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Stack #34270

What is atrophy? a decrease or shrinkage in cell size.
Why do cells change? escape injury and protect themselves.
Shrinkage in tissue leads to shrinkage in an organ
Occurs during early developement. An example would be the thymus gland undegoes atrophy during child hood. Physiologic atrophy
Normal atrophy Physiologic atrophy
Occurs as a result in a decreased workload, pressure, use, blood supply, nutrition, hormonal stimulation, and nervous stimulation. Pathologic atrophy
abnormal atrophy pathologic atrophy
An increase in cell size hypertrophy
three common cell types that undergo atrophy heart, kidneys, and skeletal muscles
3 causes of hypertrophy increase in cellular protein,increase in functional demand on the cell, triggers of hypertrophy mechanical and trophic signals
Stretching and working out mechanical signals of hypertrophy
Trophic hypertrophy growth factors, hormones, and vasoactive agents
An increase in the number of cells resulting from an increased rate of cellular divison hyperplasia
where is hyperplasia commonly found? in epithelial cells(skin, mouth), hepatocytes( liver cells),and kidney cells
Cells MUST exhibit the capacity to divide hyperplasia
Hyperplasia and hypertrophy can occur together and both take place if the cell can synthesize dna
Compensatory hyperplasia is normal and enables certain organs to regeneratate at cellular levels
cells that can not regenerate include skeletal muscle, nerve, myocardial,and some cells of the eye
Compensatory hyperplasia commonly occurs in the liver epidermal and intestinal epithelia, hepatocytes, liver cells, bone marrow, fibroblasts, bone and cartilage, and smooth muscle cell see page 68 in book
increase in # of cells due to estrogen influence hormonal hyperplasia
who exhibits hormonal hyperplasia women and men experince it during puberty
Where does hormonal hyperplasia commonly occur? in estrogen dependent organs
dysplasia abnormal changes in size shape and organization of mature cells
where is dysplasia commonly found? in epithelial tissue of the cervix and respiratory tract
how can dysplasia be classified mild, moderate, or severe
What often causes dysplasia? cancerous cell growth or irritating stimuli such as smoking
Removal of the stimulus does what to dysplastic changes? reverses the abnormal cell growth
abnormal proliferation of normal cells in response to some type of stimulation Pathologic hyperplasia
Cancer is abnormal growth on abnormal cells not pathologic hyperplasia because hyperplasia is on normal cells
Reversible replacement of one mature cell by another metaplasia
What do columnar epithelial cells do that assists in maintaing a healthy airway? it works as a filter to keep airways clean but smokers get squamous epithelial cells which do not filter the airway
Why is it devestaing for the airway to have metaplasia in the airway? dysplasia and cancerous transformation can occur
What is thought to cause metaplasia? thought to be caused by stem cells getting confused due to new stimuli (smoking) in the cell's enviroment
Celluar injury occurs when? if the cell is unable to maintain homeostasis
when injured cells can recover reversible injury
when injured cells can not recover irreversible injury
what is the most common mechanism of cell injury? hypoxic injury
What is hypoxia? lack of sufficent oxygen
What are causes of hypoxia? loss of hemoglobin, decreased production of RBC, disease of the cardiovascular system, and poisioning of oxidative enzymes
lack of blood supply ischemia
what is the most common cause of hypoxia? ischemia
What causes ischemia? gradual narrowing of the arteries ( aretriosclerosis) and complete blockage of blood clots ( thrombosis)
What is anoxia? a total lack of oxygen that is sudden
Embolus(blood clot), drowning, stroke, and pulmonary embolus are examples of anoxia
which is more damaging anoxia or hypoxia? anoxia bc its sudden
Chemical injury begins when? a biochemical interaction between a toxic substance and the cell's plasma membrane causing damage and increased permeability
What causes cellular injury? direct toxicity by combining wirh a molecular component of the cell membrane or organelles and reactive free radicals and lipid peroxidation
free radicals like to bind with Vitamin E
Created by: Snpatrck