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Embryo Ch. 1 & 2

From Book "Before We Are Born"

Oocyte or egg or ovum female germ (sex cell) produced in ovaries.
Secondary oocyte “mature ovum”
Sperm or spermatozoon male germ produced in testes. Expelled through urethra
Zygote celled formed by union of oocyte and sperm.
Fertilized ovum refers to 2ndary oocyte that has been impregnated by a sperm to become zygote
Fertilization Age or Conception cannot be observseved in vivo (in living body)
Fertilization is calcuted from the first day of the last normal menstrual period minus 2 weeks.
Cleavage mitotic cell division of the zygote from embryonic cells
Blastomeres cells that continue to divide and become smaller w/ each division.
Morula ball of cells resulting from cleavage (when 12 to 32 blastomeres form); approx 3 days after fertilization.
Blastocyst is formed from morula when blastocystic cavity (fluid filled cavity) is formed inside morula. Blastocyst contains an inner cell mass (EMBRYOBLAST) that will form the embryo.
Embryo developing human in earl stages (until 8th week when all major structures appear).
Conceptus entire products of conception (from fertiliz to placenta)
Primordium or Anlage first discernible indication of an organ.
Fetus after 8 weeks. Fetal period 9 weeks to birth. Differentiation and growth of the tissues and organs.
Puberty begins when secondary sex characteristics begin to appear 12- 15 in girls and 13- 16 in boys.
Menarche first menstruation 8-11 yrs; done by 16.
Gametes or sex cells in the sexes are called Oocyte, girls and sperm boys
When an oocyte and and sperm come together they form zygote
The Vagina is excretory passage for menstrual fluid and receives penis
The Hymen is thin fold of mucous membrane surrounding vaginal orifice
Ovaries are located in the pelvic cavity, one on each side; produce oocytes
Uterus is what shape? Where is the body and the cervix? pear shaped organ. the body is the expanded superior 2/3rds. the Cervix is cylindrical inferior third
Fundus rounded part of uterine body lies superior to uterine tubes
Isthmus constricted region b/w the body and cervix
Cervical canal lumen of cervix
Internal os superior communicates w/ cavity of body
External os inferior communicates w/ vagina
What are the Walls of Body of the Uterus made of? 1. Perimetrium – thin external layer of peritoneum 2. Myometrium – thick smooth muscle layer 3. Endometrium - thin inner mucous membrane 4-5 mm thick. During luteal phase can be distinguished
What are the 3 types of connective tissue in the uterus? Compact – densely packed connective tissue Spongy – edematous connective tissue Basal – blind ends of uterine glands; own blood supply
What layers shed during menstration? Compact and spongy are shed during menstruation
Uterine tubes extend laterally from the horns of uterus; 10-12 com long. Carry oocytes from ovaries and sperm from uterus to the ampulla.
What are the parts of the Utering tubes? Fibria, Infundibulum, Ampulla, Isthmus, Uterine Part
Fimbria closest to ovary
Infundibulum superior to fimbria
Ampulla fertilization site
Uterine part connecting to cavity of uterus
Ovaries pear shaped; each side of uterus; produce estrogen, progesterone and oocytes
Female Sex Organs Vulva/pudendum, labia majora & minora, clitoris, , hymen and vestibule of the vulva (cleft b/w the labia minora)
Male sex organs testes, epididymis, vas deferens, ejaculatory duct, penis, erectile tissue
Testes has many highly coiled seminifouerous tubules that produce sperm.
Epididymis store and mature the sperm; receives from testes
Ductus deferens carries sperms to ejaculatory duct from epididymis
Ejaculatory duct located in pelvis; enters urethra
Penis and erectile tissue causes penis to become erect by filling 3 layers of e.t. with blood for easy insertion during sex
Gametogenesis is formation of sex cells by wh/ specializes gametes are formed.
Gametes are contain half the number of required chromosomes (23)
Meiosis consists of two cell divisions to reduce the number of chromosomes from 46 (diploid) to 23 (haploid).
Explain the First division of meoisis Chromosomes reduced from diploid to haploid and Homologous chromosomes ( one from each parent, same chromo but w/ diff genetic info) pair up in Prophase I and then separate in Anaphase I
What is the term for the separation of paired homologous chromos? Physical basis of segregation
Explain the Second division of Meosis 1. Follows first div w/out a normal Interphase (no DNA replication) 2. Each chromo divides and each half (chromatid) is drawn to opposite pole of meiotic spindle 3. Each daughter cell has haploid # with 1 represent of each chromo pair (now a single chrom
Meoisis Provides 1.constancy of chromo # 2. Allows random assortment of maternal and paternal chromos 2.Shuffles genes and produces a recombo of genetic material by crossing over of chromo segments
Created by: 650822713