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Europe 1871-1914

Palmer Sect. 71-75

define the materialistic and non-materialistic achievements that led Europe to think of themselves as the "civilized world" (blank)
Inner zones of Europe "Europe of Steam"- included Britain, Belgium, Germany, France, northern Italy, and western portions of Austria
Outer Zones of Europe included most of Ireland, most of the Iberian and Italian peninsulas, and all Europe east of what was then Germany, Bohemia, and Austria proper. it was agricultural.
third zone of Europe all "backward" by the standards of Europe- Asia and Africa, except Japan which had been recently westernized
Classic Landscape by Charles Sheeler landscape of the River Rouge plant of the Ford Motor Company. it symbolizes the second industrial revolution- electricity, internal combustion engine, and the automobile. although there is smoke coming from the factories, it did not symbolize pollution
Sunday afternoon in the island of La Grande Jatte, by Seurat one of the first to be painted in the style of little dots, no lines.
Why did European birth rates begin to fall in 1880? "European Family Pattern" called for later marriages (for career purposes) and therefore less babies.
Migration from Europe after 1840 majority was to US, next largest to Latin America, then Asiatic Russia, then Canada, then Austria and New Zealand, last to South Africa. 60 million people total
the corporation "limited liability" corporation- incentive for people to start their own businesses because laws created a limit on the individual investors personal loss in the event of bankruptcy. corporations became the usual form of organization for industry/commerce
Dreyfus affair involving treason charges against an innocent Jewish captain in the french army opened up such serious rifts in French society that the Republic barely survived; Zola, "J'accuse" --the accused was initially pardoned, then exonerated
laic laws of 1905 seperated church and state, ending the concordat that Napoleon had established
Radical Socialists radical republicans- patriotic, anticlerical, spokesmen for the small shopkeepers and the lesser propertied interests.
Victorian Era 1837-1901
Reform Bills of 1867 and 1884 increased the number of people who were eligible to vote. 1867- up to 2 million, 1884- added another 2 million
Irish home rule the Irish wanted a parliament of their own. it was finally granted in 1914, but the Presbyterians of north Ireland objected to the inclusion in an autonomous Ireland, as they would be outnumbered by the Catholics
David Lloyd George (blank)
Parliament Act of 1911 brought salaries to the house of commons; deprived the veto power of the house of lords on money matters; removed restrictions on strikes and trade union activities; applied a progressive tax and inheritance tax
Osborne Judgement 1909- trade unions would not pay the salaries of workers elected to Parliament
Kulturkampf Bismark launched "battle for modern civilization" and liberals joined first. strongly anticlerical and disapproved of the influence of churches in public and private life.
anti-socialist laws The Law deprived socialist organisations of the right of assembly and publication (of the 47 socialist newspapers, 45 were banned)
William II 1888-1928: last king of Prussia and last German Kaiser. didn't like the influence of Bismark so he "dropped the pilot"
Giolitti Italy- Liberal Prime Minister 1903-1914
"new model" unionism introduced by the Amalgamated Society of Engineers. policy was to take the unions out of politics, abandon "one big union" and concentrate on advancing the interests of each separate trade.
industrial unions the joining in one union of all workers in one industry, regardless of the skill or job of the individual worker
British Labour party formed at the turn of the century by the joint efforts of trade union officials and middle-class intellectuals.
Taff Vale decision held the union financially responsible for the businesses losses during a strike. it eventually unified all ranks and precipitated the formation ad the modern Labour party.
Bakunin he believed that the state was the cause of the common mans afflictions; he was hence an "anarchist" he held the state should be attacked and abolished
Jules Guesde a self-taught worker who held it impossible to emancipate the working class by compromise of any sort.
Jean Jaures led the Marxist movement of revisionism in the 1890's along with Eduard Bernstien
Fabian Society established in 1883, they were very English and very un-marxist. They held that no class struggle needed to exist. they were happy with small and immediate changes, but they also developed a legislative program for the future.
Eduard Bernstein author of Evolutionary Socialism in 1898 and co-leader of the Russian movement of revisionism
revolutionary syndicalism syndicalism is french for union, the idea was that the workers' union might themselves become the supreme authoritative institutions in society. replacing the government itself
Georges Sorel main intellectual for revolutionary syndicalism
Karl Kautsky German- arraigned the revisionists as compromises who betrayed Marxism for petty-bourgeois ends.
Alexandre Millerand 1904 Kautsky and other rigorists prevailed upon the second industrial to condemn the political behavior of French socialist Alexandre Millerand who had accepted a ministerial post in a French cabinet (1899)
Lenin led a group that demanded that revisionism be stamped out.
Bolsheviks Russian word for majority- they were the future Marxist and followed Lenin
Paris Commune 1871; the city felt betrayed by monarchists in the National Assembly, and anarchists and socialists exploited the chaos of defeat by Prussia to establish a radical regime. Suppressed violently
"vertical" integration when a company owns every "level" needed to make a product (raw materials, assembly, selling...)
"horizontal" integration when a company specializes in one field of any given product (making raw materials, selling, assembly lines...)
trusts and cartels corporations
Marshal MacMahon early president of the Thrid Republic. He dissolve the chambers and held new election. it was later decided that that could never be done again
General Boulanger gathered a group of many nations who wanted revenge on Germany. he became a popular figure and almost took power, but "lost heart" at a crucial hour and fled to exile
Created by: sng4fd