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MOT 135

Renal - Urinary

List the organs of the urinary system 2 kidneys, 2 ureters, 1 urinary bladder, and 1 urethra
State the function of the kidneys The formation of urine, and the rest of the organ structure is responsible for eliminating the urine
List one the 4 functions of the renal / urinary system Regulation of the volume of blood by excretion or conservation of water
List the two internal tissue layers of the kidneys outer tissue layer - renal cortex ; inner tissue layer - renal medulla
State the specific location of the kidneys in the abdominal cavity Retroperitoneal (upper abdominal cavity on either side of the vertebral column, behind the peritoneum. The upper portions of the kidneys rest on the lower surface of the diaphragm and are enclosed and protected by the lower rib cage
List one the 4 functions of the renal / urinary system Regulation of the acid-base balance of the
List one the 4 functions of the renal / urinary system Regulation of volume, electrolyte content and acid-base balance of tissue fluid
State the name of the connective tissue membrane that covers the kidneys renal fascia (helps hold the kidneys in place)
List one the 4 functions of the renal / urinary system Regulation of the electrolyte content of the blood by the excretion of conservation of minerals
State the name of the cavity within the kidneys renal pelvis, this is not a layer of tissue but a cavity formed by the expansion of the ureter withing the kidney at the hilus
Identify the indentation where the renal artery enters and the renal vein exits the kidneys abdominal aorta - renal artery - small arteries in the kidney - afferent arterioles - glomeruli - efferent arteriold - peritublular capillaries - small veins in the kidney - renal vein - inferior vena cava
Identify the expanded end of a renal tubule that surrounds the glomerulus Bowman's capsule (or glomerular capsule ) it encloses the glomerulus. The inner layer of bowman's capsule is made of podcytes; the name for foot cells and the feet of the podcytes are on the surface of the glomerular capillaries.
State the name of the fluid which is formed from blood, and will eventually become urine Renal filtrate (fluid formed from blood) and will become urine
Describe the formation of the papillary duct Renal tubule consists of the proximal convoluted tubule, loop of henle distal convoluted tubule, and collection tubule. Collecting tubules unite to form papillary ducts.
State the name of the structure which receives urine into the renal pelvis calyces of the renal pelvis
List the 3 steps in the formation of urine glomerular filtration: occurs withig the renal tubules takes place in the renal corpuscles. Tubular reabsorption: occurs within the renal tubules. Tubular secretion occurs within the renal tubules.
Reabsorption with the formation of urine tubular reabsorption: in the renal tubules most (99%) of the renal filtrate is reabsorbed back into th eblood in peritubular capillaries.
Describe active transportation in relationship to reabsorption with the formation of urine ATP transport useful materials from filtrate to the blood. Reabsorption of glucose, amino acids, vitamins, and positive ions; threshold level is a limit to the quantity that can be reabsorbed
Describe passive transport in relationship to reabsorption with the formation of urine negative ions are reabsobed after positive ions back to the blood. Or most negative ions follow the reabsorption of positive ions
Describe osmosis in relationship to reabsorption with the formation of urine water is reabsorbed back to the blood after minerals are reabsorbed. Or, water flows the reabsorption of minerals, especially sodium
Describe pinocytosis in relationship to reabsorption with the formation of urine Small proteins are too large to be reabsorbed by active transport are absorbed by proximal convoluted tubule cell membranes. Or, small proteins are engulfed by proximal tubule cells
List the 3 main hormones which can influence reabsorption of water aldosterone, atrial natrurectic peptide, antidiuretic hormone
What mechanism does Atrial natriuretic peptide - (ANP) hormone influence in reabsorption stretching artrial walls caused by: high blood pressure, high blood volume
What mechanism does Antidiuretic hormone influence in reabsorption low body water volume
What mechanism does Aldosterone hormone influence in reabsorption high potassium, low sodium, decreased blood pressure,
Describe the location of the ureters extends from the hilus of a kidney to the lower, posterior side of the urinary bladder. They are retroperitoneal, behind the peritoneum of the dorsal abdominal cavity
Describe the function of the ureters the smooth muscle in the wall of the ureter contracts in peristaltic waves to propel urine toward the urinary bladder. As the bladder fills, it expands and compresses the lower ends of the ureters to prevent backflow of urine
Describe peristaltic waves in the ureters peristaltic waves to propel urine toward the urinary bladder.
Describe urinary bladder rugae the mucosa of the bladder is transitional epithelium which permits expansion without tearing the lining. When the bladder is empty, the mucosa appears wrinkled these folds are rugae, which also permits expansion
List the function of urinary bladder rugae expand to hold urine
State the name of the smooth muscle layer in the wall of the bladder detrusor muscle
Define trigone Triangular area on the floor of the urinary bladder bounded by the opening of the two ureters and the urethra. Has not rugae, does not expand
State the function of the urethra carries urine from the bladder to the exterior
State the location of the urethra 1 to 1.5 inches long and is anterior to the vagina in women. In men it is 7 - 8- inches long just outside the bladder, the prostatic urethra surrounded by the prostate gland
Define micturition urination; the voiding ofr elimination of urine from the urinary bladder
Define urochrome a typical yellow color of urine, a breakdown product of bile.
State the source of urochrome from bile
Describe the functional structure of the kidney most responsible for maintaining the pH of blood and tissue fluid within normal ranges.
Describe the functional unit of the kidney Each kidney contains approx 1 mm nephrons. It is the nephron, whith their associated blood vessels, that urine is fomed. Each nephron has two major portions: a renal corpuscle and a renal tubule.
Describe the path urine takes once it is formed renal tubules: proximal convoluted tubules, loop of Henle and distal convoluted tubule. The distal convoluted tubules empty into a collecting tubule. Several collecting tubules then unite to form a papillary duct it empties into the Calyx of renal pelvis
Describe tubular reabsorption in the renal tubules most (99%) of the renal filtrte is reabsorbed back into the blood in peritubular capillaries. Cells in the proximal convoluted tubules have microvilli increasing their surface area for this process
Describe glomerular filtration blood (plasma) dissolved materials from capillaries in the glomeruli are forced out by blood pressure into bowman's capsule. Blood cells and large proteins are too large to be forced out remain in the vascular system.
List tubular secretion waste products Ammonia, Creatinine, Metabolized medications products, Hydrogen ions H+ - to help maintain pH balance
State whether bladder control is voluntary or involuntary voluntary
State the neurological reflex for urination urges spinal cord reflex
Describe internal urethral control internal urethral sphincter is involuntary and will begin to relax
Describe external urethral control the external urethral sphincter is voluntary until the urine volume is too high then control is lost
List the characteristics of urine Amount, Color, Specific gravity, pH, Constituents, Nitrogenous waste
Describe the amount of urine normal urinary output per 24 hours is 1 - 2 liters.
Describe the Color of urine Urochrome (breakdown product of bile)
Describe the Specific gravity of urine - measure of the dissolved materials in urine compared to distilled water
What is the ph range of urine? acidic (4.6) - alkaline (8.0)
What can effect pH of urine? diet and fluid intake greatly effect pH
What are the Constituents of urine? dissolved waste products and salt
What is urea made up of? Nitrogenous wastes
Created by: kbcanarr