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Concept Dis. Ch. 11

Abnormalities of Blood Coagulation

after an injury, blood vessels immediately constrict
thrombin is an enzyme that is capable of digesting protein
integrity of small blood vessels, adequate supply of platelets, normal amounts of coagulation factors/inhibitors, & adequate levels of calcium ions are five major factors effecting homeostasis
regulating phospholipids, liberating vasoconstrictors, & plugging holes in vessel walls are all functions of platlets
certain medications can lower the concentration of __ __ in blood and prevent clotting calcium ions
abnormalities of small blood vessels, deficiencies of coagulation factors, liberation of thromboplastic material into circulation, & abnormalities of platelet function are major categories of blood coagulation disturbance
8 of the 13 coagulation factors are synthesized in the liver
characterized by abnormal reduction in the elements involved in blood clotting due to their use in widespread intravascular clotting disseminated intravascular coagulation
disseminated intravascular coagulation may be a secondary complication of any of numerous obstetrical, surgical, infectious, hemolytic, and neoplastic disorders, all of which activate in some way the intrinsic pathway of coagulation
sequence of reactions leading to fibrin formation, beginning with the contact activation of factor xii; followed by the sequential activation of factors xi and ix, which results in the activation of factor x intrinsic pathway of coagulation
activated factor X (factor Xa) initiates the common pathway of coagulation
is associated with low levels of coagulation factor VIII classic hemophilia
inadequate synthesis of vitamin K, inadequate uptake of vitamin K, severe liver damage can all indicate disturbance of coagulation caused by a deficiency of prothrombin
standard test for measuring capillaries and the hemostatic process involves measuring bleeding time
evaluation of thrombin time primarily measures fibrinogen
deficiencyl of platelets thrombocytopenia
are areas of hemorrhage caused by deficiencies of plasma coagulation factors hematomas
Hemophilia, being an X-linked congenital disease, only appears in males
small pinpoint hemorrhage caused by decreased platlets, abnormal platelet function, or capillary defect petechia
body's first line of defense when injured, it has a reflex vasocontriction, narrowing its caliber & facilitating closure of vessel by a blood clot small blood vessels
very small fragments of cytoplasm from megakaryotypes; life cycle is about 10 days platlets
activation of platlets starts the blood coagulation process
component formed during blood coagulation from interaction of platlets & plasma components or liberated from injured tissues thromboplastin
interaction of platlets/plasma coagulation factors; thromboplastin produced from substances in bloodstream intrinsic system
thromboplastin liberated from injured tissues; not derived from blood but from tissue outside of vascular compartment extrinsic system
activated at same time & interact to initiate blood clotting process; not completely independent intrinsic & extrinsic system
derivative of fibrinogen that polymerizes to form fibrin clot during blood coagulation fibrin monomer
a disturbance of blood coagulation as a result of activation of the coagulation mechanism & simultaneous clot lysis disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome
meshwork of protein threads that form during clotting of the blood fibrin
precursor in plasma converted into fibrin by thrombin during blood coagulation fibrinogen
test that measures overall efficiency of blood coagulation process partial thromboplastin time (PTT) test
test that measures that phase of coagulation mechanism after formation of thromboplastin prothrombin time test
coagulation factor formed by activation of prothrombin in process of blood coagulation thrombin
lab test measurement that determines concentration of fibrinogen in blood by determining blotting time of blood plasma after addition of thrombin thrombin time test