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AP Human Geography*

Mid-term study stack

A name given to a place on Earth? Toponym
Four ways a place can receive names? 1)For a person 2)Assosciated with a religion 3)origion of its settlers 4)Features of the physical enviornment
Three reasons a place may change its name? 1)Poitical upheavals 2)Gain publicity 3) political/town heroes
The physical characters of a place? Site
Some site charactersistics? Climate, water sources, topgraphy, soil, vegetation, latitude and elevation
Human actions can_______the characters of a site modify
The location of a place relatice to other places. Situation
What rolde do familiar places have understanding situation of unfamiliar places? Familiar places are used to direct a person to an unfamiliar place.
What place is designated as 0 degrees longitude? Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England
What is the name for the line drawn at 0 degrees longitude? Prime Meridian
How is a degree of longitude or latitude further subdivide? By dividing each degree into 60minutes('') and each minute into 60 seconds (').
How many degrees of longitude do you need to travel across to pass throught one "hour" of time(or one time zone)? fifteen degrees
How many time zones are there? twentyfour
Where and why were standard time zones first adopted? It was adopted everywhere so the we could all have the same time system.
What is the longitude of the international date line? one-eighty degrees
An area of land defined by one or more cultural feature? region
What do geographers who adopt the Regional studies approach believe regarding regions? That each region has its own distinctive landscape that results from unique combination of social relationships and physical processes.
Geographers using the regional studies approach argue that the distinctive landscapes of different result from what two things? 1)social relationships(humans)2)Physical Processes(enviornmental)
Define Formal region: An area in which everyone shares in common one or more distinctive characteristics(also known as Uniform or Homogeneous region). Ex:Montana is characterized by government that passes laws.
Define Functional region: An area organized around a node or a focal point(also known as a nodal region. Ex:Newspaper route
Define vernacular region: A place that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity(also known as perpetual region). Ex:The south is thought to have culture and feature different from the rest of America.
How does a geographer conclude that two phenoma are "spatially associated", that is, that they bear some sort of cause and effect relationship? By cultural, economic, and enviornmental features.
The geographic study of human-enviornment relationships? Cultural Ecology
An act started by humboldt and Ritter, adn studying how a physical enviornment caused relationships. Enviornment Determinism
The physical enviornment ay limit some human activities, but people have the ability to adjust to their enviornment. Possibilism
How many major types climates do geographers identify? 5 types of climates:A)Tropical B)DryC)Warm mid-latitudeD)Cold mid-latitudeE)Polar
In what major way does climate influence human activities? Production of foodex: In southwest india the people wait for monsoon rains which is essential for sucessful agriculture and provides nearly 90% of indias water supply.
Four major biomes found naturally on Earth. 1)Forest2)Savannah3)Grassland4)Desert
What are two major problems with which geographers are concerned as far as soil is concerned? 1)Erosion2)Depletion of Nutrients
What country had two projects that first had the government create polders to drain water from land for agriculture; and used dikes to prevent the north from flooding part of the country? The Netherlands
Structures built out to sea. Sea-walls and Jetties
In what state were sea-walls built to fight erosion? Florida
To protect the sugarcane production in Florida what did the Army corps do? They built leevers, pumbs and canals.
Army corps drained 1/3 of everglades, why? Sugarcane production
A force or process that involves the entire world and results in making something world wide? Globalization
How has modern technology played a role in globalization? Because of Modern technology everyone is connected to each other in some way. By means of Television, transportation, or internet.
In what ways is globalization of culture manifest in the landscape? The survival of local cultures are being threatened by the use of global items. Also because of globalization some people have moved away from traditional beliefs. Ex:Africans have adopetd christianity or islam
In what ways has communications revolution played a role in globalization? The cummunications revolution promotes globalization by preserving multiple cultures. such as on television people have a choice of hundereds of channels and in different languages.
The Al-Quada terrorist attacks and the Taliban actions of banning television and womens activities are examples of? Reactions against globalization
The arrangement of a feature in space is known as its? distrubution
The frequency at which someting occurs in space? Density
The total # of objects in an area commonly used to compare the distributiong of popublation in different countries? Arithmetic density
The # of persons per unit or area suitable for agriculture. Physiological density
The way in which a feature is spread over space is known as? Concentration
The types of concentration? Clustered and dispersed
Three types of patterns? Square/rectangle, grid, sinister
What role does gender play in geography? Females have a far more large-scale pattern then male because they have more responsibilities(drop off kids,walk dog,grocerys,etc) and even more if the females work.
In what way does ethnicity play in geography? People prefer to live in an area of their own race.
In what way does sexual orientation play in geography? People prefer to live in an area with people in the same sexual views.
The term used by geographers to describe the reduction in the time it takes for someting to reach another place. Space-time compression
In the past, most interaction between places required what? Physical movement of settlers,explorers, and plunderers from one location to another.
In the past most interaction between places required physical movment from one place to another but today this has changed,How? Today we dont need to travel to another place to know about another place. We can transmit photos, send messeges, communicate with people from other countries, and instantly see people from distant places on televisions.
