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history def


History everything, record of the past, written or narrative description. Began 3-4,000 yrs ago, before that was prehistory. Learn about it thru artifacts.
Archaeology study of books, artifacts, evidence, of prehistoric people and their cultures
Geography topography, climate, and soil, vegetation and how people respond to it
Mesopotamia land between rivers (Iraq)
Cuneiform “wedge shaped” writing small pictures (pictographs) complex took years to learn, slowly evolved into today’s writing
Sumer southern part of Mesopotamia, Sumerians lived there in city-states, politically economically independent.
Hieroglyphics writing system using ancient picture symbols used in ancient Egypt
Pharaoh ancient Egyptian kings, leaders, the main dude, the sh*t.
Code of Hammurabi from King Hammurabi, had all aspects most deals with commerce, started eye for tooth for tooth, oldest written law code.
Monotheism belief in one single god
Polytheism belief in more than one god
Pyramids temple of the gods or kings emperors, grave, tomb, made of stone
Civilization a complex culture, can produce surplus food, has towns/cities w/ Gov. a ppl or culture uses division of jobs (diff ppl specialized in diff jobs). Society in advanced state of social development. Complex legal, political and religious organizations.
Culture set of beliefs, knowledge, customs people share.
City State first oldest civilizations with Gov. Ur is the oldest.
Paleolithic Age old stone age, nomadic
Neolithic Age newer stone age, domesticated plants/animals, became possible to settle in one spot, led to surplus of food, need for storage, need for special jobs, towns, trading.
Hebrews believed in one god (set them apart, created problems w/ other places) know them from bible. Legacy of “monotheism”
Phoenicians traders of ancient times. To them it’s all about the bottom line, made deals with invaders, they were sailors, would rather bribe than fight. Strongest colony was Carthage.
Hittites ancient civilization, largely disappeared from knowledge, first to produce iron
Crete largest Greek island, site of Minoan civilization, reached its peak in 1600 BCE
Polis Greek city-state, centered Gov, usually town was walled and contained a citadel on raised ground and a agora (marketplace)
Sparta purely military state, loved pelaponicia peninsula. Almost got overtaken, decided to get very strong. No place for weak. Inspected babies, only could see wife at night, marry at 30 retire at 60.
Athens started city-state defense on high ground, Athena (god) had temple in top of hill. Agora-marketplace. City-states were independent.
Gaul Gaul is ancient region of western Europe south and west of the Rhine river, west of alps(modern France and Belgium)
Etruscans called Tyrrhenian by the Greeks, pre-roman ppl of central Italy. Culture came into being 700 BCE. Height of power was 620BCE-500BCE
Patricians in ancient Rome any member of citizen family who formed a privileged nobility. Had exclusive rights. (opposite of plebeians)
Plebeians member of general citizenry in ancient Rome, were originally excluded from senate and all public offices except military tribune. Forbidden to marry patricians. (Opposite of patricians)
Senate in ancient Rome the governing and advisory council that was the most permanent element on roman constitution. Served as an advisory council with undefined powers.
Punic Wars 3 wars (264-241BCE, 218-201BCE, 149-146BCE) between Rome and carthage, resulting in the destruction of Carthage and the gain by the Romans of its territory in Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, Africa, and Spain.
Pax Romana 2 centuries of peace and prospierity, stared reign of Augustus Octavian. rise of christianity.
Barbarians all non Greek speaking people.
Hispania, Germania, Britannia Hispania is roman name for Iberian peninsula southwest Europe(modern day Portugal, Spain, Andorra, Gibraltar)Germania is ancient central Europe. Britannia is roman name for the British isles become the poetic name for Britain.
Christianity religion stemming from the teachings of Jesus, Judaism, monotheism.
Roman Catholic Church Christian church characterized by an Episcopal hierarchy with the pope as its head and belief.
