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Chapter 4 Med Trans


thin sheet squamous epithelial cells, several layers thick epidermis
epidermis is constantly renewed as deepest layer grows out to replace surface cells
provides mechanical toughness for epidermis keratin
imparts skin to characteristic color melanin
tough layer connective tissue containing blood vessels, sensory nerves, hair follicles & sebaceous/sweat glands dermis
protects body surface & provides thermal insulation hair
localized zone of inflammation due to staphylococcal infection, pus forms in tissue space walled off from surrounding tissues by fibrous, coagulated tissue fluids & eventually fibrous tissue abscess
local/widespread loss of scalp hair alopecia
ripping/tearing away of a part avulsion
inflammation of one/both eyelids blepharitis
fluid-filled epidermal sac larger than a vesicle bulla
a bulla can also be referred to as blister
spreading lesion made up of furuncles communicating by subcutaneous passages carbuncle
infection occurring in soft tissues, incl skin, cardinal features diffuse/spreading tissue swelling, redness, pain & fever cellulitis
cellulitis is often caused by streptococci
zone fibrous tissue at site of healed injury/inflammatory/destructive lesion extending into dermis cicatrix
cicatrix is also referred to as scar
nard, friable, irregular layer dried blood, serum, pus, tissue debris/any combination adherent at surface of injured/inflamed skin crust
crust is also referred to as scab
cryosurgical instrument containing circulating refrigerant, which can rapidly chill to deliver subfreezing temp to tissues cryoprobe
inflammation of skin dermatitis
gen term for any abnormal condition of skin, usually excluding inflammatory conditions dermatosis
property of abnormally sensitive skin by which strokes/writing w/pointed object are reproduced on skin surface as raised red lines dermatographism
consisting of small, flat plaques discoid
surface defect in epidermis produced by rubbing/scratching erosion
crust that forms on a burn eschar
increase in severity of disease, particularly when occurring over period of remission exacerbation
abrasion of epidermal surface by scratching excoriation
linear defect/crack in continuity of epidermis fissure
crumbly, fragmented, or bleeding easily on touch/manipulation friable
friable is said usually of diseased tissue
deep, solitary abscess furuncle
overgrown, usually as result of increase in size of cells hypertrophic
firm, nodular, irregular, often pigmented mass of fibrous tissue representing hypertrophic scar keloid
thickening, coarsening, & pigment change of skin due to chronic irritation, usually scratching lichenification
flat patch/mark differing in color from surrounding skin macule
pertaining to or situated on cheeks nevus
hidden/not obvious, sometimes able to be inferred from indirect evidence occult
small elevated zone of skin papule
small depression in skin resulting from local atrophy/scarring after trauma/inflammation pit
pertaining to sole of feet plantar
itching pruritus/pruritic
gen term for any purulent infection of skin pyoderma
pus-forming purulent
flake of epidermis shed from skin surface scale
enlargement & deformity of external nose rhinophyma
rhinophyma usually occurs as result of rosacea
pertaining to telangiectasia telangiectatic
permanent dilation of small blood vessels, visible through skin/mucous surface telangiectatic
cutaneous defect extending into dermis ulcer
animal that transmits a pathogenic organism from one host to another vector
small thin-walled sac containing clear fluid vesicle
wheals are characteristic lesions of hives
small zone of edema in skin, which may be red/white; typically multiple & appear/disappear abruptly wheal (weal, welt)
athlete's foot is the lay term for tinea pedis
baldness is the lay term for alopecia
bruise is the lay term for contusion
blackhead is the lay term for comedo
blister is the lay term for vesicle
hives is the lay term for urticaria/wheals
wrinkles is the lay term for rhytids
zit is the lay term for pustule (acne)
local/general eruptions/rashes, itching, dryness/scaling, pigment changes & solid tumors of various kinds most common skin complaints
disorders of hair (abnormal appearance of hair, excessive hair, hair loss) & nails (deformity, discoloration) are also part of dermatological history
