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Geography test review

The physical environment Terrain, climate, natural vegetation, wildlife, variations in soil, and the natural pattern of land and water.
Culture a learned collective human behavior
Topophilia a love of place.
Region geographical unit based on characteristics and functions of culture
Three types of regions Formal, Functional, & vernacular
Formal region an area inhabited by people who have one or more traits in common, such as language, religion, or a system of livelihood. (uniformity and homogeneity)
Core /periphery A region can be divided into two sections, one near the center were particular attributes that define a region are strong called the Core and other portions of the region further away from the core called the Periphery were the attributes are weaker
Functional region an area that has been organized to function in a political, social, or economical way.
Central Nodes This is where the functions are coordinated and directed. Examples are city halls, national capitals churches and banks.
Vernacular Region is a region that is perceived to exist by its inhabitants, as evidenced by the widespread acceptance and use of a special regional name.
Perceived region Smokey Mountains, valley girl valspeak
Mobility /Cultural Diffusion The spatial spread of learned ideas
Independent invention The same or a very similar innovation is separately developed at different places by different peoples.
Five types of diffusion Relocation, expansion, hierarchical, contagious, and stimulus
Time distance decay Occurs when diffusion decreases with distance. Innovation will usually be accepted in the areas closet to where it originates. Innovations take increasing time to spread outward and time is a factor.
Absorbing barriers Completely halt diffusion, allowing no further progress(an example is when technology is banned in certain cultures)
Permeable barriers Some mandates will remain in place( like in proabition)
Globalization when the world is increasingly linked in which international borders are diminished and a worldwide marketplace is created.
Nature/Cultural Ecology deals with the interaction between culture and physical environments
Environmental Determinism The belief that the physical environment is the dominant force shaping cultures.
Possibilism Humans are the dominate force.
Environmental Perception Each person/ Cultural group has a mental image of the physical environment, shaped by knowledge, ignorance, experience, values and emotions.
Organic views of nature People are a part of nature. The habitat possesses a soul, filled with spirits.
Mechanistic view of nature Humans are separate from nature through technological advancements.
Humans are modifiers of the earth Activities such as mining, logging irrigation
Cultural landscape comprised of all the built forms that cultural groups create in inhabiting the earth. (Example roads, cities, houses, parks, gardens, etc...)
Landscape mirrors a cultures needs
Symbolic Landscapes the urban skyline- it represents the power and dominance of finance and economies within that culture.
Three Principal aspects of cultural landscapes Settlement forms, Land-division patterns architectural style.
Settlement forms The spatial arrangement of buildings, roads, and other features that people construct while inhabiting an area.
Nucleation refers to the relative density of landscape elements. (urban areas)
Dispersed Farming areas tend to be much less nucleated.( Rural areas)
Land-division patters Indicate the uses of particular parcels of land and as such reveal the way people have divided the land for economic, social and political uses.
Architecture is a reflection of culture & what is native to the region.
Geodemography population geography
Population Density is where 112 people per square mile would be spread out if the inhabitants of earth were evenly distributed.
Carrying Capacity The population beyond which a given environment cannot provide support without becoming significantly damaged.
Patterns of Natality Birthrate,Total Fertility rate,Zero population growth
Birthrate the number of births per year per thousand people.
Total Fertility rate measured as the average number of children born per woman during her reproductive lifetime. (between 15 to 49 years of age)
A TFR (total fertility rate) of 2.1 is needed to produce a stabilized population
Zero population growth Once a TFR(total fertility rate) of 2.1 is reached the population becomes stabilized.
Death rates the number of deaths per year per 1000 people.In the developed world age-induced degenerative conditions.The highest death rates occur in Sub Saharan Africa (life threating diseases and civil strife.)
Demographic transition Technologically advanced countries of low fertility rates and stabilized or declining populations. (Passed through Demographic transition)
Demographic transition stages Stage 1) High birth and high deathStage 2) population explosion; High birth decreasing deathStage 3) Decreasing Growth, Rapidly declining birthrateStage 4) Low birth and low death
Age distributions Countries have different average number of youth vs. old disparency.
