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Med Term Ch 5 OCC

OCC Medical Terminology M. Willis

adip/o fat
lip/o fat
steat/o fat
derm/o skin
dermat/o skin
cutane/o skin
erythr/o red
hidr/o sweat
hist/o tissue
histi/o tissue
ichthy/o fish
kerat/o hard
scler/o hard
leuk/o white
melan/o black
myc/o fungus
onych/o nail
plas/o formation
purpur/o purple
seb/o sebum (oil)
squam/o scale
trich/o hair
xanth/o yellow
xer/o dry
epithelium cells covering external and internal surfaces of the body
epidermis thin, cellular outer layer of the skin
squamous cell layer flat, scale like epithelial cells comprising the outermost layer of the epidermis
basal layer deepest region of the epidermis
melanocyte a cell found in the basal layer that gives color to the skin
melanin dark brown to black pigment contained in melanocytes
dermis dense, fibrous connective tissue layer of the skin (also known as the corium)
sebaceous glands oil glands in the skin
sebum oily substance secreted by the sebaceous glands
sudoriferous glands sweat glands
subcutaneous tissue connective and adipose tissue layer just under the dermis
collagen protein substance found in skin and connective tissue
hair outgrowth of the skin composed of keratin
nail outgrowth of the skin attached to the distal end of each finger and toe, composed of keratin
keratin hard protein material found in the epidermis, hair and nails
lesion an area of pathologically altered tissue (two types: primary and secondary)
primary lesion lesions arising from previously normal skin
macule (macula) - flat, nonpaplable changes in skin color - primary lesion a flat, discolored spot on the skin up to 1 cm across (freckle)
patch - flat, nonpaplable changes in skin color - primary lesion a flat, discolored spot on the skin larger than 1 cm (vitiligo)
papule - elevated, palpable, solid masses - primary lesion a solid mass on the skin up to 0.5 cm in diameter (nevus mole)
plaque - elevated, palpable, solid masses - primary lesion a solid mass greater than 1 cm in diameter, limited to the surface of the skin
nodule - elevated, palpable, solid masses - primary lesion a solid mass greater that 1 cm in diameter, which extends deeper into the epidermis
tumor - elevated, palpable, solid masses - primary lesion a solid mass larger than 1 - 2 cm
wheal - elevated, palpable, solid masses - primary lesion an area of localized skin edema (swelling)
vesicle - elevation formed by fluid within a cavity - primary lesion little bladder; an elevated, fluid filled sac (blister) within or under the epidermis up to 0.5 cm in diameter (fever blister)
bulla - elevation formed by fluid within a cavity - primary lesion a blister larger than 0.5 cm (second degree burn) (bulla=bubble)
pustule - primary lesion a pus filled sac (pimple)
secondary lesion lesions that result in changes in primary lesions
erosion - loss of skin surface - secondary lesion to gnaw away; loss of superficial epidermis leaving an area of moisture but no bleeding (area of moisture after rupture of a vesicle)
ulcer - loss of skin surface - secondary lesion an open sore on the skin or mucous membrane that can bleed and scar and is sometimes accompanied by infection (decubitus ulcer)
excoriation - loss of skin surface - secondary lesion a scratch mark (from a cat scratch)
fissure - loss of skin surface - secondary lesion a linear crack in the skin
scale - material on skin surface - secondary lesion a think flake of exfoliated epidermis (dandruff)
crust - material on skin surface - secondary lesion dried residue of serum (body fluid), pus or blood on the skin
cicatrix of the skin - other secondary lesions a mark left by the healing of a sore or wound showing the replacement of destroyed tissue by fibrous tissue (cicatrix = scar)
keloid - other secondary lesions an abnormal overgrowth of scar tissue that isthick and irregular (kele = tumor)
vascular lesions - other secondary lesions lesions of a blood vessel
cherry angioma - other secondary lesions a small round bright red blood vessel tumor on the skin, often on the trunk of the elderly
telangiectasia / spider andioma- other secondary lesions a tiny, red blood vessel lesion formed by the dilation of a group of blood vessels radiating from a central arteriole most commonly seen on the face, neck or chest (telos = end)
purpuric lesions - other secondary lesions purpura; lesions as a result of hemorrhages into the skin
petechia - other secondary lesions spot; a reddish brown, minute hemorrhagic spot on the skin that indicates a bleeding tendency - small purpura
ecchymosis - other secondary lesions bruise; a black and blue mark - large purpura (chymo = juice)
epidermal tumors - other secondary lesions skin tumors arising from the epidermis
nevus - other secondary lesions a congenital malformation on the skin that can be epidermal or vascular - also called a mole
dysplastic nevus - other secondary lesions a mole with precancerous changes
verruca - other secondary lesions an epidermal tumor caused by a papilloma virus - also called a wart
alopecia baldness; natural or unnatural deficiency of hair
comedo (plural - comedos, comedones) a plug of serum (oil) within the opening of the hair folllicle
closed comedo (whitehead) below the skin surface with a white center
open comedo (blackhead) open to the skin surface with a black center cuased by the presence of melanin exposed to air
eruption appearance of a skin lesion
erythema redness of skin
pruritus severe itching
rash a general term for skin eruption, most often associated with communicable disease
skin pigmentation skin color due to the presence of melanin
depigmentation loss of melanin pigment in the skin
hypopigmentation areas of skin lacking color due to deficient amounts of melanin
