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POLS 2304 Exam 1

Congress and Presidency

New Jersey Plan Small states wanted to be represented in congress. “equal representation” One state per vote – regardless of territory/population
Virginia Plan Big states wanted to be represented in congress. “proportional representation” States vote depending on size and population
Great Compromise Bicameral in structure House of Representative – “proportional representation” The bigger the state is, the more seats in the House of Representatives. Senate – “equal representation”
Redistricting The redrawing of the boundaries of the congressional districts within each state. redrawn every 10 years to avoid under/over-representation.
Bill proposed law = legislative proposals
Impeachment Congress has the power to impeach.
Success Factors of Congressional Elections Who is the person to run?
Incumbency if you are currently a member of congress, you have a better chance @ winning.
Term Limit House of Representatives = 2 years Senate = 6 years President = 10 years
House of Rep. Characteristics 25 years of age. 7 years of citizenship. 1 year of residency. 2 years (term). 1 member per 550,000 people.
Senate Characteristics 30 years old. 9 years of citizenship. 1 year of residency. 6 year (term). 2 seats per state.
Total members of House of Rep. 435
Total members of Senate 100
Senate more deliberate. less structured. b/c there are less senators.
House of Representatives more centralized/organized. More routine and structured. b/c there are too many of them.
Powers of Congress Congress not only represents, but it also legislates. Power over crucial economic matters. Power in foreign/military affairs.
Standing Committee important policy making. Have power to report legislation!!
Select Committee Temporary. No power to report legislation! Set up to handle specific issues that fall b/w jurisdiction of existing committees.
Joint Committee Permanent. Has members of BOTH parties. No power to report legislation! 4 types.
Conference Committee Temporary. Members are appointed by speaker and senate presiding officer. For reconciling differences on legislation once it has been passed by House and Senate.
Staff System handle constituency requests. take care of legislative details. formulate/draft proposals. organize hearing, deal w/ administrative agencies, reporter and lobbyists.
Congressional Caucuses informal group/committee composed of Senators or Representatives who share opinion, interests or social characteristics.
Bill to Law: Step 1 Introduction of Bill to Congress.
Who can introduce a bill to Congress? members of congress, executive branch, interest groups, constituents.
Bill to Law: Step 2 Assignment to Committee
Assignment to Committee given a number and H.R. or S. Bill is then referred to a committee... if not assigned, then the bill is dead!
Bill to Law: Step 3 Hearing. Committees decide to act, hearing is held.
Hearing Participants: executive agency representatives, academia, interest groups,other interested people.
Bill to Law: Step 4 Reporting a Bill.
Reporting a Bill sub-committee drafts it line by line. Reports it to full committee. Full committee accepts/rejects/amends the bill.
Bill to Law: Step 5 Schedule Debate.
Schedule Debate sub-committee submits bill to both houses, and it is put on the House and Senate calendars for action.
Bill to Law: Step 6 Debate and Amendment.
Debate and Amendment opponents/proponents have equal debate time.
Bill to Law: Step 7 Vote.
Vote Impacts: personal views, opinions of constituents, advice of colleagues.
Bill to Law: Step 8 In-Conference Committee
In-Conference Committee Once passed, a bill is sent to other chamber for consideration. If approved by 2nd chamber, then it is sent to the white house for action.
Bill to Law: Step 9 To the President.
To the President approved the bill into law. ignore it w/ the result of it becoming law in 10 days. veto it and facing congressional override. pocket veto it.
Bill to Law: Step 10 Congressional Override of Veto
Congressional Override of Veto 2/3 majority is required in each chamber to override the presidential veto.
Pork Barrel Government spending for localized projects secured solely/primarily to bring money to a representative's district ... does NOT benefit the entire country.
Open Rule an Open Rule permits all relevant amendments to be offered to a bill, without any restrictions.
Closed Rule A Closed Rule bans amendments to a bill on the House floor, with the exception of Committee amendments.
Filibuster The use of the Senate's tradition of unlimited debate as a delaying tactic to block a bill.
Cloture the only procedure by which the Senate can vote to place a time limit on consideration of a bill or other matter, and thereby overcome a filibuster.
Logrolling an arrangement in which 2 or more members of Congress agree in advance to support each others bills.
