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Concept Dis. Ch 4

Inflammation & Repair

Inflammation resulting in a coagulating exudate rich in protein is known as fibrinous
interaction between antigens and antibodies activates complement mediators that attract leukocytes
class of drugs that can be used to treat persistent inflammation corticosteroids
acute spreading infection of the skin and deeper tissues is known as cellulitis
results from an area of tissue breakdown with accumulation of pus abscess
Septicemia is an infection of the blood
factors that influence the outcome of an infection include virulence, dosage, & resistance of the host's body
inflammatory reaction nonspecific reaction to any agent that causes cell injury
agent's that can induce an inflammatory reaction include physical, chemical, or microbiologic
inflammatory reaction is characterized by local & systemic effects
local effects of inflammatory response consists of dilation blood vessels & increased vascular permeability
adhere to endothelium of small blood vessels, force their way through walls & migrate to area of tissue damage leukocytes during an inflammatory response
heat, redness, tenderness, swelling & pain are characteristics of inflammation
leakage of plasma from dilated more permeable vessels causes volume of fluid in inflamed tissue to increase, thus swelling
dilatation of capillaries & slowing of blood through vessels causes increased warmth & redness to inflamed tissues
the secondary tenderness & pain at site of inflammatory process is the associated irritation of sensory nerve endings
the most important cell in acute inflammatory response is the polymorphonuclear leukocyte
polymorphonuclear leukocyte, attracted to the area by cell injury, is a phagocytic cell
cells that appear later in process, clean up debris produced by inflammatory reactions mononuclear cells
mononuclear cells are monocytes & macrophages
exudate fluid mixture of protein, leukocytes, & debris that forms during inflammatory process
serous exudate fluid consisting of very little protein
if a large amount of serous exudate accumulates in injured tissue it may form blisters
purulent exudate creamy, yellow fluid consisting largely of inflammatory cells
pus is purulent exudate
fibrinous exudate fluid rich in blood protein fibrinogen
fibrinogen coagulates and forms fibrin, producing sticky film on surface of inflamed tissue
hemorrhagic exudate occurs when inflammatory process rupture many small capillaries, allowing RBCs escape into tissues; exudate appears bloody
if fibrinous exudate involves 2 surfaces in close proximity, they may stick together
adhesions bands fibrous tissue form subsequent to inflammation & bind adjacent tissues together
systemic effects become evident when inflammatory process is severe
bone marrow accelerates production of leukocytes circulating in blood stream increases & person feels ill w/fever are systemic effects of inflammatory response
systemic effects of inflammation also cause liver to produce acute phase proteins, released into bloodstream in response to tissue injury/inflammation
acute phase proteins help protect body from injury of tissue due to the inflammation
often measured to monitor activity of diseases characterized by inflammation C reactive protein
resolution regression of inflammatory process with significant tissue destruction & tissues returns to normal
mediators formed & released when tissue is damaged
some mediators are derived from cells & other from proteins in plasma accumulation at injury site
mast cells specialized connective-tissue cell containing granules filled w/histamine & other chemical mediators
initiate the inflammatory process mast cells
vasodilator substance that dilates blood vessels
potent vasodilator of inflammatory response is histamine
in regards to inflammatory response, blood platelets contain histamine & serotonin
serotonin vasoconstrictor mediator released from platelets
serotonin is released when platelets adhere to collagen fragments at site of tissue injury
prostaglandins compels derivative of fatty acid, prostanoic acid, having widespread physiological effects
major source of cell derived mediators mast cells
leukotrienes prostaglandin-like mediator of inflammation
function as mediators that intensify inflammatory process leukotrienes & prostaglandins
leukotrienes & prostaglandins are synthesized from arachidonic acid present in cell membranes in response to stimuli that induce inflammatory response
bradykinin chemical mediator of inflammation derived from components in blood plasma
protein substances circulating in blood plasma as inactive compounds leak from permeable capillaries into area of tissue damage, then activated into chemical mediators
series of reactions leading to formation of bradykinin is triggered by one of proteins concerned with blood coagulation, activated by tissue injury
complement several separate protein components that interact in regular sequence to yield series of by-products
by-products of function as mediators of inflammation complement
complement are designated C1 through C9
granules contained in chemical mediators which attract phagocytic neutrophils & monocytes are lysosomes
lysosomes contain potent enzymes that capable digesting material brought into cytoplasm of cells by phagocytosis
much of tissue injury in an area is result of destructive effect of lysosomal enzymes released from leukocytes, most of which during phagocytosis
interaction of antigen & antibody activates complement, & mediators generate induce inflammatory reaction
adrenal corticosteroid hormones are administered when inflammatory process persists causing extensive, progressive tissue injury
inflammation caused by disease-producing organism is an infection
-itis is appended to name of tissue/organ to indicate infection or inflammatory process
cellulitis scute spreading inflammation affecting skin or deeper tissues
abscess localized accumulation of pus in tissues
lymphangitis inflammation of lymph vessels draining a site of infection
septicemia infection in which large numbers of pathogenic bacteria are present in the blood stream
pathogenic capable of producing disease
virulence ability of organism to cause disease
highly virulent organism is likely to produce disease in majority of susceptible individuals
low virulent organism is likely to produce disease in individual only under favorable circumstances
when organism & host are evenly matched clinically results in chronic infection
different terms are used to describe infections in different sites
nonspecific & characterized by both local & systemic effects inflammation
inflammation of lymph nodes draining at a site of infection lymphadenitis
used to refer to an overwhelming infection in which pathogenic bacteria gain access to the bloodstream septicemia
extensive destruction of tissue, which is secondary to inflammation, is often followed by scarring
scarring, due to a severe inflammation, can be so severe it causes serious malfunction of tissues, or disturbed function