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World Religions 2860

Religion relationship between humans and the divine
Teological beginning and end
Ethnocentric you cannot convert into it
Non proselytize not actively trying to convert
Non transcendental afterlife no promise of an after life with a higher form of existence
Cosmogenic myth creation myth
Shamanism people who work with magic and intercede with the spiritual world for something
Divination determining events
Belief in Mana “innate power in things”
Animism belief that inanimate & animate objects have a spirit connected with it.
Taboo a “bad” cultural act
Totemism connection between certain animals and a tribe or individual.
Catal Huyuk 7000BCE, oldest Neolithic settlement
Tengri and Etugen Ski and Earth gods
Anu of Uruk Sky god
Enlil or Bel of Nippur wind and flood god
Nanna or Sin of Ur Moon god
Utu or Shamash of Larsa and Sippar Sun
Enki or Ea of Eridu water and wisdom
Ninhursag or Aruru Mother goddess
Ishtar love and fertility. Universal goddess.
Osiris Good.
Horus son of Osiris “Sun god.”
Isis Osiris’ wife. Mother of Horus.
Seth evil, kills Osiris
Scales of Truth weight of heart verses feathers.
Dyaus Pitar “Zeus” Significant of Indo-European spread
Zeus offspring of Kronos (time)
Poseidon god of the sea
Hades god of the underworld
Hera wife of Zeus; goddess of women and marriage
Athena goddess of civilization, wisdom, strength, craft, skill and justice
Ares god of warfare, bloodlust
Demeter goddess over grains, fertility of the Earth and harvest
Hestia virgin goddess of the hearth
Hermes messenger god and guide to the underworld
Apollo god of light and sun, truth and prophecy, archery.
Aphrodite goddess of love, beauty and sexuality.
Homer Wrote the Iliad, ca 800BCE
Moira fate, something destined to each individual
Hesiod wrote origin (theogony) and genealogy of Gods
Xenophanes (philosopher) divine, creative power. Gods were omniscient.
Socrates critical of gods and myths.
Plato student of Socrates, everything embodied the good. Human beings are a soul in a body seeking higher forms.
Aristotle early ideas of gravity and force.
Oracles woman who communicate with Gods
Delphi oracle responsible for war
Humina spirits
Mithra Aranian, Indo-European god of war born on December 25th to a virgin mother.
Druids priests.
Odin, Woden father God and God of war. Very wise. Earth god.
Thor or Donar Thunder god, sky god. Symbol was hammer.
Tyr, Tiw, Tiwaz war god, the god of justice. One armed god.
Frigga Earth goddess, odins consort
Valhalla great hall where souls of great warriors live. Odin waits with army of Valkyries
Hel ruler of Hel
Wignts burial chambers
Gotterdammerung or Ragnarok showdown where everyone dies and earth destroyed.
Jotunheim realm of giants.
Axial age 500BCE to 400BCE. Change in attitudes, consciousness about religion.
Hinduism 19th century British term to define religion and people of India.
Law of Karma cause and effect
Reincarnation life after death.
Vedas religious hymns. Sacred knowledge
Rajah chief king
Indra God of battle and lightning
Dasas conquered indigenous population
Samhitas sacred writings
Shruti “that which is heard” or sacred core
Rig Veda Veda of stanzas of praise. Gods are everywhere.
Devas shining ones (devil)
Worship area bare, open pit. Garhapatya, ahavaniya, dakshina
Soma sacred drink (and god)
Brahmin presents the Brahman prayer.
Purusha cosmic man. God’s sacrifice.
Caste system varnas
Prithivia Mater Gaea. Mother earth.
Henotheism no single god is paramount. None are all –powerful.
Indra ruler of sky, controls storms/ monsoons. God of war.
Vajra Thunderbolts
Rudra/ Shiva the destroyer and the reviver.
Ushas dawn. Female goddess.
Yama first man to die, god of the dead
Varuna god of the high, arch sky. Concerned with morality of the men.
Liturgical deities gods involved in the ritual/ worship.
Agni god of alter fire
Brihaspati able to move gods and compel to grant powers
Yajur veda prose, dedication, prayers, litanies
Sama veda chants soma sacrifice
Atharva Veda charms and spells. Beginnings of anatomically correct medicine
Varna color
Kshatriays or Rajanyas warriors
Vaisayas commoners
Shudras servants
Brahmanas holy power of Brahman gives power to Brahmin.
Asvamedha most lengthy and largest sacrificial ceremony. War offering.
Agnihotra indoor offerings, at home. Ancestral offerings.
Brahma creator of the universe, move to monotheism.
Upanishads “sitting near” addendums to Vedas. Shruti.
Asceticism activity of the mind and spirit. Seclusion, meditation, contemplation
Tapas heat
Atman inner self
Prakriti here and now – outside world. Ignoring Atman leads to ignorance to suffering.