Constantinople roman city, construction began 324 after final victory of roman emperor Constantine the great. "the second rome"
Lombards & Saints Lombards, Germanic ppl who migrated southwards to Hungarian plains then westward in ADE 568 invaded Italy established kingdom in the po valley. Saints, holy person of early Christianity put to death by various roman persecutors
C.E. 476 western half of Rome falls
Dark Ages from collapse of roman civilization in 5c ADE thru the restoration around year 1,000 (early middle ages)
Merovingian Dynasty a Frankish ruling dynasty (ADE450-751) founded by Merovech in fifth century and brought to prominence by Clovis I
Carolingian Dynasty family of Frankish aristocrats that ruled almost all of western Europe (751-987) Merovingian king chlotar II
Battle of Tours (733or734) stopped the spread of Islam and let Christianity continue to flourish.
Pope / Papacy head of the roman catholic church, the office or jurisdiction is the papacy
Angels angles, Germanic-speaking ppl, one of the main groups to settle in Britain in post roman period, founding several kingdoms of Anglo-Saxon England.
Goths Goths, Germanic ppl originating in the Baltic area who moved southwards settled north of black sea.
Saxons Saxons, Germanic ppl homeland was north German coastal plain. In 5th century ADE groups migrated to Britain. Absorbed into Frankish kingdom during the 8th century ADE.
Jutes Jutes, Germanic ppl inhabited a region north of the angles were one of three most powerful of their time.
Latin indo-European language and literature from 3rd c BCE to the end of 2nd c ADE in ancient Rome.
Hammurabi takes all southern Mesopotamia ,king, Babylon is capital, created oldest written law, “code of Hammurabi” stared eye for eye, tooth for tooth
Pericles Athenian leader for 40 yrs after Persian wars (golden age of Greece) Programs to rebuild the city. Athens became dominant power. Building of Parthenon(great accomplishment)
Socrates taught dangerous doctrine to students angered wealthy powerful Greeks refused exile (to leave Athens) so got death penalty
Plato student of Socrates, established own school (Academy) great work the republic
Aristotle student of Plato, established own school (the lyceum) everything in moderation (golden mean), logic and reason, scientific method, was hired to tech Alexander the great.
Alexander, the Great went above the uprising, brutally put down the Thebes made them slaves, other city-states kind of fell in line. Then started marching east, made island of tyre a peninsula. Read a lot, sent everything to teacher (Aristotle)
Julius Caesar the military leader who posted the greatest gain in terms of territory for roman empire. 1rst dictator of rome.
Octavian (Augustus) avenged death of his father julius caesar. constructed highways in empire.
Constantine first Christian ruler of Roman Empire, sayd if christain god gives them victory he'll convert. does and declares christianity new religion of whole empire. Legally ended pagan persecution of Christians. moves capital and kills western half.
Attila the Hun King and general of the Hun empire from ADE 433-453, destroyed everything in his path, shared thrown with his brother, died on wedding night drank passed out on back choked on blood from nosebleed.
Charles Martel played key role in turning back the muslim invasion of Europe. with war of tours in 732
Pepin, the Short son of Charles martel, succeeded his father, first Carolingian ruler of the franks. Had son Charlemagne, strong supporter of catholic church.
Charlemagne 742-814(charles the great)son of Pepin the short consolidated a large portion of Europe under his rule, promoting learning and innovative administrative concepts. King of franks, Lombard’s. 1st holy roman emperor.
Alexander, the Great went all the way to India then troops said enough is enough. Upon return home he died at 33 yrs. 323 BCE
Clovis great warrior became king at 16. beginning 481 king of franks. converts christianity largely responsible for spread of christianity.
Charles, the Bald grandson of Charlemagne, brothers(Louis the German, lothair) Charles joined forces with Louis and made lothair accept the treaty of Verdun (divided kingdom into 3 parts)
Louis, the German 3rd son of Louis the pious bornADE805, king of the east franks from ADE840 until his death in 876
Lothair 795-855 emperor of the west (840-855). Shared fathers empire with brothers (Charles the bald, Louis the German) wanted it all to himself. Tried to overthrow his father, divided his land for his children and became a monk in 855
Created by: justin.rae