type, #, grouping, location of lesions; comb features occurring together; signs of evolutionary chng, 2ndary infection, effect of treatment; presence of assoc symptoms factor considered for cutaneous diagnosis
during exam of skin examiner palpates any area that appears abnormal & observes its temp, texture, tenseness/laxness, moistness/dryness & tenderness/crepitation
degree to which tissue spaces are filled w/extracellular fluid, especially skin & subcutaneous spaces turgor
maintains a triangular or tent like appearance when gently pinched; indicative of dehydration tenting
glass/plastic plate pressed against skin permitting observation changes produced in underlying areas after blood vessels emptied & skin is blanched diascope
fading of redness on pressure indicates redness is probably due to dilatation of skin capillaries blanching
redness due to hemorrhage/abnormal pigment will not fade on pressure
chronic pruritic condition of skin atopic dermatitis
atopic dermatitis is also referred to as eczema
dermatitis resulting from contact with an irritant/allergen contact dermatitis
spreading bacterial infection of skin causing itching & crusted sores impetigo
cause of impetigo can be staphylococci, sometimes streptococci
refers to development of impetigo in area of skin already damaged by noninfectious dermatitis impetiginization
most patient have personal/family history of allergy; exacerbated by irritants, emotional stress cause of atopic dermatitis
superficial fungal infection of skin tinea corporis, tinea circinata, ringworm of body
fungi of genera Epidermophyton, Microsporum, & Trichophyton are causes tinea corporis, tinea circinata, ringworm of body
occurs on area remote from site of infection, usually hands, wrists/sides of fingers dermatophytid
localized/generalized, sterile 2ndary skin eruption occurring in sensitized patients as result of circulation of allergenic products from primary site of infection id reaction
ringworm of scalp; infected hairs break off at scalp surface, leaving patches often with black dots representing roots of broken-off hairs tinea capitis
complication with boggy edema & exudation of pus through hair follicle openings kerion
erythema, itching, scaling, fissuring, maceration & vesicle formation of varying degree, particularly btwn toes caused by tinea pedis
jock itch; similar infection to tinea pedis but in groin region tinea cruris
consists of variable #s of white to tan macules with very fine scales tinea versicolor
tinea versicolor is caused by Malassezia furfur
fungal disease of the nails; nails become opaque, white, thickened, & friable onychomycosis
starting w/white patches/pits on nail surface/around margins & sometimes spreading beneath nail plate tinea unguium
infection of skin & mucous membranes w/yeastlike fungus candidiasis
local viral infection of skin/mucous membranes causing vesicular lesions, typically recurrent herpes simplex
virally induced coarse papules of skin & mucous membranes warts/verrucae
chronic eruption of comedones, papules, pustules & cysts occurring primarily in adolescence acne vulgaris
reddish facial eruption occurring in middle-aged & elderly acne rosacea
acute, often transitory eruption of intensely itchy papules/wheals urticaria (hives)
chronic skin disorder characterized by scaly plaques psoriasis
mild, benign, self-limited scaly eruption pityriasis rosea
slowly, growing, waxy or pearly papule w/telangiectatic vessels, appearing usually on parts exposed to sunlight, especially face basal cell carcinoma
hard red nodule appearing on sun-exposed skin, usually in middle-aged/elderly squamous cell carcinoma
pigmented malignancy of skin, progresses rapidly. metastasizes widely & fatal w/out treatment melanoma
caused by contact of skin/mucous membrane w/hot objects, liquids or vapors thermal burns
redness of skin surface w/out blistering 1st degree burns
redness & blistering of skin 2nd degree burns
redness, blistering & charring 3rd degree burns
total removal of part, normal/abnormal, by surgical/chemical means ablation
complete excision/removal of some adjacent normal-appearing tissue also removed for comparison skin lesion; biopsy, excisional
partial removal of lesion by making incision into lesion & removing section; some adjacent normal-appearing tissue also removed for comparison biopsy, incisional