Population Pyramid Device for comparing age characteristics
Sex Ratio The ratio between men and women in a population. (Slightly more boys than girls are born, but infant boys have slightly higher mortality rates than do infant girls.)
Gender roles what it means to be a man and what it means to be a woman.
Social engineering Government attempt to modify the population
Sati the killing of widows
Infant mortality rate a measure of how many children per 1000 population die before reaching one year of age.
Migration reasons Some migrate in response to environmental collapse, others religious or ethnic persecution. Some for better opportunities.
Push and pull factors basic assumption of the push and pull model, which posits that human movement is the result of choices.
Population explosion a dramatic increased in world population since 1900 (the crucial element triggering this explosion has been a steep decline in the death rate)
Geometric Growth world population doubling timeline
Malthusian theory English economist and cleric Thomas Malthus believed that the human ability to multiply far exceeds our ability to increase food production.
Cornucopian’s argue that human beings are, in fact, our greatest resource and that attempts to curb our numbers (population) cheat us of any geniuses’ who could devise creative solutions.
Neo (new) Malthusians Counter that the earth’s support systems are being strained beyond their capacity.
Environmental Influence Population densities tend to be greatest where the terrain is level, the climate is mild and humid. Population tends to thin out with excessive elevation, aridity, coldness, ruggedness of terrain and distance from the coast.
Environmental perception Perception of the physical environment plays a major role in a group’s decision about where to settle and live.
The five most desirable environments A mild climate, a diverse natural vegetation that includes forests and a mild summer climate with low humidity, the presence of lakes and rivers, nearest to the seacoast and lastly a beautiful scenery.
Population density and environmental alteration -People modify their habitats through their adaptive strategies. (example is the deforestation and overpopulation of Haiti)
Rural settlement patterns Farmstead-house, barn shed, pen, and garden
8 different types of rural settlement landscapes Irregular, Street, green commons, Isolated, Hamlet, row village, checkerboard, loose.
Sequent Occupance Multiple layers of occupation
Personal space/comfort zone The amount of space that individuals feel “belongs” to them as they move about their everyday business.
Agriculture The tilling of crops and rearing of domesticated animals. Enabled development of permanent communities.
World agriculture agriculture is about 40 percent of the working population. North America is about 2 percent
Swidden Cultivation Land rotation agricultural system. (slash and burn)
Intercropping when different crops typically share the same clearing (allows taller, stronger crops to shelter lower, more fragile ones. The planting and harvesting cycle is repeated perhaps three to five years until the soil nutrients decline.
Subsistence agriculture food production mainly for the family and local community. (Live off of)
Paddy rice farming Terracing” irrigation is associated with rice farming. Coasts of India southeastern china and parts of Korea and Japan.
Double cropping Paddy farmers often plant and harvest the same parcel of land twice per year
Peasants generally are small scale farmers who own or may not own their fields and produce their own subsistence and for sale in the market.
The Dominant crops wheat, barley, and corn
Plantation agriculture one type of crop is created for the global market it’s the number 1 cash crop.
Luxury crops sugar, bananas, coffee, coconuts, spices, tea, pineapples and even rubber and tobacco
Plantations are placed near the seacoast for faster shipping
Multi-National Corporation (MNC) Chiquita, dole.
Commercial forms of agriculture Market gardening aka Truck farming;Livestock fattening;Grain farming;Suitcase farm
Market gardening aka Truck farming truck farms are located in developed countries. They specialize in non-tropical fruits. Wine, table grapes, raisins, kiwi, avocado, nuts, olives, and oranges.
In MNC’S machines are taking over jobs and are considered neo style plantations.
Livestock fattening raise and fatten cattle and hogs for slaughter. Feedlots are created for beef production. Over 70 percent of all grain raised goes to livestock fattening
Grain farming -the United States is the world’s leading wheat and corn exporter/producer. U.S. accounts for about 70 percent of world corn exports. The planting and harvesting of grain is more completely mechanized than any form of agriculture.
