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Purple Mod Special S

Special Senses

accommodation Adjustment of the eye for various distances so that images fall on the retina of the eye
acuity Clearness or sharpness of a sensory function
adnexa Tissues or structures in the body adjacent to or near a related structure (the adnexa of the eye include the extraocular muscles, orbits, eyelids, conjunctiva, and lacrimal apparatus
articulating Being loosely joined or connected together to allow motion between the parts
humor any fluid or semifluid of the body
labyrinth Series of intricate communicating passages (labyrinth of ear includes the cochlea, semicircular canals and vestibule
opaque Substance that does not allow the passage of light; not transparent
perilymph Fluid that very closely resembles spinal fluid but found in the cochlea
photopigment Light-sensitive pigment in the retinal cones and rods that absorbs light and initiates the visual process; also called visual pigment
refractive ability to bend light rays as they pass from one medium to another
tunic Layer or coat of tissue; also called membrane layer (the fibrous, vascular, and sensory tunics are the three tunics of the eyeball).
achromatopsia Severe congenital deficiency in colour perception; also called complete colour blindness
chalazion Small, hard tumor developing on the eyelid, somewhat similar to a sebaceous cyst
conjunctivitis Inflammation of the conjunctiva with vascular congestion, producing a red or pink eye; may be secondary to viral, bacterial, or fungal infections or allergy
convergence medical movement of the two eyeballs so that they are both directed at the object being viewed
diopter (D) Measurement of refractive error (when the D value is negative it signifies an eye with myopia. When the D value is positive, it signifies an eye with hyperopia)
ectropion eversion, or outward turning, of the edge of the lower eyelid
emmetropia (Em) state of normal vision (in emmetropia when the eye is at rest the image is focused directly on the retina)
entropion Inversion or inward turning of the edge of the lower eyelid
epiphora Abnormal overflow of tears.
exophthalmos Protrusion of one or both eyeballs (common causes include hyperactive thyroid, trauma and tumor)
hordeolum Localized, circumscribed, inflammatory swelling of one of the several sebaceous glands of the eyelid, generally caused by a bacterial infection; also called stye
metamorphopsia Visual distortion of objections. (Metamorphopsia is commonly associated with errors of refraction, retinal disease, choroiditis, detachment of the retina, and tumor of the retina or choroid)
nyctalopia Impaired vision in dim light; also called night blindness. (Common causes of nyctalopia include cataracts, vitamin A deficiency, certain medications, and hereditary causes)
nystagmus Involuntary eye movements that appear jerky and may reduce vision or be associated with other, more serious conditions that limit vision
papilledema Edema and hyperemia of the optic disc usually associated with increased intracranial pressure; also called choked disc
photophobia Unusual intolerance and sensitivity to light. (Photophobia commonly occurs in such diseases as meningitis, inflammation of the eyes, measles and rubella)
presbyopia Loss of accommodation of the crystalline lens associated with the aging process.
retinopathy Any disorder of retinal blood vessels
diabetic Disorder that occurs in patients with diabetes and is manifested by small hemorrhages, edema, and formation of new vessels on the retina, leading to scarring and eventual loss of vision
trachoma chronic, contagious form of conjunctivitis common in the southwestern United States that typically leads to blindness
visual field area within which objects may be seen when the eye is in a fixed position
anacusis complete deafness; also called anacusia
conduction impairment blocking of sound waves as they pass through the external and middle ear (conduction pathway)
labyrinthitis imflammation of the inner ear that usually results from an acute febrile process
Meniere disease Disorder of the labyrinth that leads to progress loss of hearing
noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) condition caused by the destruction of hair cells, the organs responsible for hearing, caused by sounds that are "too long, too loud, or too close"
otitis externa infection of the external auditory canal
presbyacusis impairment of hearing resulting from old age; also called presbyacusia
pressure-equalizing (PE) tubes tubes that are inserted through the tympanic membrane, commonly to treat chronic otitis media; also called tympanostomy tubes or ventilation tubes
tinnitis perception of ringing, hissing, or other sounds in the ears or head when no external sound is present
vertigo hallucination of movement, or a feeling of spinning or dizziness
audiometry measurement of hearing acuity at various sound wave frequencies
