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MedTerm Chap 5

LOM Chapter 5 Terms

absorption passage of materials throught the walls of the intestine into the bloodstream.
amino acids building blocks of proteins and produced when proteins are digested.
amylase enzyme secreted by the pancreas to digest starch.
anus Opening of the digestive tract to the outside of the body.
appendix Blind pouch hanging from the cecum (in the RLQ).
bile Digestive juice made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder.
bilirubin Pigment released by the liver in bile.
bowel Intestine
cecum First part of the large intestine.
colon Large intestine
common bile duct carries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum.
defecation Expulsion or passage of feces from the body through the anus.
deglutition swallowing
digestion Breakdown of complex foods to simpler forms.
duodenum First part of the small intestine.
elimination Removal of waste material from the body.
emulsification Physical process of breaking up large fat globules into smaller globules, thus increasing the surface area that enzymes can use to digest the fat.
enzyme A chemical that speeds up a reation between substances.
esophagus Tube connecting the throat to the stomach.
fatty acids Substances produced when fats are digested.
feces solid wastes, stools
gallbladder Small sac under the liver, stores bile.
glucose Simple sugar.
glycogen Starch; glucose stored in the this form in liver cells.
Hydrochloric Acid Substance produced by the stomach; necessary for digestion of food.
Ileum Third part of the small intestine.
insulin Hormone produced by the endocrine cells of the pancreas.
jejunum Second part of the small intestine.
lipase Pancreatic enzyme necessay to digest fats.
liver A large organ located in the RUQ of the abdomen.
lower esophageal sphincter (LES) Ring of muscles between the esophagus and the stomach.
mastication chewing
palate Roof of the mouth.
pancreas Organ under the stomach; produces insulin.
papillae (singular: papilla) small elevation on the tongue (taste buds).
parotid gland Salivary gland within the check, just anterior to the ear.
peristalsis Rhythm-like contractions of the tubes of the gastrointestinal tract and other tubular structures.
pharynx Throat
portal vein Large vein bringing blood to the liver from the intestines.
protease Enzymes that digest proteins.
pyloric sphincter Ring of muscle fibers at the distal region of the stomach, where it joins the duodenum.
rectum last section of the colon
rugae Ridges on the hard palate and the wall of the stomach.
saliva Digestive juice produced by the salivary glands.
sigmoid colon Lower part of the colon; shaped like an S.
sphincter Ring of muscle fibers that constricts a passage or closes a natural opening.
stomach Muscular organ that receives food from the esophagus.
triglycerides Large fat molecules composed of three parts fatty acid and one part glycerol.
uvula Soft tissue hanging from the soft palate into the mouth.
villi (singular: sillus) Microscopic projections in the walls of the small intestine that absorb nutrients into the bloodstream.
an/o anus
bucc/o cheek
cec/o cecum
celi/o belly
cheil/o, labi/o lip
cholecyst/o gallbladder
choiledoch/o common bile duct
enter/o intestines, usually small intestine.
gloss/o, lingu/o tongue
odont/o tooth
or/o, stomato/o mouth
palat/o palate
proct/o anus and rectum
sialaden/o salivary gland
amyl/o starch
bil/i, chol/e gall, bile
chlorhydr/o hydrochloric acid
lip/o, steat/o fat
lith/o stone
prote/o protein
sial/o saliva
-ase enzyme
-chezia defecation, elimination of waste
-iasis abnormal condition
-prandial meal
ascites abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen.
borborygmus Rumbling or gurgling noise produced by the movement of gas, fluid, or both in the gastrointestinal tract.
dysphagia difficulty swallowing
eructation gas expelled from stomach through the mouth (belching).
flatus Gas expelled through the anus.
hematochezia passage of bright, fresh, red blood from the rectum.
melena black, tarry stools, feces containing digested blood.
steatorrhea fat in the feces; frothy, foul-smelling, fecal matter.
achalasia Failure of the lower esophagus sphincter (LES) to relax.
esophageal varices Swollen, varicose veins in the distal portion of the esophagus or upper part of the stomach.
pepic ulcer Open sore or lesion of the mucous membrane of the stomach or duodenum.
anal fistula abnormal tube-like passage way near the anus.
colonic polyposis Polyps (benign growths) protruding from the mucous membrane of the colon.
colorectal cancer Adenocarcinoma of the colon or rectum, or both.
Crohn disease Chronic inflamation of the intestinal tract (terminal ileum and colon).
diverticulosis Abnormal side pockets in the intestinal wall.
dysentery painful, inflamed intestines.
hemorrhoids swollen, twisted, varicose veins in the rectal region.
ileus Failure of peristalsis with obstructionof the intestines.
intussusception telescoping of the intestines
ulcerative colitis Chronic inflammation of the colon with presence of ulcers.
volvulus Twisting of the intestine upon itself.
cholelithiasis Gallstones in the gallbladder
cirrhosis Chronic degenerative disease of the liver.
viral hepatitis Inflamation of the liver caused by a virus.
Created by: suprant