hyperpigmentation darkened areas of skin caused by excessive amounts of melanin
suppuration production of purulent matter (pus)
urticaria hives; an eruption of wheals on the skin accompanied by itch (urtica = stinging nettle)
xeroderma dry skin
acne an inflammation of the sebaceous glands and hair follicles of the skin evidenced by comedones, pustules or nodules on the skin (acne = point)
albinism a hereditary condition characterized by a partial or total lack of melanin pigment (particularly in the eyes, skin, and hair)
burn any injury to body tissue caused by heat; chemicals, electricity, radiation or gases
first degree burn a burn involving only the epidermis, characterized by erythema (redness) and hyperesthesia (excessive sensation)
second degree burn a burn involving the epidermis and the dermis, charcterized by erythema, hyperesthesia, and vesications (blisters)
third degree burn a burn involving all layers of the skin, characterized by the destruction of the epidermis and dermis with damages or destruction of the subcutaneous tissue
cellulitis an acute inflammation of subcutaneous tissue resulting from a bacterial invasion through a break in the skin (cellula = small storeroom)
dermatitis (eczema) an inflammation of the skin characterized by redness, pruritus (itching) and various lesions
atopic dermatitis a chronic skin inflammation characterized by the appearance of inflamed, swollen papules and vesicles that crust and scale with sever itching and burning most outbreaks begin in infancy and are marked by exacerbations & remissions that usually clearup...
contact dermatitis an inflammation of the skin resulting from contact with a substance to which one is allergic (chemicals in dyes, preservatives, allergic dermatitis); or one that is a known skin irritant (acid, solvent irritant dermatitis)
seborrheic dermatitis redness of the skin covered by a yellow, oily, itchy scale most commonly at the hairline, forehead and around the nose, ears or eyelashes and developing at any age; referred to as "cradle cap" in infants
dermatosis any disorder of te skin
exanthematous viral disease eruption of the skin caused by a viral disease (exanthema eruption)
rubella reddish; german measles
rubeola reddish; 14 day measles
varicella a tiny spot; chickenpox
eczema to boil out; the term is often used interchangeably with dermatitis to denote a skin condition characterized by the appearance of inflammed, swollen papules and vesicles that crust and scale, often with sensations of itching and burning
furuncle a boil; a painful nodule formed in the skin by inflammation originating in a hair follicle caused by staphlyococcosis
carbuncle a skin infection consisting of clusters of furuncles (carbo = small, glowing embers)
abscess a localized collection of pus in a cavity formed by the inflammation of surrounding tissues that heals when drained or excised (abscessus = a going away)
gangrene an eating sore; death of tissue associated with a loss of blood supply resulting from trauma or an inflammatory or infectious process such as seen in complications of frostbite, sever burns, and conditions that affect circulation (diabetes)
herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) transient viral vesicles (cold sores, fever blisters) that infect the facial area, especially the mouth and nose (herpes = creeping skin disease)
herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) sexually transmitted ulcer like lesions of the genital and anorectal skin and mucosa; after intial infection, the virus lies dormant in the nerve cell root and may recur at times of stress
herpes zoster a viral disease affecting the peripheral nerves characterized by painful blisters that spread over the skin following the affected nerves; usually unilateral - also known as shingles (zoster = girdle)
ichthyosis a skin condition caused by a gene defect that results in dry, thick, scaly skin; ichthyosis vulgaris is the most common of the many types
impetigo highly contagious, bacterial skin inflammation marked by pustules that rupture and become crusted - most often occurs around the mouth and nostrils
keratoses thickened areas of epidermis
actinic / solar keratoses localized thickening of the skin caused by excessive exposure to sunlight; a known precursor to cancer (actinic = ray, solar = sun)
seborrheic keratoses benign wart like lesions (seen especially on elderly skin)
lupus a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation of various parts of the body (lupus = wolf)
cutaneous lupus limited to the skin; evidenced by a characteristic rash especially on the face neck and scalp
systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) a more severe form of lupus involving the skin, joints and often the vital organs (lungs, kidneys)
malignant cutaneous neoplasm skin cancer
squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) a malignant tumor of squamous epithelium
basal cell carcinoma (BCC) a malignant tupor of the basal layer of the epidermis (most common type of skin cancer)
malignant melanoma a malignant tumor composed of melanocytes - most develop from a pigmented nevus over time
Kaposi sarcoma a malignant tumor of the walls of blood vessels appearing as painless, dark bluish purple plaques on the skin; often spreads to lymph nodes and internal organs
onychia inflammation of the fingernail or toenail
paronychia inflammation of the nail fold
pediculosis infestation with lice that causes itching and dermatitis (pediculo = louse)
pediculosis capitis head lice (capitis = head)
pediculosis pubis lice that generally infect the pubic region, but hair of the axilla, eyebrows, lashes, beard or other hairy body surfaces may also be involved - also called crabs (pubis = groin)
