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AP European final

Who wrote the Book of the Courtier? When? Baldassare Castiglione, 1528
What were the attributes for The Book of the Courtier? (grace, talent, noble birth)(achievement)(classical education)
What were New Monarchies? Old monarchs with new power
Who invented the printing press? Johannes Gutenburg
When was the printing press invented? Where? 1455 or 1456, Mainz
What is humanism? The most important movement associated with the Renaissance
What is civic humanism? Humanism tied with Florentine civic spirit and pride
What was John Wyclif's big idea? Popes should be stripped of their authority
What was nepotism? Popes promoting their nephews to church offices
What is northern humanism? New classical learning that was part of Renaissance humanism spread
What is another name for northern humanism? Christian humanism
Who was the most influential of all Christian humanists? Desiderus Erasmus
What book did Erasmus write? The Praise of Folly
Who wrote Utopia? Thomas More
What is pluralism? Church officials taking over multiple church offices
What did pluralism turn into? Absenteeism
What is absenteeism? Church officials ignoring their jobs and hiring underlings
What was Martin Luther's big idea? The selling of indulgences is bad
What famous writing did Martin Luther write? The 95 Theses
What was the Peasants' War? The peasants' dissatisfaction with their lords
Why were the peasants displeased? They were not affected by the economic rise
Who helped the peasants? Who turned on them? Thomas Muntzer, Martin Luther
What was Zwingli's big idea? Transubstantiation
Charles V's problems caused what? Lutheranism to spread and organize
Which war kept Charles V busy? The Hapsburg-Valois War
What were the Anabaptist ideas? Adult baptism, the return of Christian practices and spirituality, refusal to hold political office, or bear arms
Who was Henry VIII? The initiator of the English Reformation
What was Henry VIII's final decade occupied with? Foreign affairs, factional intrigue, and finding a good wife
What was John Calvin's big idea? Predestination
What were 3 tests of possible salvation for Calvinism? Open profession of faith, a "decent and godly life", and participation in baptism and communion
What were the Jesuits? The Society of Jesus
Who founded the Jesuits? Ignatius of Loyola
What were main ideas of the Jesuits? Absolute obedience to papacy, strict hierarchial societal order, use of education, and dedication to engage in conflict for God
What 3 major activities did Jesuits engage? Establishing disciplined schools, advertising Catholic faith, and fighting Protestantism
What was the Council of Trent? A meeting of Christendom general council where they discussed Protestant revolts and decided on Catholic
What was the most important decree of the Council of Trent? There had to be theological seminaries in every diocese (area) for priest training
What were Hugueonots? French Calvinists
What was the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre? The king's guard sought out and killed important Hugueonot leaders in Paris
When was the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre? Aug. 24, 1572
What ended with Henry of Navarre's Coronation? The Wars of Religion
Prince Henry the Navigator was famous for wha? Finding a navigating school in Portugal
What were the motives for gold searching? Seeking Christian kingdom as an ally against muslims, aquiring trade opportunites for Portugal, and extending Christianity
What was Christopher Columbus' goal in exploring? To reach Asia and the West Indies
Where did Columbus actually land? The major islands of the Caribbean
How many voyages did Columbus take? 4
Hernan Cortes marched to what Aztec city? Tenochtitlan
Hernan Cortes made alliances with whom? Cities that tired of Aztec's oppressive rule (**important city-Tlaxaca**)
How lond did it take for the local population to drive them out? a year
Who landed on the Pacific Coast of South America? Francisco Pizarro
What disease overtook the Inca's? Small pox
Which queen declared the natives to be subjects of Castile? Isabella
What is the name of the Spanish institution that permitted conquering Spaniards to collect tribute from natives and use them as laborers? Encomieda
What 3 things did holders of encomieda have to do for the Indians? Protect them, pay their wages, and supervise their spiritual needs
What percent of the Indians died? 30-40%
What is the triangle trade? A pattern of trade in early modern Europe that connected Europe, Africa, and the Americas in an Atlantic economy
What did Europe bring to Africa? Guns, gin, and cloth
What did Africa bring to the Americas? Slaves
What did Europe buy from the Americas? Tobacco, molasses, sugar, rum, coffee, and raw cotton
About how many slaves were sold in the 16th century? 275,000
Which 3 powers were competing for trading privileges? British, Dutch, and Portuguese
The British success brought which two powers? French and Dutch
Who were the British saved by? Sir Robert Clive
During what war did the British force the French out COMPLETELY? The Seven Years' War
T or F:The Price revolutions were Europe-wide? True
What was must subject to price increases? Food stuffs (wheat especially in Spain, South France, and Italy)
What else was affected? Government
Influx of metals was associated with what? The increase of prices
What was the witchcraft craze? Hysteria over witchcraft in the 16th and 17th century in Europe
Where were witchcraft trials held? England, Scotland, Switzerland, Germany, partly France, Low Countries, and New England
When was witchcraft viewed as sinister? When the Church connected witchcraft to devilry
About how many were prosecuted for witchcraft? 100,000
Who was most susceptible to suspicion? Why? Women, the Devil uses them because he knows that women love pleasures and means to bind them by provocations
Created by: Studystar818