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World History SAT

Barrons Vocabulary

QuestionAnswer
Pangaea ancient supercontinent with Africa at the center
Laurasia split from Pangaea to form the northern continents about 200 million years ago
Gondwanaland split from Pangaea to form the southern continents about 200 million years ago
plate tectonics theory that a layer molten rock, or magma, pushes the overlying plates of the earth's surface to drift apart or collide
prehistory a time before written history
paleontologists scientists who study fossils
archaeologists scientists who study fossils and artifacts of ancient people
artifacts man-made objects
anthropologists scientists who study pysical and cultural characteristics of people
carbon 14 dating measures the amount of radioactive carbon left in an object to determine its age
accelerator mass spectrometry counts carbon 14 atoms
DNA hereditary material used to trace the evolution of humans
hominid the "great ape" family, including humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans
chronology the keeping of time
B.C.E. before the common era
C.E. common era
Australopithecines afarensis 3.9 million years old, first upright walking human ancestor, was dimorphic
Donald Johanson found Lucy, a 3 million year old A. afarensis
Hadar the site in Ethiopia where Lucy was found
dimorphic a species with two types of individuals
Homo habilis 2.5 million years old, the first tool maker
Homo erectus 1.8 million years old, migrated throuout Africa and Eurasia
Homo sapiens 400,000 years old
Neanderthal a group of H. sapiens that had capacity for emotion and a sense of death
Cro-Magnon the present species of H. sapiens, had a capacity for art and was taller and smarter than Neanderthal
culture learned behavior and social organization, behavior patterns, arts, beliefs, and institutions
bipedal walking upright, which enables the use of hands
Olduvai Gorge a site rich in fossil evidence of human origins
Louis and Mary Leaky found H. habilis and evidence of improvement of tools in Olduvai Gorge
Ice Age a period 2 million to 11,000 years ago when much of the Northern Hemisphere was covered in ice
Pleistocene the Ice Age, when Neanderthal and other hominids coexisted
Multiregional model H. sapiens evolved from H. erectus in different places separately
Out of Africa model the current consensus view that H. sapiens evolved from H. erectus in Africa and migrated out
Paleolithic 2 million years ago to 10,000 years ago, from the appearance of H. habilis to when tools were made by chipping
Old Stone Age Paleolithic
Neolithic from 8000 B.C.E. when stone tools were made by polishing and animals and plants were domesticated
New Stone Age Neolithic
hunter-gatherers lived by hunting animals and gathering useful plants, migrated to populate most of the globe, crossing to North America 50,000 to 20,000 years ago
Amurians oldest hunter-gatherers
Mongoloids most recent hunter-gatherers
Amerindians American Indians, descended from Amurians and Mongoloids
Lascaux site in France where cave paintings to appease natural spirits were found
Agriculture selective growing of plants
slash-and-burn first successful type of agriculture where land was cleared for crops
Girding bark around trees was cut to kill them to let in let in sunlight and keep out weeds
Huang Ho the Yellow River where millet was formed ca. 7000 B.C.E.
Maize cultivated in the Tehuacan Valley of Mexico 4500 to 4700 years ago
root crops grown from live shoots in tropical areas of Southeast Asia by 5000 B.C.E., probably grown by fishermen
rice paddy farming rice is planted in standing water, used in monsoon areas
Pastoralism domestication of animals, coincided with the development of agriculture
Hallan Cemi site where pigs were found to be the first domesticated animals
civilization characterized by political order, job and class differentiation, building projects, religious centers, writing systems, and agricultural surplus
cultural diffusion culture is exchanged between societies
ideograms symbols used to represent abstract ideas
phonograms symbols based on sounds
scibes a class of recordkeepers
Mesopotamia between the Tigris and Euphrates Rives
alluvial rich soil with deposited silt
Fertile Crescent from Mesopotamia to Palestine
ziggurat center of worship with a temple atop a terraced pyramid
Sumerians in the south of the Fertile Crescent
Sargon Akkadian warrior who established an empire in Mesopotamia in 2334 B.C.D. with a large standing army
Ur dominating Sumerian city
Hammurabi Amorite king who established Babylonia in 1792 B.C.E.
Babylonia Mesopotamian empire that fell to the Hittites ca. 1600 B.C.E.