removal of one section of lesion using sharp surgical instrument biopsy, punch
removal of all/part skin lesion; tissue sent to path lab for histologic diagnosis & determine if malignant biopsy, skin
abbreviation for biopsy bx
application of liquid nitrogen, at temp -196degrees C, to destroy superficial skin lesions cryosurgery
local treatment of neoplasms or other lesions by freezing cryotherapy
successive scraping away of dead skin down to viable tissue that bleeds, especially for burns debridement
application of electrical current to destroy superficial skin lesions fulguration
desiccates tissue by dehydration, using electrical current/fulguration electrodesiccation
section of skin transplanted to area of body graft
skin test in which antigen is injected below skin & resulting reaction is evaluated intradermal test
application of filter paper containing allergen to skin of sensitive patient 24-48hrs patch test
surgery concerned with restoration, reconstruction, correction/improvement in shape/appearance of body structures that are defective, damaged/misshapen by injury, disease/anomalous growth & development plastic surgery
1/more small scratches/superficial cuts made in skin; minute amount of substance to be tested inserted in scratches & allowed to remain there for short time scratch test
ultraviolet lamp w/filter that selects wavelengths under which fungi infecting skin/hair fluoresce bright Wood light
may identify underlying, perhaps systemic, conditions/provide addt'l info about skin disorder blood studies
exudate, pus, crusts, or scrapings for bacteria, fungi, or viruses culture
identify fungal material, mites of scabies, & distinctive kinds of scales microscopic exam of scrapings from skin
skin scrapings are usually treated with ____ & heat which partially/completely dissolve human tissue but leave fungal elements unchanged potassium hydroxide KOH
used to remove oil & dead skin keratolytic action
closes up pores astringent action
inhibits growth of skin bacteria antiseptic action
kills skin bacteria antibiotic action
may be prescribed orally for systemic treatment of acne vulgaris tetracycline
severe cystic acne that is unresponsive to antibiotic treatment may be treated with Retin-A or Accutane
form of vitamin A, as tretinoin, cause epithelial to multiply rapidly preventing pore blockage/infection, decreasing cyst formation Retin-A
isotretinoin, used systemically, causes epithelial to multiply rapidly preventing pore blockage/infection, decreasing cyst formation Accutane
decreases rate of epidermal cell prod, correct abnormalities of keratinocytes, cleanses away dead skin & decrease itching psoriasis treatment with coal tar lotions, gels, shampoos & bath liquids
synthetic vitamin D, calcipotriene, applied topically to activate Vitamin D receptors in keratinocytes & slow abnormal cell growth Dovonex
drug sensitizes skin to effects of ultraviolet light, damaging cell DNA & decreasing rate of cell division for severe psoriasis psoralens
psoralens are a combination of Oxsoralen-Ultra & 8-MOP (methoxsalen)
PUVA psoralen/ultraviolet wavelength A
combination therapy of methoxsalen & ultraviolet light PUVA
over-the-counter & prescription forms used to relieve contact dermatitis, poison ivy, & insect bites topical corticosteroids
topical corticosteroids are also used to treat conditions including psoriasis, seborrhea & eczema
used to treat minor, superficial bacterial infections by inhibiting growth of/kill bacteria by blocking ability to maintain cell wall topical antibiotics
topical antibiotics are manufactured as gels, lotions, creams, & sprays
treat tinea & onychomycosis by altering cell wall of fungus & disrupt enzyme activity, resulting in cell death topical antifungal drugs
topical antifungal drugs are manufactured in cream, ointment, lotion & shampoo forms
Desenex, Micatin, Monistat-Derm, Aftate & Tinactin are all over-the-counter topical antifungal drugs
oral drugs such as griseofulvin, itraconazole, ketoconazole & terbinafine are used to treat severe topical fungal skin infections
topical corticosteroids inhibit inflammation & itching
antihistamines inhibit inflammation, redness & itching
applied topically to relieve itching, redness & inflammation; combination of topical corticosteroids & antihistamines antipruritics