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Biology 1030 Exam 1

Eukarya Supergroups to Vascular Plants

Excavata synapomorphy: pronounced “feeding groove” and no functioning mitochondria Farthest from humans Broken into: Diplomonads and Parabasalids
Discicristata synapomorphy: mitochondria with distinctive disc-shaped cristae Largest group is the phylum Euglenozoa
Alveolata synapomorphy: sac-like “alveoli” that form a continuous layer just under the plasma membrane Broken Down Into: 1. Phylum Dinoflagellata (dinoflagellates) 2. Phylum Apicomplexa (sporozoans) 3. Phylum Ciliophora (ciliates)
Stramenopila synapomorphy: normally two flagella when present, with hairlike projections on one of them Broken Down Into: 1. Phylum Oomycota (oomycetes) 2. Phylum Bacillariophyta (diatoms) 3. Phylum Chrysophyta (golden algae) 4. Phylum Phaeophyta (brown algae)
Rhizaria synapomorphies: produce elaborate shell-like coverings of cells and use very slender pseudopodia to move Broken Down Into: 1. Phylum Foraminifera (forams) 2. Phylum Radiolaria (radiolarians)
Archaeplastida synapomorphy: primary endosymbiosis – chloroplasts with a double membrane, derived from an ancestor directly engulfing a cyanobacterium Broken Down Into: 1. Phylum Rhodophyta (red algae) 2. Phylum Chlorophyta (green algae) 3. Kingdom Plantae (plants)
Amoebozoa synapomorphy: move using relatively large lobe-shaped pseudopodia Broken Down Into: 1. Phylum Gymnamoeba (freeliving amoebas) 2. Phylum Entamoeba (parasitic amoebas) 3. Phylum Acrasiomycota (cellular slime molds) 4. Myxomycota (plasmodial slime molds)
Opisthokonta synapomorphies: when present, single flagellum at base of reproductive cells, flat cristae inside mitochondria Broken Down Into: Animals Fungi Choanoflagellates
Diplomonads Belong to Excavata 1. “double cell” structure 2. have two equal-sized nuclei and multiple flagella 3. modified mitochondria called mitosomes 4. includes Giardia lamblia, the organism that causes “hiker’s diarrhea”
Parabasalids Belong to Excavata 1. modified mitochondria called hydrogenosomes that make hydrogen gas 2. includes Trichomanas vaginalis, a sexually transmitted parasite in humans
Euglenids Belong to Discicristata • characterized by having a helical, flexible protein coat called a pellicle on the outside of cell • only asexual reproduction • some photosynthetic • some are facultative heterotrophs
Kinetoplastids Belong to Discicristata • single, large mitochondrion that has an organized mass of DNA called a kinetoplast • African sleeping sickness
Dinoflagellata Belong to Alveolata 1. unicellular, mostly marine; 2. have 2 flagella 3. have an exoskeleton made up of plates of cellulose Cause RED TIDES
Apicomplexa Belong to Alveolata 1. unicellular 2. nonmotile, spore-forming parasites of animals 4. complex life cycle, with both sexual and asexual phases – alternation of generations CAUSE OF MALARIA
Ciliophora Belong to Alveolata 1. unicellular 3. most with many cilia 4. outer covering (called pellicle) of tough protein material 6. two types of nuclei: macronucleus (large) and micronucleus (small)
Oomycota Belong to Stramenopila 2. parasites or saprobes 3. cellulose or cellulose-like cell wall 5. asexual and sexual reproduction CAUSE POTATOE BLIGHT
Bacillariophyta (diatoms) Belong to Stramenopila 1. have chlorophylls a and c 3. unicellular 5. occur in plankton 6. lack flagella 7. have a cell wall made up of double shells of silica that fit together like a box and lid 8. diatom shells have intricate designs GRASS OF THE SEA
Chrysophyta (golden algae) 3. unicellular but often colonial 4. freshwater protists 5. have yellow and brown carotenoid and xanthophyll 6. typically have two flagella CHRYS(tals) and GOLD look good together
Phaeophyta (brown algae) KELPS
Foraminifera (forams) Belong to Rhizaria 3. make skeleton (called test) of organic material plus sand, calcium carbonate 4. podia (thin cytoplasmic projections) used for swimming, feeding HAVE *FOREARMS* that extend from their shell
Radiolaria (radiolarians) 1. unicellular 2. have glassy shells (external skeletons) made of silica 4. use needle-like pseudopodia for locomotion 5. marine group: part of plankton THEY LOOK LIKE RADIO SPEAKERS
Rhodophyta (red algae) Belong to Archaeplastida 2. no flagella They are red because they need to photosynthesize deep underwater
Chlorophyta (green algae) Belong to Archaeplastida 2. diverse (mostly aquatic, both marine and freshwater species; some semi-terrestrial) 3. full range from unicellular to colonial to multicellular species • major producers in aquatic ecosystems (base of food chains)
Gymnamoeba (free-living amoebas) Belong to Amoebozoa 1. unicellular 2. amorphous (change shape readily) 3. move by pseudopodia or “false feet”
Entamoeba (parasitic amoebas) Belong to Amoebozoa 1. similar to free-living amoebas, but are parasites of animals AMOEBIC DYSENTERY
Acrasiomycota (cellular slime molds) Belong to Amoebozoa 2. found in fresh water and on rotting vegetation 3. life cycle: • lack of food – aggregation into multicellular "slug" • slug migrates toward light, • sexual reproduction forms diploid nuclei that undergo zygotic meiosis
Myxomycota (plasmodial slime molds) Belong to Amoebozoa essentially an "organic ooze" the flows around and ingests organic matter
Fungi cell walls made of chitin, heterotrophs, Most multicelluar with slender filaments called hyphae
Fungal Reproduction Reproduce by spores, Sexual reprodustion for most is zygotic meiosis
