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SYG Unit 1 Drills

Ch 1-4

QuestionAnswer
The concept that describes opening a window into unfamiliar worlds that allows us to understand human behavior by placing it within its broader social context is called the sociological perspective or imagination
Which of the following elements did C. Wright Mills attribute as being the one that sociologists would use to explain individual behavior? external influence
When sociologists group people into categories based on their age, gender, educational level, job, and income, they are trying to determine social location
The sociological perspective emphasizes how social context influences people's lives, particularly how people are influenced by society
The sociologist responsible for suggesting the connection between history and biography to explain the sociological imagination was C. Wright Mills
Of the following, which discipline is most appropriately classified as a natural science? biology
The social science discipline that concentrates on the study of artifacts, social structure, ideas, values, and forms of communication is anthropology
The first goal of each scientific discipline is to explain why something happens
The first person to propose that the scientific method could be applied to the study of social life was Auguste Comte
What is the use of objective and systematic observation to test theories, one that is often employed by sociologists? scientific method
What is the social event that most influenced Auguste Comte to explore patterns within society and become interested in what holds society together? French Revolution
The notion that only the fittest members of society deserve to survive and that social programs to help the poor will ultimately weaken the social order is a doctrine known as social Darwinism
The term "survival of the fittest," which is a principle part of the concept of social Darwinism, was coined by Herbert Spencer
The theorist who is sometimes referred to as "the second founder of sociology" was Herbert Spencer
Karl Marx suggested that the force that drives human history and is at the core of human society is class conflict
The Wall Street Journal has declared that the three greatest modern thinkers were Marx, Freud, Einstein
The social thinker of the 19th century who predicted that there would be a classless society once the working class united and began a revolution was Karl Marx
The titles Karl Marx used to describe the two classes in society were the bourgeoisie; proletariat
The French sociologist Emile Durkheim is most identified with which of the following areas of study? social integration
Max Weber referred to the self-denying approach to life characterized by people living frugal lives and saving their money as the Protestant ethic
Karl Marx believed that ________ was the central force for social change, while Max Weber believed that _______ was the force most responsible for social change economics; religion
According to Max Weber, the Protestant ethic was a central factor in birth of capitalism
What quality did Max Weber stress as being the hallmark of social research? value neutrality
The scientific method requires _______, repeating a study in order to compare the new research results with the original findings. replication
Max Weber used the term Verstehen to mean to grasp by insight
experience in Morocco left author with a profound sense of culture shock
Language, beliefs, values, norms, behavior, material objects, and technology that are passed from one generation to the next by members of society describe culture
Jewelry, art, hairstyles, and clothing each represent examples of material culture
Anthropologist Ralph Linton said, "The last thing a fish would ever notice would be water." What does this imply about culture? culture is taken for granted by members of society who share it
In 1906, sociologist William Sumner made this comment, "One's own group is the center of everything, and all others are scaled and rated with reference to it." This statement is most aligned with the concept of ethnocentrism
"They're primative people who eat animals from the street, drive wildly around town on motor scooters, and talk very fast." ethnocentrism
Kristina became ill and swore she would be a vegetarian as long as she was in Cambodia culture shock
refusal to accept v sincere effort to understand ethnocentrism; cultural relativism
In his book, Sick Societies, anthropologist Robert Edgerton proposed that cultures should be evaluated on their "quality of life" and not just automatically accepted. This is contrary to which of the following sociological concepts? cultural relativism
gestures gestures are not universal
symbols can be strung together in an infinite number of ways for the purpose of communicating abstract thought. this is referred to as language
language language is not universal in the terms of the meaning of particular sounds
without language, human culture would be little more advanced than lower primates
Spanish continuously spoken from generation to generation constant influx of Hispanic immigrants
anthropologists studied Hopi Indians Sapir and Whorf
norms expectations of rules of behavior that develop from values
medal of honor and dean's list positive sanctions
Sapir and Whorf concluded that language creates ways of thinking and perceiving
language determines our consciousness Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
spring break behavior moral holiday
torn blouse v no blouse folkway; norm
members of Jewish faith subculture
group has distinctive way of life but reflects dominant culture subculture
nude walk in nudist colony conforming to folkways
studied feral children including Isabelle Kingsley Davis
nurture component social environment
most likely linked to nurture vocational choice
children raised in wilderness and isolated from other children feral
key variable of basic "human" traits intimate early social interaction
trained professionals v mentally retarded women orphans raised by mentally retarded socred higher
rhesus monkeys Harlow
Harlow experiment key to infant-mother bonding intimate social contact
society makes us human socialization
looking-glass self Cooley
our image of how others see us self
self-concept based on interactions and reactions looking-glass self
play crucial to development of self Mead
attempt to win approval of significant others
individuals who have a profound influence on the lives of another person significant others
Mead's dress up and pretend stage play
Mead term for norms, values, and expectations of public generalized others
Mead essential for individual to be a full-fledged member of society ability to take role of other
Mead 3 stages imitation; play; team games
Mead active, creative, and spontaneous part of self I
Piaget stage dominated by touching, listening, looking, and inability to recognize cause and effect sensorimotor
Piaget operational reasoning skills
Piaget stage where can count but not sure what numbers mean preoperational
Piaget stage of abstract thinking formal operational stage
prostitute exhibiting and smiling at potential patrons social interaction
two sociological perspectives linked to macrosociology functionalism; conflict perspective
focus on broad features of society to analyze social class and how groups relate to one another macrosociology
macrosociological analysis impact of terrorism on travel plans of business people
sociological perspective most closely linked to microsociology symbolic interacionism
research sociologist perspectives both macro and micro
firm deadlines for assignments strong sense of social structure
example of social structure driver signaling
typical patterns of a group, such as relationships between people or groups social structure
different feelings on fines location in social structure
doctorate from Ivy league, same salary, similar prestige same social class
3 primary variables of social class income, education, occupational prestige
accurate statement on status provides guidelines for how to act and feel
age, gender, race part of master status
achieved status high school drop-out
ascribed status v achieved status female; associate editor
bumper stickers status symbols
signs that identify position in society status symbols
position in society that cuts across other statuses master status
unique privilege of being a 17-year-old university professor status inconsistency
difference between a status and a role occupy a status; play a role
expectations that guide our behavior norms
expectations that define appropriate or inappropriate behavior for the occupants of a status roles
regularly interact and share similar values, norms, and expectations group
organized, usual, or standard ways society meets its basic needs social institutions
Created by: selfstudy08 on 2010-02-28



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