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Vanders Physiology 1

Chapter 1: Homeostasis: A Framework for Human Physiology

QuestionAnswer
Aggregate of single type of specialized cell; also denotes general cellular fabric of a given organ Tissue
Cell Influenced by a certain hormone Target Cell
Detectable change in internal or external environment Stimulus
No net change occurs; continual energy input to system is required, however, to prevent net change Steady State
Net loss of substance from body equals net gain, and amount of substance in body neither increases nor decreases Stable Balance
Steady-State value maintained by homeostatic control system Set Point
Neural or hormonal components that mediate a reflex; includes receptor, afferent pathway, integrating center, efferent pathway and effector Reflex Arc
Biological control system linking stimulus with response and mediated by a reflex arc Reflex
Specialized peripheral ending of afferent neuron, or separate cell intimately associated with it, that detects changes in some aspect of environment: specific binding site with which a chemical messenger combines to exert its effects Receptor
Characteristic of control systems in which an initial disturbance sets off train of events that increases the disturbance even further Positive Feedback
Gain of substance exceeds loss, and amount of that substance in body increases Positive Balance
The readily available quantity of a substance in the body; often equals the amount of extracellular fluid Pool
A secretory (endocrine) gland located within the brain; responsible for production and secretion of melatonin, which may play a role in coordinating circadian rhythms Pineal Gland
Branch of biology dealing with the mechanisms by which living things function Physiology
A resetting of the internal clock due to altered environmental cues Phase Shift
Chemical messenger that exerts its effects on cells near its secretion site; by convention, excludes neurotransmitters Paracrine Agent
Neurons that set rhythm of biological clocks independent of external cues; any nerve or muscle cell that has an inherent autorhythmicity and determines activity pattern of other cells Pacemaker
Candidate hormone secreted by pineal gland; suspected role in setting body's circadian rhythms Melatonin
Organs that together serve an overall function Organ System
One of the four major tissue types in the body; responsible for coordinated control of muscle activity, reflexes and conscious thought Nerve Tissue
Characteristic of control systems in which system's response opposes the original change in the system Negative Feedback
Loss of substance from body exceeds gain, and total amount in body decreases, also used for physical parameters such as body temperature and energy Negative Balance
Death of a cell or population of cells with a tissue or organ, usually due to oxygen and nutrient deprivation Necrosis
One of the four major tissue types in the body, comprising smooth, cardiac and skeletal muscle: can be under voluntary or involuntary control Muscle Tissue
Specialized cell containing actin and myosin filaments and capable of generating force and movement Muscle Cell
Response acting in immediate vicinity of a stimulus, without nerves or hormones, and having net effect of counteracting stimulus Local Homeostatic Response
Extracellular fluid surrounding tissue cells; excludes plasma Interstitual Fluid
Extracellular Fluid (Interstitual fluid and plasma) Internal Environment
Cells that receive one or more signals and send out appropriate response; also called an integrator Integrating Center
Chronically increased arterial blood pressure Hypertension
Chemical messenger synthesized by specific endocrine cells in response to certain stimuli and secreted into the blood, which carries it to target cells Hormone
Relatively stable condition of extracellular fluid that results from regulatory system actions Homeostasis
Collection of interconnected components that keeps a physical or chemical parameter of internal environment relatively constant within a predetermined range of values Homeostatic Control System
Cyclical activity driven by biological clock in absence of environmental cues Free Running System
Aspect of some control systems that allow system to anticipate changes in a regulated variable Feedforward
A complex consisting of a mixture of proteins (sometimes minerals) in which extracellular fluid is interspersed Extracellular Matrix
Fluid outside cell; interstitual fluid and plasma Extracellular Fluid
Environment surrounding external source of an organism External Environment
No net change occurs in a system; requires no energy Equilibrium
Tissue that covers all body surfaces, lines all body cavities, and forms most glands Epithelium
Adjusting biological rhythm to environmental cues Entrainment
Group of epithelial cells that secrete into the extracellular space hormones that then diffuse into bloodstream; also called a ductless gland Endocrine Gland
A protein with elastic, or springlike properties; found in large arteries and in the airways Elastin Fiber
Component of reflex arc that transmits information from integrating center to effector Efferent Pathway
Cell or cell collection whose change in activity constitutes the response in a control system Effector
Time during development when a system is most readily influenced by factors, sometimes irreversibly Critical Period
Cell specialized to form extracellular elements that connect, anchor and support body structures Connective Tissue Cell
One of the four major categories of tissue in the body; major component of extracellular matrices, cartilage and bone Connective Tissue
Strong, fibrous protein that function as extracellular structural element in connective tissue Collagen
24 hour cycle Circadian Rhythm
Thin layer of extracellular proteinaceous material upon which epithelial and endothelial cells sit Basement Membrane
Chemical messenger that is secreted into extracellular fluid and acts upon cell that secretes it Autocrine Agent
Programmed cell death that typically occurs during differentiation and development Apoptosis
Component of reflex arc that transmits information from receptor to integrating center Afferent Pathway
Environmentally induced improvement in functioning of a physiological system with no change in genetic endowment Acclimatization
Created by: Daniel Han Daniel Han on 2010-01-23



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