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# Chap 12, 13, 14 9th

### Physical Science

vibrations are very small and rapid
Oscillations are Large and slower
repeats at a constant rate and passes the same point over and over periodic motion
periodic motion alternates between these Potential energy and kinetic energy
Resting position on a pendulum when the rod or arm hangs straight down
the farthest position away from RESTING postion Amplitude
The time it takes to complete one cycle of a system Period
What the period is measured in seconds
The rate at which cycles repeat frequency
Unit for frequency Hz (1/s)
mathmatical relationship between frequency (f) and period (T) f= 1/T
the pull that wants to restore the string to resting position restoring force
The farther away from rest the ________ the restoring force. larger
The greater the mass the ________________ the periodic motion. slower
The effect of friction on periodic motion - making the amplitude SMALLER damping
The opposite of damping resonance
These have a mass attached to an arm at a pivot point that swings under the influence of gravity. pendulums
Changes the period of a pendulum arm length or gravity
periodic changes that transfer energy waves
mechanical waves require a medium
Electromagnetic waves travel through a Vacuum
Wave crest top of the wave or the compression of a wave
Wave trough bottom of the wave or the rarefaction of a wave
measured from crest to crest or trough to trough wave length
Amplitude is __________ the wave height half
megahertz means million hertz
gigahertz means billion hertz
Mechanical or sound wave speed depends on the MEDIUM
Surface waves depend on the depth of the water compared to the wavelength
Waves in _____________water move faster deeper
a single wave cycle or a very short burst of waves pulse
Rate of waves is porportional to amplitude. If amplitude doubles the rate quadruples.
______________waves are at right angles to the direction of the waves transverse waves
________________ waves are parallel to the direction of movement. longitudinal
Sound waves are longitudinal. True or False true
EM waves are longitudinal waves. True or false. False.
The angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection.
When a wave moves from one medium to another, its _______ changes. Speed
When a wave's speed changes as it moves from one medium to another is called refraction
Refraction is an example of how a wave __________ froms it original path bends
Bending does not occur if a wave enters the new medium _____________ to the boundary perpendicular
The frequency of a wave does not change because the frequency is determined by the source
When two waves come together from opposite directions and the amplitudes add together constructive interfernece
When two waves come together from opposite directions and the amplitudes cancel each other out. destructive interference
When 2 traveling waves with exactly the SAME wavelength and frequency move through each other in opposite directions a __ is formed. standing wave
standing waves appear stationary
____ are points in a standing wave that experience no vertical displacement nodes
This explains how our perception of the sound can change depending on if we are getting closer or farther from the source. Doppler Effect
This is the Doppler effect as applied to light waves. Red Shift
He proved sound needed a medium. Robert Boyle
He showed electric and magnetic fields interact in a wavelike fashion. James Clerk Maxwell
The __ the medium the quicker the sound waves travel. stiffer
EM waves ___ when traveling through matter slow
This is related to frequency. pitch
This is related to amplitude loudness
The Threshold of Hearing TOH