Plasmogamy first step of syngamy: union of gamete cells
Karyogamy second step of syngamy: union of gamete nuclei
Dikaryotic hyphae → n + n (this is before karyogamy) Dikaryotic mycelium is a major phase of the fungal life cycle
Chytridomycota: Chytrids Motile zoospores Primarily acquatic Likely either a sister group to other fungi Paraphyletic basal assemblage: basing that starts a group Largely single celled Both sexual and asexual reproduction Alternation of generations
Zygomycota: zygomycetes Apparently paraphyletic Have hyphae Sexual reproduction: meiospores made in zygosporangia Thick protective structure Importance → including many bread molds (which are asexual)
Phylum Glomeromycota Form arbuscular mycorrhizae with plants This helps the plant to absorb minerals The hyphae push into the root cells of the plants About 90% of all plants have these Monophyletic grouping
Mycorrhizzae association of fungus with plant root 90% of plants have and benefit from mycorrizhal relationships
endomycorrhizae go into the cell, arbizcular mycorrizhae. Fungus penetrates root, provides cell with minerals. More general of the two forms
ectomycorrizhae more specific, no penetration. Orchids and gymnosperms have these
Lichens an association with fungi and algae Never a plant Alga or cyanobacteria serves as a producer Pioneer species found in extreme environments like tundra Algal cells are imbedded within the hyphae Primary producers in harsh environments
Phylum Ascomycota Sexual reproduction, Spores come from ascus, septate hyphae,
monophyletic a taxon (group of organisms) which forms a clade, meaning that it consists of an ancestor and all its descendants
paraphyletic includes most recent common ancestor BUT not all descendants
polyphyletic does not include most recent common ancestor, BAD GROUPING
Domain Eukarya consists of eukaryotes, organisms with a discrete cellular nucleus (and other internal membrane-bound organelles)
Zygotic Meiosis zygote immediately undergoes meiosis diploid zygote never undergoes mitosis; mitosis only in haploid cells, making haploid individuals found in many protists
Gametic Meiosis • meiosis produces gametes that never undergo mitosis • zygote undergoes mitosis, making diploid individuals • found in most animals
Alternation of Generations with Sporic Meiosis • zygote undergoes mitosis, making diploid individuals • some diploid cells undergo meiosis to make haploid spores (sporic meiosis)
Kingdom Fungi heterotrophs with cell walls made of chitin most multicellular, with slender filamentous units called hyphae digest food with secreted enzymes (external digestion) no motile stages for most (no swimming cells – lack cilia and flagella)
Haustoria are specialized hyphae that penetrate cells (for feeding or other purposes)
Mycelium mass of hyphae
meiospores sexual spores of fungus (formed by meiosis)
mitospores asexual spores of fungus (formed by mitosis)
Kingdom Plantae A. eukaryotic, multicellular, with cell walls rich in cellulose B. most are photosynthetic, with chloroplasts containing chlorophylls a and b and carotenoids C. all have alternation of generations D. dominate nearly all terrestrial communities
Plant Sporophyte multicellular diploid organism; makes spores via meiosis
Plant Gametophyte multicellular haploid organism; makes gametes via mitosis
Antheridium male gametangia, make sperm in plants
Archegonium female gametangia, make eggs in plants
Phylum Hepatophyta – liverworts some with flattened bodies (thalli) simpler than mosses gametophytes develop directly from spores gametophyte growth is prostrate (flat) asexual reproduction occurs in thalloid forms from gemmae splashed out of gemma cups on “leaves”
Phylum Anthocerophyta – hornworts cells typically have a single chloroplast, very much like the chloroplast of green algae sporophyte partially independent from gametophyte green; photosynthetic functional stomata still embedded in gametophyte, gets some nutrition from it
Phylum Bryophyta - mosses small “leaves” arranged spirally or alternately around a stem-like axis “leaves” not true leaves; only one cell thick, except at midrib anchored to substrate with root-like rhizoids
Xylem • conducts water and dissolved minerals upward • typically dead cells • typically at least partially lignified (having lignin, a highly branched polymer that makes cell wall more rigid)
Ploem • transports carbohydrates in solution throughout plant (down and up) • living cells
Vascular Plants only with vascular tissue do you have true leaves, stems, and roots waxy cuticle stomata
Seedless Vascular Plants (ferns and fern allies) sporophyte dominant and can grow independent of gametophyte in all gametophyte small, reduced, but still able to grow independent of sporophyte in all
extinct Phylum Rhyniophyta branching axis; no leaves or roots only a few centimeters tall sporangia at ends of branches appearance much like that of modern-day whisk ferns homosporous
homosporous only one spore type, so only one gametophyte type
Phylum Lycophyta – club mosses small, resembling mosses leafy stems usually less than 30 cm long their leaves are also called microphylls, with very little vascular tissue (just a single vein); homosporous and heterosporous genera
heterosporous plant makes two types of meiospores, resulting in two types of gametophytes
megaspore is larger of the two; grows via mitosis into the female gametophyte
microspore is smaller of the two; grows via mitosis into the male gametophyte
Phylum Pterophyta – ferns
Created by: asculpepper