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Endocrine Terms 4 MC

Endocrine Terms to Help Mary

What are three ways hormone release is controlled? 1 - Negative Feedback; 2 - Tropic; 3 - Nervous Stimulation
What does negative feedback mean? Hormone levels are controlled by increases & decreases in body conditions. Ex: Islets of Langerhans secrates insulin, this decreases glucose. Decreased glucose caused decreased insulin.
What does tropic hormones mean? When one hormone is secreted in response to others hormones. Ex: TSH from the anterior pituitary gland causes the thyroid gland to secrete thyroxin.
What does nervous stimulation mean? A nerve stimulas causes the gland to secrete its hormone. Ex: The adrenal medulla secretes epinephrine (adrenaline) in response to stimulation by sympathertic nerves.
Define endocrine - group of cells that manufacture and secrete hormones / chemicals directly into the blood NO DUCKS
Define exocrine - Secrete chemicals out of ducts or tubes
Define infundibulum - Stalk that connects the hypothalamus to the pituitary.
Iodine is neccessary for what? The formation of T-3 & T-4
What is the function of calcium? 1 - Normal neuro activity; 2 - Strong bones and teeth; 3 - Coagulation
Describe the Pituitary Gland - (also called Hypophysis) Small, Pea Shaped Gland located at the base of the brain
What are the two lobes of the ptuitary called? Anterior Pituitary (Adenohypophysis) and Posterior Pituitary (Neurohypophysis)
Main hormone of the Pituitary is what? GH or Growth Hormone
Hypersecretion of GH causes what? (Congenital) Gigantism; Symptoms include Rapid long bone growth
Hyposecretion of GH causes what? (Congenital) Dwarfism; Symptoms include delayed long bone growth
Hypersecretion of GH that is not congenital (Found after Adulthood) causes what? Acromegaly; symptoms include Enlargement of hands, feet and jaw
What does ADH stand for? Anti Diuretic Hormone
Hypersecretion of ADH (Anti Diurectic Hormone) causes what? IADH; (Inapropitate Anti Diurectic Hormone) Water retension - Symptoms include Increased BP - Increased WT - Edema (Fluid retension) -Sodium retention
Hyposecretion of ADH causes what? Diabetes Insipidus; Symptoms include Polyuria - Polydipsia (Excessive fluid & sodium loss)
Describe the thyroid. Bow-tie shaped gland located on the ventral aspect of the trachea
What is the name of the band that connects the two lobes of the thyroid gland? isthmus
Hypersecretion of T-3 & T -4 causes what? Increased medabolic rate; - WT lose; - Increased vital signs; Tachycardia; - Shaky; - Twitching; - Spasm; - Tetany
What are the names of the diseases associated with hypesecretion of T - 3 & T - 4? Exophthalmic Goiter; - Thyotoxicosis; - Hyperthyroidism; - Graves disease
What is a another name / symptom for exophthalmic Goiter? Bulging eye
What are the diseases associated with hyposecretion of T - 3 & T - 4. Myxedema; - Hashimotos; - Cretinism
What are the symptoms associated with Myxedema, Hashimoto & Cretinism (hyposecretion of T - 3 & T -4)? All have slower metabolic rates; - Myxedema & Hashimoto have: Lethargy; Obesity; - Edema (Fluid under the skin); Cretinism has slow mental & physical development
What is a hormone from the thyroid that is not affected? Calcitonin
What does calcitonin do? It is released when high levels of calcium are reached in the blood to tell the Parathyroid gland to stop secreting PTH
What is the name of the condition caused by hypersecretion of Parathyroid? Hyperparathyroidism or Osteitis Fibrosa Cystica
What are some symptoms of Hyperparathyroidism and Osteitis Fibrosa Cystica Weak, deformed bones (All your calcium is being pulled out of your bones)
What is the chain of action that happens with PTH? PTH is released to go to the bone to get calcium for the blood when calcium levels drop
When disease is caused with hyposecretion of PTH? Hypoparathyroidism
What are some symptoms of Hypoparathyroidism? Muscle function is affected; - Twitching; - Spasm; - Tetany
What is needed for the body to asorb calcium? Vitamin D
Where is the adrenal glands located? One on top of each kidney
What is the name of the outer layer of the adrenal gland? Adrenal Cortex
What is the name of the inner layer of the adrenal gland? Adrenal Medulla
The Adrenal Cortex makes what? Corticoids that are made by cholesterol and are steroid based. (Aldosterne & Cortisole)
Hypersecretion of aldosterone causes what? Sodium & water retention; - Hypertension; WT gain; - Fluid retention
What is the main function of Cortisole from the Adrenal cortex of the Adrenal Gland? Regulate usage of proteins, fats & carbs so that we maintain a normal blood sugar level
What happens when cortisole is hypersecreted? Increased blood sugar or hyperglycemia; -
What are some symptoms of Cushing's disease? (A result of hypersecretion of Aldosterone & Cortisol) Water Retention which causes 'moon face' and hypertention; - WT gain
Aldosterone is a hormone from what category of corticoids? Mineralocorticoids
Costisol is a hormone from what category of corticoids? Glucocorticords
A hyposecretion of Aldosterane / Cortisole causes what disease? Addison's Disease
What are the symptoms of Addison's Disease? Electrolyte imbalance; - Fluid lose (Dehydration); - Hypoglycemia; - WT lose; - Low BP
The Adrenal Medulla secretes what hormones? Epinephrine & Norepinephrine (also called Adrenaline)
Hypersecretion of Epinephrine & Norepinephrine causes what disease? Pheochromocytoma; - Most common in children and young people
What are some symptoms of Pheochromocytoma? Tachycardia; - Hypertension (Increased BP); - Diaphoresis (Sweatiness)
What is the name associated with hyposecrection of Epinephrine & Norepinephrine or Adrenaline? There is none
What is it called when you have hypersecretion of insulin & Glucagon? Hyperinsulinism
What are some symptoms of hyperinsulin? Hypoglycemia; - Vertigo; - Syncope (fainting); - Shakiness; - nerviness
What would you give a person with hyperinsulin? Protein and complex carbs
What are the diseases of hyposecretion of Insulin? IDDM (Type I or Insulin Dependent Diabetes); - NIDDM (Type II or Not Insulin Dependent Diabetes)
What does the pineal gland secrete and what does it do? Melatonin which regulates biorhythms (Makes you sleepy at night)
What is secreted from the heart when the heart expands too far? ANP - Atrial Naturietic Peptide (Decreases BP to reduce blood volume to reduce expandion) - Loss of sodium and water throughout the body
What is the hormone that is secreted when lack of oxygen stimulates release of red blood cells to carry oxygen? Erythropoietin
Where is erythropoietin secreted from? the kidneys
What are some symptoms that are common in both IDDM & NIDDM? Slow healing of wounds; - Vision issues; - Poor circulation
What are the most common symptoms of Diabetic coma? Hyperglycemia; - Hot, flush, dry stin; - Fruity or Acetone breath; - You get sleeper, less responsive; - Granual on-set (Days-weeks)Treat with insulin
What are the most common symptoms of Insulin shock? Hypoglycemia; - Cold, pale (pallor), clamy skin; - You get hyper, wilder, bizarre behavior; - On-set can be hours-days; - Treat with sugar
What are some symptoms of Diabetes mellitus? Hyperglycemia, glucose starved cells
What are some symptoms of Diabetes insipidus? Excessive fluid and sodium loss
Created by: amandmc