Suitcase farm people who own and operate these farms do not live on the land.
Monoculture One cultivated crop dominates the landscape
Agribusiness Highly mechanized, absentee-owned large-scale operations
Dairying The specialized production of dairy goods closely resembles livestock fattening. Dairy belts near large urban centers usually produce milk, while those further away specialize in butter, cheese, or processed milk.
Nomadic Herding in dry cold lands (eastern hemisphere) desert prairies and savannas. The common characteristic of all nomadic herding is mobility.
Livestock Ranching Livestock ranchers have fixed places of residence. Ranchers raise livestock on a large scale for the market.
Aquaculture the cultivation and harvesting of aquatic organisms under controlled conditions.
Mariculture shrimp farming, oyster farming, fish farming, pearl cultivation.
Domesticated plant one that is deliberately planted, protected and cared for by humans
Domesticated plant process The first step is Genetic isolation.(example the original Indian maize grew on a cob only one-tenth the size of the cobs of domesticated maize.
What came first domesticated plant or animal? The domesticated plant came before the domesticated animal
Domesticated animal -is one that depends on people for food and shelter and that differs from wild species in physical appearance and behavior.
Green revolution is a product of modern agriculture science that involves the development of high-yield hybrid varieties of crops, increasingly genetically engineered
Problems with the green revolution (Problems are the chemicals and poisons on the land heightened environmental damage.) The loss of plant diversity or genetic variety.
Gene banks set up to preserve what remains of domesticated plant variety.
Migrant workers workers have been central to the growth and profitability of farming
Local-Global food provisioning The process of exploration, colonization, and globalization created new regional cuisines.
Von thuen model market intensity is at its core and decreases with increasing distance from the market
Genetically modified crops (GM) Genetic engineering produces new organisms through gene splicing. (Pesticide tolerance or disease resistance)
Sustainability the survival of a land-use system for centuries or millennia without destruction of the environmental base.
Desertification Grasslands that was too dry for sustainable crop production. (Examples are a series of droughts as well as farmers that were overusing the land. Desert boundaries advance and retreat primarily in response to climate fluctuations.
Biofuels diesel; peanut oil
Agricultural landscapes Rectangular survey; Metes and bounds survey; Long lot settlement; Fragmented landholdings with farm villages
Rectangular survey dominates the U.S. mostly western plains/farmlands (rectangular patters.
Metes and bounds survey Natural form boundaries. Streams and creeks
Long lot settlement Each property consist of an elongated unit-block of land stretching back from the road in a valley to an adjacent ridge crest.
Fragmented landholdings with farm villages Separate from where one lives.
Fencing and herding Property and field boarders are often marked by fences or hedges
Industrial revolution began in England.
Five types of Economies Primary Industries; Secondary Industry; Tertiary services; Quaternary Sector; Quinary Sector
Primary Industries involves extracting (forestry, mining, & farming) (less than 2%)
Secondary Industry Manufacturing (converting raw materials to goods) (16%)
Tertiary services (secretary, Insurance) (17%)
Quaternary Sector (communications/information) (55%)
Quinary Sector (CEO’s and executives) (10%)
Cottage industry Usually as a sideline to agriculture (cobbler weaver, smith, etc…)
Guild industry Professional organizations of highly skilled, specialized artisans engaged full-time in their trades.
Techno poles Centers of high-tech manufacturing, research/development, and information generation
Deindustrialization the decline and fall of once-prosperous factory and mining area.
Transnational corporations Locate their manufacturing plants where labor and resources are cheapest and then ship their products to the places where they can be sold for the most profit.
Renewable Resource Natural Replenished-livestock and lumber
Non renewable resources coal, oil.
Acid rain burning of fossil fuels-oil petroleum, and natural gas. Acid raid accumulates in any area of manufacturing/production.
Environmental sustainability Providing and lasting adequate resources(ecological balance)
Consumer Services Rapidly growing tourism