Things that retard interaction among groups? -Physical(oceans and deserts),-Cultural(language and traditions)
The Phenomemnon described as contact that diminishes between two groups with increasing distance and eventually disappears is? Distance-decay
THe place from which an innovation orginates. Ex:in some places an idea may originate independently in more than one these... Hearth
THe spread of an idea through physical movement of people form one place to another. EX:Migration causes diffusion of religion, culture, etc Relocation diffusion
The spread of an idea from persons or nodes of authority or power to other persons or places. Ex:Hip hop is an innovation that diffused from low-income african americans. Hierarchial diffusion
The rapid,widespread diffuision of a characteristic throughout the population. Ex:Rapid adoption of AIDs prevention method Contagious diffusion
The spread of an underlying principle even though a characteristic itself apparently fails to diffuse. Ex: The internet with new communications such as e-mail. stimulous diffusion
The types of Expansion diffusion? Hierarchial, contagious, stimulous
What are the 4 most populous parts of the world? East Asia(1/5),South Asia(1/5), Southeast asia,Europe, Eastern north america(2%), west africa(2%)
The portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement? Ecumene
Places where peopel never stayed for long periods of time? Non-ecumene
What "lands" on earth are sparsely populated? Dry lands, wet lands, cold lands, high lands
Areas on earth that lack sufficient water to grow crops and are in hospitable to intensice agriculture.(deserts) Dry lands
An area where the combination of rain and heat depletes nutrients from the soil and hinders agriculture.(swamp?) Wet lands
An area where it is unsuitable for planting crops and few animals can survive the cold? Cold lands
An area where only few people prefer to live on high elavations mostley only if the temperatueres are uncomfortably high on lower grounds? High lands
The total # of people divided by total land area. Arithmetic density
The # of people supported by a unit of arble land. Physiological density
The ratio of the number of farmers to the amount of arable land. Agricultural density
The total number of live births each year for every 1000 peopler alive in a society. Crude birth rate
The total number of deaths in a year for every 1000 people alive in the society. Crude death rate
The percentage by which a population grows in a year. Natural increase rate
What is the NIR today? one-point-three%
When did the NIR peak, and what was it? In 1963 at two-point-two%
About how many people are being added to the world's population each year? eighty million
The number of years needed to double a population assuming a constant rate of natural increase? Doubling time
In what world regions is most growth occuring? Africa,Asia,Latin America, and the middle east
The average number of children a women will have throughout her child bearing years (15-49) Total fertility rate
What is the global "average" TFR? three%
The global "high and lows" in TFR. -Subsaharan africa has more than 6-Europe has less than 2-It varys from MDC to LDC's
The annual number of death of infants under one year of age, compared with total live births. Infant mortality rate
The average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live at current mortality levels. Life expectancy
How are these rates distrubited globally in terms of developed and developing worlds? The highest rates are in subsaharran africa and the lowest rates are in Europe.
A process with several stages and every country is in one of them. Demographic transitition
The shape of the Population pyramid is determinded primarely by... Crude birth rate
The number of peopler who are too young to work compard to the number of peopler in their production years? Dependency ratio
What age groups are categorized as "dependent" 0-14,65-plus
What does the "graying" of the population refer to? This refers to the high amount of elderly people in the population(maybe specifacally in stages 2&3)
The number of males per hundred females in the population. Sex ratio
What types of countries/regions are likely to have more males than females? In poorer countries and in the united states
No country remains in what stage? Stage one
The majority of countries are in what stage? Stages twoandthree
A few countries have reached what stage? Stage four
There are two big breaks: the first one was caused by? The sudden drop in death rates that comes from technological innovation.
There are two big breaks: the second one was caused by? The sudden drop in two birth rate that comes from changeing social customs.
What stage is described as low growth, people depending on hunting and gathering, and the Death rate depended on if peopel could find food. Also this is the stage that started at the beginning of time. Stage one
A two dimensional or flat scale model of earth's surface or a porion of it. Map
Science of map makeing cartography
What are the two purposes of maps? A tool for storing reference material and a tool for communicating geographic information.
What were the earliest surviving maps? Babolyonian maps on clay tablets (2300bc)and Polynesian people navigated with 3d maps. Mediterrean sailers and traders made maps of land features as early as 800bc
Who was the first to demonstate the earth was spherical by observing the earts shadow on moon? Aristotle
The first person on record to use the word "geography", calculated the circumference of the earth and made one of the earliest mapse of the known world, correctly dividing earth into five climatic regions? Eratosthenes
Who wrote an 8 volume guide to geography by useing information from merchants and soldiers who traveled? Ptolemy
The relation of a features size on a map and its actual size on Earths surface. Scale
Examples of scales? fraction,ratio,written statement,or a graphic bar
The scientific method of transferring location on earths surface to a flat map. Projection
Projection can lead to distortion: what are the types of distortion? Shape, distance, relative size(altered), direction(between points).
Most of the world maps in the books are? Equal area projections
Why is the NIR(natural increase rate) considered natural? It doesn't include immigration or emmigration
What was the main reason for a countries move to stage two of the demographic transition? Industrial Revolution
What is the stage that is not part of demographic transition but is considered by some and is caused by mutating bacteria (negative growth)? Stage five
Created by: clevergirl101

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