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Chemistry NPN WS

NPN Compound & Plasma Protein Worksheet

What does NPN Compounds stand for? Non Protein Nitrogen compounds
What are the NPN compounds? Urea - Creatinine - Uric Acid - Ammonia - Creatine - Amino Acids
Do NPN compounds contain nitrogen? Yes
Are NPN compounds proteins? No
Which NPN conpounds are waste products? Urea - Creatinine - Uric Acid - Ammonia
Which NPN compounds are building blocks? Creatine - Amino Acids
What is urea the breakdown product of? Protein (2NH3 + CO2 makes ammonia into urea)
Where is urea formed and from what? In the liver from ammonia
What does BUN stand for? Blood Urea Nitrogen in the blood
What two things affect serum BUN? 1 - Protein ingested in the diet; Protein catabolism 2 - Urine volume (Amount of water drank)
What is the normal BUN range? 7 - 20 mg/dL
What causes increased BUN? Dehydration - kidney disease - UT obstruction
Pre-renal increased BUN is found where? Before the kidneys - Conditions are: Dehydration, Cardiac Failure & Protein breakdown from DM (Diabetes Mellitlis)
Renal caused increase in BUN is found where? In the kidney - Conditions are: Glomerulonephritis & Polycystic
Post renal increased BUN is found where? After the kidney (Usually a Urinary Track Obstruction) - Conditions are: Kidney Stones & enlarged Prostate
What is azotemia? Increased NPN compounds in the blood
NOTE concerning increased NPN Compounds (azotemia): Azotemia is to kidneys what hyperglycemia is to diabetics
What is the function of creatine & phosphocreatine? High energy storage in the brain & muscle
What does creatine & phosphocreatine break down into? Creatinine
Is creatinine a building block or waste product? Waste product - goes out in the urine
What is the rate of break down for creatine & phosphocreatine on a daily basis? A constant rate of 2% a day
Where does creatine & phosphocreatine break down? In th muscle
When is serum creatine increased? 1 - Kidney Disease 2 - Muscle destruction such as MD
What are the two tests to assess kidney function? 1 - BUN 2 - Creatinine
Give the three (3) names for what is uric acid the break down product of? Nucleic acids, Nucleopioteins, Purines
Nucleic acids, Nucleopioteins, Purines are the building blocks of what? Genetic material - DNA & RNA
Where is uric acid formed? In the liver from diet, some made by body
Which foods are high in purines? High protein meats - Fish - Poultry - Organ Meats
When is uric acid increased in the serum? 1 - Gout (Can cause uric acid kidney stones) 2 - Cell turnover diseases (Leukemia & Polycythemia)
What is gout? Hyperuricemia (High uric in the blood) which causes uric acid crystals deposited in the joints
What are the three (3) places ammonia is made? 1 - From the breakdown of proteins 2 - Bacteria in the intestines 3 - Kidney tubules
Failure of which organ would cause increased serum ammonia? Liver
What are amino acids? Building blocks of proteins
Urea, creatinine,uric acid, ammonia, creatine & amino acids are examples of what? NPN compounds
Albumin, fibrinogen, alpha globulins, beta & gamma are examples of what? Plasma Proteins
What percentage of plasma is protein? 7%
What are the percentage breeakdowns of the five (5) plasma proteins that make up the 7% of protein in Plasma? 55% is Albumin - 6.5% is Fibrinogen - Alpha Globulins with Beta Globulins & Gamma Globulins make up 38.5%
Where are Alpha, Beta Globulins, Albumin and Fibrinogen made? In the liver
Where are Gamma Globulins made? In the Reticuloendothelial system (RES)
What is the name of the part of the Reticuloendothelial where Gamma Globulins are made? Blymphocytes
What are the functions of proteins? 1 - Trans port of metal ions, hormones & lipids 2 - Energy 3 - Storage for amino acids
What is the function of the protein fraction Albumin? To maintain normal blood volume
What is the function of the protein fraction Fibrinogen? Neceessary for cloting of blood
What is the function of the protein fraction Gamma Globulins? Antibodies
What does TSP stand for? Total Serum Protein
What does Total Serum Protein mean? That there is no fibrinigen
What does TSP measure? The sum of all Albumin and Globlins
What is the normal level of TSP? 6.0 - 8.3 g/dL
What are two causes of increased TSP? Dehydration & Multiple Mycloma
What is Multiple Myeloma? Increased gamma Globulin production
What are two causes of decreased TSP? Nephrotic Syndrome & Liver Disease
What does A/G ratio stand for? Albumin divided by Globulins
What is the normal A/G ratio result? 1.0 to 2.5
What are the three (3) diseases that cause the A/G ratio to decrease? 1 - Liver Disease 2 - Kidney Disease 3 - Multiple Myeloma
What is electrophoresis? A high complexity test that is the follow up test used to seperate proteins into specfic fractions by the movement of charged particles in an electric field
NOTE: Protein in the liver becomes urea which is measured in the blood. This measurement of urea is called BUN
What affects BUN? Diet, urine volume
Creatine goes into the muscle and comes out what? creatinine
Nucleic acids / purines go to the liver and come out as what? Uric acid
Raised ammonia is a sign of what? Liver disease
Created by: spawmary