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Chp 10-Nervous Sys 7

Labs/Procedures: Davi-Ellen Chabner, The Language of Medicine 8th Edition

Cerebrospinal fluid analysis: Samples of CSF are examined for water, glucose, sodium, chloride, protein, red blood cells, white blood cells. With cytology, can look for tumor cells, bacteria, viruses.
CSF analysis is used to diagnose: Infection, tumor, multiple sclerosis.
Cerebral angiography: X-ray motion pictures of arterial blood vessel system in brain after injection of contrast material, into femoral artery.
Cerebral angiography is used to diagnose: Vascular disease (aneurysm, occlusion, hemorrhage) in the brain.
Computed tomography (CT) of the brain: X-ray using contrast material to generate computerized cross-sectional images of brain & spinal cord.
Computed tomography (CT) of the brain is used to diagnose: Abnormalities such as contrast leaks through the blood-brain barrier; tumor, hemorrhage, blood clots.
Brain surgery uses the ____ to map the brain in advance. Computed tomography (CT).
Myelography: X-ray with contrast injected into subarachnoid space, to image the spinal canal.
Myelography is being replaced by these studies: CT, MRI - they are less invasive.
MRI of the brain: Magnetic & radio waves create 3-D image.
MRI is used to diagnose: Brain & spinal cord lesions (as with CT) plus strokes, changes from trauma & Alzheimer disease.
MRA - Magnetic resonance angiography: 3-D Images of blood vessels.
Positron emission tomography scan (PET) Computerized radionuclide study - uses radioactive glucose to image metabolic activity of cells.
PET scans are used to provide info about the _____ of brain tissue in these conditions: Function; Alzheimer disease, stroke, schizophrenia, epilepsy.
Doppler/ultrasound: Sound waves detect blood flow in carotid & intracranial arteries.
Doppler/ultrasound is used to evaluate/diagnosis: Carotid artery occlusion (blocked blood flow to the brain).
Electroencephalography (EEG): Records electrial activity of the brain.
EEG is used to diagnose: Seizure activity from brain tumors, brain injuries, and other diseases.
Lumbar puncture (LP): CSF is withdrawn from between two lumbar vertebrae.
Lumbar puncture (LP) is also known as: Spinal tap.
CSF pressure is measured after a needle has been inserted between two _____ ______. Lumbar vertebrae.
During LP, injection may be carried out, such as: Contrast for myelography, or intrathecal medicine.
After LP, patients may experience this symptom: Headache.
With an LP, the patient lies on their side, with the knees drawn up to their chin, to help in what way: Increase space between vertebrae.
In LP, the needle is inserted between L3-L4 or L4-L5, then advanced to the _____ space. Subarachnoid.
A specialized instrument can locate & treat a target in the brain. Stereotactic radiosurgery.
Stereotactic radiosurgery uses _____ _____ to treat deep intracranial brain tumors & abnormal blood vessel masses. Gamma knife.
Abnormal blood vessel masses are called: Arteriovenous malformation(s) - (AVM)
Proton stereotactic radiosurgery delivers a uniform dose of _____ _____ to a target & spares surrounding normal tissue. Proton radiation.
In stereotactic radisurgery, an instrument is fixed to the _____ and guides the insertion of a _____ by a 3D measurement. Skull, needle.
Created by: bethybb