psoriasis an itching; a chronic, recurrent skin disease marked by silver gray scales covering red patches on the skin that result from overproduction and thickening of skin cells - elbows, knees, genitals, arms, legs scalp, and nails are common sites of involvement
scabies a contagious disease caused by a parasite (mite) that invades the skin, causing an intense itch - most often found at articulations between the fingers or toes, elbow, etc. (scabo = to scratch)
seborrhea a skin condition marked by the hypersection of sebum from the sebaceous glands
tinea a group of fungal skin diseases identified by the body part that is affected, including tinea corporis (body), commonly called ringworm, and tinea pedis (foot) also called athlete's foot
vitiligo a condition caused by the destruction of melanin that results in the appearance of white patches on the skin, commonly the face, hands, legs, and genital areas
biopsy (Bx) removal of a small piece of tissue for microscopic pathological examination
excisional biopsy (Bx) removal of an entire lesion
incisional biopsy (Bx) removal of a selected portion of a lesion
shave biopsy (Bx) a technique using a surgical blade to "shave" tissue from the epidermis and upper dermis
culture and sensitivity (C&S) a technique of isolating and growing colonies of microorganisms to identify a pathogen and to determine which drugs might be effective in combating te infection it has caused
frozen section (FS) a surgical method involving cutting a thin piece of tissue from a frozen specimen for immediate pathological examination
skin tests methods for determining the reaction of the body to a given substance by applying it to, or injecting it into the skin - commonly seen in treating allergy
scratch test the substance is applied to the skin through a scratch
patch test the substance is applied topically to the skin on a small piece of blotting paper or wet cloth
chemosurgery a technique for restoring wrinkled, scarred or blemished skin by application of an acid solution to "peel" away the top layers of the skin
cryosurgery destruction of tissue by freezing - involves application of an extremely cold chemical (liquid nitrogen)
dermabrasion surgical removal of frozen epidermis using wire brushes and emery paper to remove scars, tattoos and/or wrinkles; aerosol spray is used to freeze the skin
debridement removal of dead tissue from a wound or burn site to promote healing and prevent infection
curettage to clean; scraping of a wound using a spoon like cutting instrument called a curette; this technique is used in debridement
electrosurgical procedures use of electric currents to destroy tissue - the type and strength of the current and method of applicaation varies
electrocautery use of an instrument heated by electric current (cautery) to coagulate bleeding areas by burning the tissue (to sear a blood vessel)
electrodesiccation use of short, high frequency, electric currents to destroy tissue by drying - the active electrode makes direct contact with the skin lesion (desicco = to dry up)
fulguration to lighten; use of long, high frequency, electric spark to destroy tissue; the active electrode does not touch the skin
incision and drainage (I&D) incision and drainage of an infected skin lesion (an abscess)
laser surgery surgery using a laser in various dermatological procedures to remove lesions, scars, tattoos, etc.
laser acryonym for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation an instrumnt that concentrates high frequencies of light into small extremely intense beam that is precise in depth & diameter it is applied to body tissues to destroy lesions/dissection
Mohs surgery a technique used to excise tumors of the skin by removing fresh tissue layer by later until a tumor free plane is reached
skin grafting transfer of skin from one body site to another to replace sking lot through burns or injury
autograft transfer to a new position in the body of the same person (auto = self)
homograft / allograft donor transfer between individuals of the same species such as human to human (homo = same; allo = other)
xenograft / heterograft a graft transfer from one animal species to one of another species (xeno = strange; hetero = different)
chemotherapy treatment of malignancies, infections, and other diseases with chemical agents that destroy selected cells or impair ability to reproduce
radiation therapy treatment of neoplastic disease by using ionizing radiation to deter proliferation of malignant cells
sclerotherapy use of sclerosing agents in treating diseases (injection of a saline solution into a dialated blood vessel tumor in the sking, resulting in hardening of the tissue within & eventual sloughing away of the lesion)
ultraviolet therapy use of ultraviolet light to promote healing of a skin lesion (an ulcer)
anesthetic a drug that temprarily blocks transmission of nerve conduction to produce a loss of sensation (pain)
antibiotic a drug that kill or inhibits the growth of microorganisms
antifungal a drug that kills or prevents the growth of fungi
antihistamine a drug that blocks the effects of histamine in the body
histamine a regulating body substance released in excess during allergic reactions causing swelling and inflammation of tissues
anti-inflammatory a drug that reduces inflammation
antipruritic a drug that relieves itching
antiseptic an agent that inhibits the growth of infectious microorganisms
BCC basal cell carcinoma
Bx biopsy
C&S culture and sensitivity
FS frozen section
HSV-1 herpes simplex virus type 1
HSV-2 herpes simplex virus type 2
I&D incision and drainage
SCC squamous cell carcinoma
SLE systemic lupus erythematosus
Created by: leahrussell