Pocket Veto the Constitution grants the president 10 days to review a measure passed by Congress.
Line-Item Veto executive branch power to cancel specific provisions of a bill, without vetoing the entire legislative package.
Override the process by which each chamber of Congress vetoes on a bill vetoed by the president.
War Powers Act (1973) U.S. congress joint resolution stating that the president can send troops into action abroad only by authorization of congress or if the U.S. is already under attack/serious threat.
2 major forces impacting Congressional Law-Making External Influences. Internal Influences.
External Influences constituency. interest groups.
Internal Influences party leadership. congressional colleagues. president/executive branch.
Presidency Qualifications natural born citizen. 35 years of age. 14 years of residency in the U.S.
Presidential Elections Primary (find the person who will represent the party).
General Presidential Elections held every 4 years. electors vote for president and v. president in the electoral college. majority vote in college determines the winner.
22nd Amendment sets a term limit for the president ... they can only run twice ... serve for maximum of 10 years!
25th Amendment President's line of succession: v. president, speaker of the house, president pro tempo-re ... etc.
Cabinet group of people who work for the president. normally are head of departments.
Executive Agreement an agreement made between the executive branch and a foreign government without the need of consent from congress.
Pardon president can grant pardons...except in the case of impeachment.
Chief of State Head of State ... same as Queen of England, Emperor of Japan, etc.
Ceremonial Functions of Presidents decorating war heroes, officiating the opening baseball game, dedicating parks/post offices, receiving head of state from foreign countries, visiting foreign countries, making calls to astronauts, representing nation during mourning.
New Deal (1933) Comprised new programs of relief, recovery, and reform. Franklin D. Roosevelt
Executive Order a rule issued by the president that has the effect of law. Can implement and give administrative effect to provisions in the Constitution, to treaties, and to statutes.
Executive Privilege the right of executive officials to withhold information from or to refuse to appear before a legislative committee.
President as Chief Executive head of government; enforces laws.
Executive Power seek advice from department heads. nominate and appoint officials. sign/issue executive orders. enforce laws, ruling, and international obligations. supervise and lead a federal executive bureaucracy. Supervise/manage executive branch of government.
President as a Chief Diplomat represents the U.S. abroad. make/execute foreign policies. supervise the execution of U.S. international obligations. Coordinate w/ foreign state organizations in international crises. receive foreign ambassadors. diplomatic recognition to foreign states.
President as a Legislator calls congress into special sessions. reports to congress on the state of the union. approves/vetoes legislations.
President as Commander-in-Chief Civilian leader of armed forces. military decision-making. president must notify congress within 48 hrs. when sending troops overseas. president must pull back troops w/in 60 days unless congress agrees to an extension.
2 Routes to get to the White House Electoral Processing. Succession.
The First Lady honorary position. greeting foreign dignitaries, visiting foreign countries, and attending important ceremonies. not subject to media, scrutiny and partisan attack. symbol of the nation.
Executive Office of the President (EOP) established by President Roosevelt to assist the president in carrying out major duties. Consisting of 11 staff agencies that assist the president.
11 staff agencies housed in the old executive business building. the white house office, council of economic advisers, national security council, council of environmental quality.
Office of Management and Budget (OMB) A division of the Executive Office of the President. The OMB assist the president in preparing the annual budget, clearing and coordinating departmental agency budgets, and supervising the administration of the federal budget.
2 purposed of Vice President succeed the president ... cast tie breaking vote in Senate ... presides over the senate.
25th Amendment President nominates and majority vote of both houses approves/rejects.
Succession Act (1947) if both president and vice-president die, speaker of house shall succeed.
Electoral Importance of V. President to the President bring in support. provide regional balance.
Political Resources of the President Election, Party, Group, Media, Public Opinion, Mass Popularity.
Resource: Election landslide victory: won by a lot! narrow results: barely won!
Resource: Party president of a majority party: more confident at submitting legislative proposals, whereas president of a minority party may not submit as many proposals.
Resource: Media can directly/indirectly enhance the president's power. use of media to support a program. use of media to apply pressures. use of media for election purposes.
Resource: Public Opinion shape public opinion. follow public opinion when it's necessary.
Resource: Mass Popularity use of high-approval rating.. to pressure congress, and to make policy initiatives.
Created by: kserrano005