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NUHS Chapter 7

Physiology Terms

QuestionAnswer
part of nervous system that consists of sensory receptor cells that receive stimuli from the external or internal environment Sensory System
general term for info that sensory system processes. May or may not reach consciousness. (Joel Hansen #88 is my hero) Sensory Information
information that sensory system process that reaches consciousness. (ex. feeling pain) Sensation
a person's understanding of a sensation's meaning. (ex. awareness that a tooth hurts) Perception
Located at the peripheral ends of afferent neurons, they change info into graded potentials that can activate action potentials which travel into CNS. Sensory Receptors
the energy or chemical that activates a sensory receptor. Stimulus (stimulus goes up, action potential goes up)
the process by which a stimulus is transformed into an electrical response. Sensory Transduction
class of receptor that responds to mechanical stimuli like touch. These stimuli alter permeability of ion channels on receptor membrane, changing membrane potential. 1 of 5 receptor types Mechanoreceptor
class of receptor that detect both cold and warmth. 1 of 5 types Thermoreceptor
class of receptor that responds to particular light wavelengths. 1 of 5 receptor types Photoreceptor
class of receptor that responds to the binding of particular chemicals to the receptor membrane. provides sense of smell and taste and detects blood pH and oxygen concentration. Chemoreceptor
class of receptor that are specialized nerve endings that respond to a number of different painful stimuli, such as heat or tissue damange Nociceptors
graded potential that arises in afferent neuron ending, or a specialized cell, in response to stimulation. Receptor Potential
a factor that controls the magnitude of the receptor potential, is a decrease in receptor sensitivity, which results in a decrease in action potential frequency in an afferent neuron despite a stimulus of constant strength. Adaptation (figure 7-3)
area of the body that, when stimulated, leads to activity in a particular afferent neuron. usually overlap. Receptive Field (smaller receptive field, higher acuity)
ability with which we can locate and discern one stimulus from an adjacent one. Acuity
method of refining sensory information in afferent neurons and ascending pathways whereby fibers inhibit each other, the most active fibers causing the greatest inhibition of adjacent fibers. Lateral Inhibition (Figure 7-9)
receptors that respond very rapidly at the stimulus onset, but, fire very slowly or not at all during the remainder of the stimulus. (ex. sensation of clothes on skin) Rapidly Adapting Receptors (Figure 7-11)
receptors that maintain their response at or near the initial level of firing regardless of the stimulus duration. (ex. upright posture for long periods of time) Slowly Adapting Receptors (Figure 7-11)
region of cerebral cortex containing sensory cortex and some association cortex. TASTE Parietal Lobe
posterior region of cerebral cortex where primary visual cortex is located. VISION Occipital Lobe
region of cerebral cortex where primary auditory cortex and Wernicke's speech center are located. HEARING Temporal Lobe
interconnected brain structures in cerebrum; involved with emotions and learning Limbic
feelings/perceptions coming from muscle, skin, bones tendons, and joints. initiated by a variety of sensory recptors. Somatic Sensation
ascending neural pathway running in the anterolateral column of the spinal cord white matter; conveys information about pain and temperature. Anterolateral Pathway (figure 7-19)
ascending pathway for somatosensory information; runs through dorsal area of spinal white matter. Dorsal Column Pathway (figure 7-19)
adjustment of eye for viewing various distances by changing shape of lens Accommodation
nearsighted, unable to see distant objects clearly. corrected with convex lens. Myopic
farsighted, unable to see close objects clearly. corrected with concave lens Hyperopic
reduction in ability to accommodate for near vision. result of old age 45+ Presbyopia
the tough outermost tissue layer of the eyeball. forms a white capsule around the eye Sclera
darkly pigmented part of eye that absorbs light rays at the back of the eyeball. Choroid
transparent structure covering the front of the eye; forms part of eye's optical system and helps focus an object's image on retina Cornea
involved in movement and shape of the lens during accommodation. Ciliary Muscle
ringlike structure surrounding pupil of eye. Iris
opening in iris of eye through which light passes to reach retina. Pupil
connecting the ciliary muscles with the lens of the eye. Zonular Fibers
thin layer of neural tissue lining back of eyeball; contains receptors for vision. Retina
adjustable part of eye's optical system, which helps focus object's image on retina. Lens
sensory cell specialized to respond to light; contains pigments that make it sensitive to different light wavelengths. Photoreceptor
bundle of neurons connecting the eye to the optic chiasm. transfers signal to brain Optic Nerve
clear fluid filling the anterior chamber (between iris and cornea). Aqueous Humor
Viscous jellylike substance filling the posterior chamber of the eye (between the lens and the retina). Vitreous Humor
one of two receptor types for photic energy; contains the photopigment rhodopsin. extremely sensitive and respond to very low levels of light. Rod
one of the two retinal receptor types for photic energy; gives rise to color vision. not sensitive and respond only to bright light. Cone
Created by: Daniel Han Daniel Han on 2010-02-24



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