Monism merging of dualities. Merging the mundane and the spiritual.
Moksha release from being trapped in material world.
Brahman immortal, existing as the lord, intelligent, omnipresent, the guardian of the world. “is he who constantly rules the world…”
Hiranyagarbha golden egg.
Saguna Brahman Manifest Brahman. Immediate, more approachable.
Birguna Brahman unmanifest Brahman (neti neti). Ultimate.
Outcastes not in castes, don’t fit in.
Jati subgroups created over time
Law of Karma how castes plays into religion. The more good in life, higher up you go.
Karma determines ones future and why things are happening now.
Samsara cycle of birth/ death
Kelpa end and annihilation then return again. Cosmic cycle.
Dharma sacred law.
Upanayana sacred cord to mark caste
Kama god of pleasure.
Artha acquire “stuff” and power
Dharmasutra books of law. How to unburden selves of the household.
Nirvana the end of ignorance and claim to the world.
Sannyasin homeless wanderer. Give up all; name and status.
Karma marga the way of works.
Code of Manu observe and participate in ones own caste
Sati sacrifices self in husbands funeral. Cremation.
The jhana marga the way of knowledge, based on Upanishads.
Bhakti marga the way of devotion.
Bhagavad gita song of lord, epic song.
Arjuna warrior who faces dilemma before battle.
Trimurti triad of gods
Vishnu the preserver, preserving morals. Has 10 avatars (matsya the fish , kurma the tortois, varaha the boar, narisimha the man lion, vamana the dwarf, parasurama). Sits on the world serpent, lord of the world. (Shesh or Ananta, Garuda, Shakti)
Shiva the destroyer “great god.” God of medicine, healing. Reproduction. (Mahadeva, lingham and yoni, ganesha, parvati, Nandi, Kali, feminine side).
Avatars other forms of the gods.
Gurus teacher, most highly honored Brahmin.
Ram mohan roy focused on unity. Denounced polytheism.
Arya samaj trying to establish universal religion.
Ramakrisha movement incorporates western religions into Hinduism.
Mahatma Gandhi pivotal in changing caste society.
Dharma cosmic law or Dhamma. teachings of Buddha
Sasana the teachings or laws
Sidhartha Gautama Buddha. Known as Shakyamuni or Sakya muni
Bodi enlightenment ones actions are motivated by desires, desires are attached to the world.
Mara evil one tests Buddha three times.
Buddha enlightened one
Dukkha truth of suffering. Suffering comes from desire.
Samudaya truth of arising of suffering
Nirodha cessation of suffering
Magga truth of the path
Dharmachakra spokes on the wheel of life and enlightenment.
Tathagata truth finder
Arahat saint
Sangha order or community
Anicca impermanence
Anatta ultimate unreality of the atman
Dukka suffering comes from inebulous mind.
Nirvana better existence than physical now
Vinaya sutra voice of Buddha
Abhidamma addendums
Swarga heaven or paradise
Ashoka son of Chandragupta. Was harsh and warlike but then sees change, converts to Buddhism.
Rajagana saints, arahats meet to write holy books
Dyana knowledge
Prajna highest wisdom
Bodhi enlightenment
Boddhisatva denies nirvana to stay on earth and teach others
Maitreya messiah
Jataka holy texts
Avalokita the lord who looks down from above
Kshitagaran heaven for those who have repented
Dyani Buddhas tathagatas. contemplative buddahs. Always dressed as monks.
Varocana solar Buddha
Amatersasu Japanese sun goddess
Amitabha deals with future bliss.
Tantric Buddhism book learning is not the most affective, learn from guru. Sex
Pure land school of thought reach blissful heaven. Good works aren’t needed, just faith and humility.
Namu O Mituo Fo All hail great Buddah
Chan & Zen meditation, enlightenment
Tian Tal rationalists. Seeks balance between mediation and text.
Nichiren Japanese Buddhism.
Vajrayan diamond or thunderbolt vehicle. Quickest path to enlightenment.
Lamas monks in yellow hat sect. essentially boddhisatva.
Dalai Lama oceanic priest.
Mahavira great hero.
Ahimsa non injury to all living things.
Jina the conqueror
Salla Khana voluntary self starvation.
Karma matter that forms on the soul. Chief goal of Jainism is to get rid of Karma
Siddha liberated from world, soul rises to highest part of the universe or isatpragbhara.
Isatpragbhara highest point of the universe. Universe is shaped like a human body.
Shvetambaras white clan, wear white robes. Woman can be members.
Digamaras nude. No women.
Sthanakavasis do not tolerate idols or symbols.
Nanak the guru founder of Sikhism
Mardana follower
Japoi preamble
Maya focus on god
Kesh long hair
Kangha comb
Kachh breeches, shorts
Kara steel bracelet
Kirpan sword
Created by: eabrad7181