule telling in what order a series of operations should be done. The order of operations is (1) compute withing grouping symbols; (2) compute powers; (3) multiply and divide from left to right; (4) add and subtract from left to right
outcome (in probability) one way an experiment or situation could turn out
parallel lines lines in a plane that never meet
parallelogram a quadrilateral with parallel and congruent opposite sides
pentagon a five-sided polygon
percent a ratio compare a number to 100 Example: 29% = 29/100
perimeter the distance around
permutation one of the ways to order a set of items
perpendicular lines, rays, or line segments that intersect at right angles
perpendicular bisector a line, ray, or line segment that intersects a segment at its midpoint and is perpendicular to it
pi (π) the ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter: π = 3.14159265
place value the value given to the place a digit occupies
plane a flat surface that extends forever
point symmetry a figure has point symmetry if it looks unchanged after a 180° rotation
polygon a geometric figure with at least three sides
polyhedron a solid whose faces are polygons
positive numbers numbers greater than zero
power a number produced by raising a base to anm exponent Example: 16 = 2⁴ , so 16 is the 4th
prime factorization writing a number as a product of prime numbers Example: 60 = 2²⠂3⠂5
prime number a whole number greater than 1 whose only factors are 1 and itself
prism a polyhedron whose bases are congruent and parallel
probability the number of ways an event can occur divided by the total number of possible outcomes
product the answer to a multiplication problem
proportion a statement showing two ratios are equal
protractor a tool for measuring angles
pyramid a polyhedron with one polygonal base
Pythagorean Theorem in a right triangle where "c" is the length of the hypotenuse and "a" and "b" are the lengths of the legs, a²+b²=c²
quadrants the four regions determined by the axes of a coordinate plane
quadrilateral a four-sided polygon
quotient the answer to a division equation
radius the distance from the center of a circle to a point on the circle
pyramid a polyhedron with on polygonal base
range (in statistics) the difference between the least and greatest numbers in a data set
rate a ratio showing how quantities with different units are related
ratio a comparison of two quantities, often written as a fraction
ray part of a line that has one endpoint and extends forever
reciprocals Two numbers whose product is 1 Example: 5/7 and 7/5 are reciprocals
rectangle a quadrilateral with four right angles
reflection a transformation that flips a figure over a line
regular polygon a polygon with all sides and angles congruent
rhombus a parallelogram with all sides congruent
right angle an angle that measures 90°
right triangle a triangle with one right angle
rotation a transformation that turns a figure around a point
rounding estimating a number to a given place value
scale factor the ratio used to enlarge or reduce similar figures
scalene triangle a triangle whose sides have different lengths
scatterplot a graph showing paired data values as points
scientific notation a number written as a decimal greater than or equal to 1 and less than 10 Example: 937 = 9.37 x 10²
sector a wedge-shaped part of a circle
sequence a list of numbers, such as -1, 4, 9, 14, ...
similar figures figures with the same shape but not necessarily the same size
simulation (in probability) a model of a probability experiment
solid a three-dimensional object
solutions of an equation or inequality values of a variable that make an equation or inequality true
solve to find the solutions of an equation or inequality
sphere a solid whose points are all the same distance from the center
square (geometric figure) a quadrilateral with four congruent sides and four right angles
square (in numeration) a number raised to the second power
square root the length of the side of a square with an area equal to a given number
standard form the usual way of writing number (in contrast to scientific notation)
stem-and-leaf diagram a table showing the distribution of values in a data set by splitting each value into a stem and a leaf
straight angle an angle that measure 180°
substitute to replace a variable with a known value
sum the answer to an addition problem
supplementary angles two angles whose measures add up to 180°
surface area for a solid, the sum of the areas of its surfaces
symmetry the correspondence in size, form, and arrangement of parts on opposite sides of a plane, line, or point; regularity of form or arrangement in terms of like, reciprocal, or corresponding parts.
tangent line a line that touches a circle at only one point
tangent ratio in a right triangle, the tangent of an angle is the ratio of the length of the side opposite the angle to the length of the side adjacent to it
term one number in a sequence
terminating decimal a decimal number that ends Example: 2.31
tessellation a set of repeating figures that fills a flat surface with no gaps or overlaps
theoretical probability the ratio of the number of ways an event can happen to the total number of possible outcomes
transformation a transformation that slides a figure
transversal a line intersecting two or more lines
trapezoid a quadrilateral with exactly two parallel sides
tree diagram a branching diagram showing all possible outcomes for a given situation
trend a clear direction in a line graph suggesting how the data will behave in the future
trend line a line drawn through a set of data points to show a trend in the data values
triangle a three-sided polygon
unit price a unit rate giving the cost of one item
variable a quantity whose values may vary
Venn diagram a diagram that uses regions to show relationships
vertex on an angle, the endpoint of the rays forming the angle. On a polygon, a corner where two sides meet. On a polyhedron, a corner where edges meet
vertical angles angles on opposite sides of the intersection of two lines
volume the amount of space taken up by a solid (LxWxH)
whole number a number in the set
x-axis the horizontal line in an x-y coordinate system
x-coordinate the first number in an ordered pair
x-y coordinate plane a coordinate system for locating points based on two number lines, the x- and y-axes
y-axis the vertical line in an x-y coordinate system
y-coodinate the second number in an ordered pair
zero pair a number and its opposite Example: 23 and (-23)
Created by: lonniewood