caloric stimulation test test that uses different water temperatures to assess the vestibular portion of the nerve of the inner ear (acoustic nerve) to determine if nerve damage is the cause of vertigo
electronystagmography (ENG) method of assessing and recording eye movement by measuring the electrical activity of the extraocular muscles
ophthalmodynamometry measurement of the blood pressure of the retinal vessels
tonometry evaluation of intraocular pressure by measuring the resistance of the eyeball to indentation by an applied force
visual acuity part of an eye examination that determines the smallest letters than can be read on a standardized chart at a distance of 20 feet
gonioscopy examination of the angle of the anterior chamber of the eye to determine ocular motility and rotation and diagnose and manage glaucoma
ophthalmoscopy Visual examination of the interior of the eye using a hand-held instrument called an ophthalmoscope, which has various adjustable lenses for magnification and a light source to illuminate the interior of the eye
otoscopy visual examination of the external auditory canal and the tympanic membrane using an otoscope
pneumatic procedure that assesses the ability of the tympanic membrane to move in response to a change in air pressure
retinoscopy evaluation of refractive errors of the eye by projecting a light into the eyes and determining the movement of reflected light rays
dacryocystography Radiographic imaging procedures of the nasolacrimal (tear) glands and ducts
fluorescein angiography assesses blood vessels and their leakage in and beneath the retina after injection of fluorescein dye. The dye circulates while photographs of the vessels within the eye are obtained
orthoptic training exercises intended to improve eye movement or visual tracking that use training glasses, prism glasses or tinted or coloured lenses
blepharoplasty cosmetic surgery that removes fatty tissue above and below the eyes that commonly form as a result of the aging process or excessive exposure to the sun
cochlear implant artificial hearing device that produces useful hearing sensations by electrically stimulating nerves inside the inner ear; also called bionic ear
cyclodialysis formation of an opening between the anterior chamber and the suprachoroidal space for the draining of aqueous humor in glaucoma
enucleation removal from the eyeball from the orbit
evisceration removal of the contents of the eye while leaving the sclera and cornea intact
mastoid antrotomy surgical opening of a cavity within the mastoid process
otoplasty corrective surgery for a deformed or excessively large or small pinna
phacoemulsification method of treating cataracts by using ultrasonic waves to disintegrate a cloudy lens, which is then aspirated and removed
radial keratotomy (RK) incision of the cornea for treatment of nearsightedness or astigmatism
sclerostomy surgical formation of an opening in the sclera
tuning fork test method used to evaluate sound conduction using a vibrating tuning fork
Rinne fork test tuning form test that evaluates bone conduction (BC) versus air conduction (AC) of sound
Weber fork test tuning fork test that evaluates bone conduction of sound in both ears at the same time
tympanoplasty Reconstruction of the eardrum, commonly due to perforation; also called myringoplasty
ametropia an error of refraction
astigmatism defective curvature of the cornea or lens
hyperopia (or hypermetropia farsightedness
presbyopia form of farsightedness associated with aging; loss of accommodation of the crystalline lens
strabismus (or heterotropia) condition in which one eye is misaligned with the other or out of synchrony
esotropia inward turning of the eye
amblyopia lazy-eye syndrome
mydriatics drugs that disrupt parasympathetic nerve supply to the eye or stimulate the sympathetic nervous system causing the pupil to dilate
antiemetics treat and prevent nausea, vomiting, dizziness and vertigo by reducging the sensitivity of inner ear to motion or inhibiting stimuli from reaching the part of the brain that triggers nausea and vomiting
antiglaucoma agents decrease aqueous humor production by constricting the pupil to open the angle between the iris and cornea
caloric stimulation test test that uses different water temperatures to assess the vestibular portion of the nerve of the inner ear to determine if nerve damage is the cause of vertigo
cochlear implant artificial hearing device that produces useful hearing sensations by electrically stimulating nerves inside the inner ear; also called bionic ear
convergence medial movement of the two eyeballs so that they are both directed at the object being viewed
ophthalmic antibiotics inhibit growth of microorganisms that infect the eye
ophthalmic decongestants constrict the small arterioles of the eye, decreasing redness and relieving conjunctival congestion
ophthalmic moisturizers soothe dry eyes due to environmental irritants and allergens
wax emulsifiers loosen and help remove impacted cerumen (ear wax)
Created by: Helen Swales