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A&P Lesson 1 AUM

Introduction to the Living Processes

systemic anatomy (sis-TEM-ik / a-NAT-o-mee) the study of the physical structure of the body's organ systems.
physiology (fiz-ee-AH-lo-gee) the study of how the structures of the body work.
organisms (OR-ga-niz-m)
atom (AT-um) the smallest unit of matter.
elements (EL-a-ments) atoms of the same type.
(4) Elements that make up 96% of our weight. (H)hydrogen (C)carbon (O)oxygen (N)nitrogen
molecule (MAHL-i-kule) two or more atoms that bond together.
(3) Subatomic Particles electrons, neutrons, protons
electrons (e-LEK-trons) electrons have a negative electrical charge and they circle around an atom's nucleus in orbits, or shells.
protons and neutroms form the nucleus of an atom.
protons (PRO-trons) have a positive charge.
neutrons (NEW-trons) do not have any charge.
atomic number the number of protons determines this.
Ions (EYE-ons) have a different number of electrons than protons.
ionic bonding ions that attract each other because of their opposite electrical charge.
covalent bonds (ko-VAY-lent) in this type of bonding, atoms share electrons
forms of energy heat, light, sound, mechanical, electrical and chemical.
potential energy is stored energy.
kinetic energy (kin-EH-tic) energy of motion.
Silly Aunt Mary Owes Cousin Terry One Old Onion subatomic particles, atoms, molecules, organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms.
(4) main types of molecules found in the body carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
carbohydrates primary energy source.
lipids are stored as fat and serve as an additional energy source.
enzymes (EN-zymes) are proteins that help chemical reactions form molecules and break them down more quickly.
C6 H12 O6 chemical formula for glucose ( carbohydrate contains, 6 atoms of carbons, 12 atoms of hydrogen, 6 atoms of oxygen)
organelles membranes that surround the individual parts of our cells.
Amino Acids are made of chains of atleast 50 smaller molecules.
Structural Proteins are protein molecules that form most of the solid material in the human body such as, hair muscles, tendons and skin.
Functional Proteins carry out the activities of our body.
hemoglobin enzymes found in red blood cells.
myosin a protein found in muscle tissue.
nucleic acids (new-KLA-ik) are extremely complex compounds.
(2) main types of nucleic acids are.. DNA and RNA
DNA and RNA tell our cells how to make the proteins that we need and determine our physical and mental characteristics.
molecules build organelles which are? parts of the cells.
Examples of organelles found in cells include? mitochondria (my-tow-KON-dree-ah)ribosomes (RYE-bow-somes)vacuoles (VA-ku-oles)
tissues are groups of cells that have the same function.
(4) Basic types of tissues are? epithelia (ep-e-THEE-lee-al) tissue, connective tissue, nervous tissue, and muscle tissue
epithelial tissue (ep-e-THEE-lee-al) lines our organs and forms our glands.
connective tissue connects one body part to another.
nervous tissue makes up the brain, spinal cord and nerves. (allows us to feel sensation)
muscle tissue is designed for contraction. (when muscles contract, some type of movement results)
Examples of epithelial (ep-e-THEE-lee-al) tissues thyroid gland, pancreas, the surface of the skin and the linings of the mouth and stomach.
(4) Basic types of connective tissue are? connective tissue proper, cartilage, bone, blood.
(3) Types of muscle tissue? skeletal, smooth, and cardiac.
skeletal muscle tissue makes up muscles that we can control, so it is also called voluntary muscle tissue.
smooth muscle tissue is found in our organs. We cannot consciously control the contraction of smooth muscle tissue, so it is called involuntary muscle tissue.
cardiac muscle tissue is found only in our hearts. It is also considered involuntary because we have little conscious control over its contraction.
organs are groups of tissues that are specialized for a specific function (example, the heart, stomach and lungs are organs)
organ systems are groups of organs that work closely together.
(11) Different organ systems integumentary (skin,hair,nails) skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, circulatory, lymphatic, digestive, respiratory, urinary and reproductive.
living organisms have? life spans, are made up of cells, require energy, grow, reproduce and respond to the enviroment.
human body is? incredibly organized, an intricately designed living organism.
A dead organism has? come to the end of its life span.
conception the fathers sperm cell and mothers egg cell combine to form one new cell.
cells are considered the smallest living unit.
modern cell theory states that? the cell is the smallest structural and functional unit of all living things.
All living organisms require this to maintain life? energy
Plants obtain energy from the sun by the process of? photosynthesis
Excitability means that slight changes in the enviroment initiate activity in a living organism.
Stimulus means a change in the enviroment.
Conductivity means a stimulus to one part of the body causes a response in another part of the body (example, step on something sharp, muscles react so you can pull away)
Contractility means a living organism has the power to move some parts of the body or change position.
Adjustment means life requires continuous adjustment to changes in the enviroment (example, hand jerks away from a hot stove to prevent burn)
Adaptation means humas also adapt to enviromental changes (example, muscles adapt by increasing in size by exercising regularly)
Inhibition means the amount of an activity is stopped or lessoned (example, crossing the street, you hear a horn and stop walking)
homeostasis all of the responses that our bodies make to changes in our enviroment are designed to keep us in this state. (example, the human bodys normal temperature stays the same whether its 45 or 85 degrees)
hypothalamus (hy-poh-THAL-a-mus) a structure in the brain.
vasodilation (vay-zo-die-LAY-tion) blood vessels get larger near the surface of the body so that excess heat can escape from the bloodstream.
vasoconstriction (vay-zo-con-STRIK-tion) when body temperature drops, the persons sweat glands become inactive and he or she shivers.
This happens when you shiver? skeletal muscles contract and generate heat.
negative feedback loop maintains homeostasis (example, heating and cooling unit comes on when needed for temperature control)
receptors monitor the variables that need to be controlled.
effector is a structure in the body that can change the value of variable.
biological motives changes in variable inside our bodies, also motivates us to change our enviroment.
diabetes results when a persons body cannot keep his or her blood sugar levels from becoming too high.
glucose blood sugar
pancreas secretes a hormone called insulin.
insulin's job is to? stimulate cells to take in glucose for energy, thus reducing the amount of glucose in the blood.
What are the four bases used to build a DNA molecule? adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine.
Created by: kandrlewis