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Concept Dis. Ch.17

Female Reproductive System

binocular magnifying instrument used to view cervix & endocervical canal colposcope
warty tumor like overgrowth in squamous epithelium of anorectal/genital tract, caused by virus that is spread by sexual contact condyloma
dilation and curettage of the uterus D and C
scraping out of uterine lining, often performed as diagnostic/therapeutic procedure dilation and curettage
type of benign cystic teratoma commonly arising in the ovary dermoid cyst
contraceptive device placed over cervix prior to intercourse diaphragm
painful menstruation dysmenorrhea
pregnancy outside the endometrial cavity ectopic pregnancy
permanent destruction of endometrium by various methods to control excessive menstrual bleeding unresponsive to more conservative treatment endometrial ablation
ovarian cyst lined by endometrium & filled with old blood & debris endometrial cyst
endometrial cyst is a ___ of endometriosis manifestation
presence of endometrial tissue in abnormal locations; i.e. ovary/pelvis; produces deposits of endometrium that are responsive to hormones endometriosis
tumor arising from granulosa cells, usually associated with excess production of estrogen granulosa cell tumor
estrogen-producing, ovarian tumor arising from estrogen producing granulose cell of an ovarian follicle granulosa-theca cell tumor
virus that stimulates epithelial cell proliferation human papillomavirus (HPV)
HPV causes genital tract ___ & ___ warts & condylomas
small plastic device inserted in uterus to prevent pregnancy intrauterine device (IUD)
long tubular telescope like instrument passed through abdominal wall to examine structures within peritoneal cavity laparoscope
benign smooth muscle tumor such as commonly develops in the uterus myoma
general term for infection affecting fallopian tubes & adjacent pelvic organs pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
complex derivative of fatty acid (prostanoic acid) that has widespread physiological effects prostaglandin
inflammation of fallopian tubes salpingitis
symptom complex in menstruating women using high-absorbency tampons, caused by toxin produced by staphylococcus growing in vagina toxic shock syndrome (TSS)
Candida albicans, Trichomonas vaginalis, & Gardnerella vaginalis in conjunction with anaerobic bacteria are all commons pathogens that cause vaginitis
scarring, sterility, & ectopic pregnancies are all caused by untreated PID
usually become manifest through cervical bleeding cervical polyps
colposcopy is required in order to localize & determine extent of abnormalities in cervical epithelium for cervical dysplasia & carcinoma
both benign endometrial hyperplasia & malignant endometrial carcinoma can cause irregular uterine bleeding
occur in approximately 0.3% of women over the age of 30 uterine myomas
type of ovarian cyst that develops frequently & usually regresses spontaneously dermoid
causes irregular white patches, may progress to carcinoma, causes itching & can be treated locally vulvar dystrophy
manifests through fever, vomiting, diarrhea & erythematous rash TSS
increased tendency to thromboembolic complications & hypertension are possible complications of contraceptive pills
is unreliable & must be used within one hour of sex emergency contraception
out of about 80 types of __ 40 of them can infect cervix HPV
eight types of HPV are considered carcinogenic high-risk types
90 percent of HPV infections are eradicated by the body's immune system
HPV testing of cervical material obtained by Pap smear may be a useful supplementary test when atypical cells identified by Pap smear
Candida albicans, Trichomonas vaginalis, & Gardenerella vaginalis in conjunction w/ various anaerobic bacteria all causes of vaginitis
vaginal discharge, itching, and irritation are all symptoms of vaginitis
mild chronic inflammation; common in women who have had children, is of little significance cervicitis
STDs and may be followed by infection into fallopian tubes & adjacent tissues; severe cervical inflammation will result from gonococci or Chlamydia infections
lower abdominal pain and tenderness, fever, leukocytosis, 2ndary to ascending spread of cervical gonorrheal or Chlamydial infection, & can cause Tubal scarring following healing predisposes to ectopic pregnancy/may cause sterility salpingitis & PID
benign tumor-like overgrowths of squamous epithelium & considered STD condylomas
application of a strong chemical, electrocoagulation,freezing, & surgical excision are treatments for female genital tract infections
responds to hormonal stimuli and undergoes cyclic menstrual desquamation and regeneration ectopic endometrium
laparascopy is used to diagnose edometriosis
Allows visualization of ectopic deposits followed by removing or destroying these deposits surgically, through drugs, or hormones laparascopy
synthetic hormones with progesterone activity to completely suppress menstrual cycle treatment for endometriosis
makes endometrium thin and atrophic and menstrual cycles light, which retards progressing of endometriosis and associated scarring oral contraceptives to suppress ovulation
leads to decline in ovarian function, allowing deposits of endometriosis to regress by being deprived of cyclic estrogen-progesterone stimulation drugs that suppress output of gonadotropin from pituitary gland
are benign, arise from the cervix, usually small but may be quite large, erosion of tip may cause bleeding & treated by surgical excision cervical polyps
abnormal growth and maturation of cervical squamous epithelium cervical dysplasia
regresses spontaneously & result of cervical inflammation mild cervical dysplasia
may progress to invasive carcinoma, may progress to in situ carcinoma, & does not regress severe cervical dysplasia
cervical dysplasia and in situ carcinoma constitute different stages in a progressive spectrum of epithelial abnormalities classified as cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN)
Mild dysplasia is called CIN I
moderate dysplasia is termed CIN II
severe dysplasia & in situ carcinoma are classified together as CIN III
supplements CIN categories by adding a detailed classification of cytological changes observed in Pap smears with assessment of their significance Bethesda system
some types of HPV are the same virus that causes genital condylomas