Hammurabi's Code first standardized law code, based on an eye for an eye# and lower classes receiving harsher punishment
cuneiform syllable based writing system written on clay tablets
calendar system of time measurement
polytheistic religion with multiple gods
anthropomorphic gods oversaw human tasks, took on human form and characteristics
The Epic of Gilgamesh shows the Sumerians reflecting on life, death, mankind and deity, and immortality
Nile worlds longest river, floods regularly
pharaoh absolute Egyptian kings worshipped as gods
theocracy government based on religion
pyramid a structure that required social organization and architectural skill to build
Giza location of the largest pyramid
Cheops pharaoh who built the largest pyramid at Giza
hieroplyphics priestly Egyptian writings that were originally pictograms that showed the link between politics and religion
Jean Champollion decoded hieroglyphics with the Rosetta Stone
Rosetta Stone bore parallel inscriptions in Greek, Egyptian, and vernacular
vernacular common language
papyrus Egyptian paper-like material
King Menes united Lower and Upper Egypt around 3100 B.C.E., starting the unified political history of Egypt
Lower Egypt northern part of Egypt on the Nile Delta
Upper Egypt southern part of Egypt, reaches to the First Cataract at Aswan
Old Kingdom first period in Egyptian history, consists of King Menes's dynasty, until 2200 B.C.E.
Middle Kingdom established by the prince of Thebes in 2100 B.C.E., noted for its arts
Hyksos destroyed the Middle kingdom in 1700 B.C.E.
New Kingdom established by an Egyptian rebellion in about 1580 B.C.E.
Thutmose III during his reign, Egyptians became efficient warriors and extended Egypt through Syria, Palestine, and Nubia
Ikhnaton or Akhenaton introduced a monotheistic religion based on Aton
monotheistic religion with one all-powerful god
Aton Egyptian sun god
Howard Carter discovered Tutankhamen's tomb
Ramses II last great New Kingdom pharaoh
Karnak colonnaded temple built with post and lintel construction
post and lintel an architectural style employed in Karnak and later used by the Greeks
bartering swapping one item for another
Etesian winds seasonal winds that powered ships upstream in the Nile, allowing for two-way river traffic
matriarchal traced through the woman's family
Hatshepsut only woman pharaoh
Indus River Valley protected by the Himalaya Mountains, the Hindu Kush Mountains, and the Great Indian Desert
Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro Indus River Valley cities
Mesoamerica Central America
Archaic period in which villages and pottery were found
Olmec "mother civilization" of Mesoamerica
San Lorenzo major Olmec site in eastern Mexico, 1200-900 B.C.E.
La Venta major Olmec site in eastern Mexico, 900-500 B.C.E.
altiplano highlands between the two major chains of the Andes
Norte Chico central coastline of Peru where a complex society developed between 3100 and 1600 B.C.E. with an estimated population of 20,000
Caral America's first known city with an estimated population of 3000
quipu knotted textiles used for recording, developed by the Caral peoples and also used by the Inca
Chavin an urban society that emerged in the altiplano around 1200 B.C.E.
bronze copper mixed with tin, invented around 4000 B.C.E.
Minoans society on Crete that traded widely and absorbed the Mycenaeans
Crete Greek island
Knossos Minoan palace demonstrating Minoan art
Mycenaeans Indo-European invaders who entered Greece from the north about 1900 B.C.E.
Troy besieged by the Mycenaeans to advance Greece
Homer wrote The Iliad and The Odessey, epic poems describing the Trojan wars and their aftermath that feature wisdom as the source of power
Heinrich Schliemann proved Homer's epics to be based in fact
chariot give nomadic conquerors the power to rule the civilized world in about 1700 B.C.E., limited to the aristocracy by their expense
Kazakhstan where earliest known chariots were found in burial mounds
aristocracy rule by an elite upper class
Dorians Greek-speaking Indo-European nomadic peoples who conquered the Mycenaeans in 1200 and 1100 B.C.E.
Xia (Hsia) Dynasty ca. 2000 to ca. 1600 B.C.E. in China
Yu founder of the Xia Dynasty that became a leader by controlling the Huang Ho
Shang Dynasty invaded China using chariots 1752 B.C.E. to 1122 B.C.E., around the time of the rule of Hammurabi and the collapse of Harappa
loess a layer deposited by rivers like that at the Ordos bulge by the Huang Ho
bureaucracy government officials
vassal served the king and governed peasants and artisans during the Shang Dynasty
nuclear family husband, wife, children, and sometimes grandparents or cousins
extended families constist of several generations
patriarch oldest male of a family, also leader of the Eastern Roman church with no authority, regulated by the Byzantine emperors
shaman oracular priests
oracle bones readings inscribed on bones and shells used as oracles by the Shang
pictographic pictures are used to represent things
Pinyin newer system of transliterating Chinese into English
Wade-Giles older system of transliterating Chinese into English
Non Nok Tha culture in Thailand that worked bronze by 2500 B.C.E.
Dong Son people in Vietnam that made bronze drums, height was around 500 B.C.E.
Iron copper mixed with lead, created in the Hittite Empire and used widely starting about 1200 B.C.E., cheaper but had to be worked, not poured, set off a wave of barbarian invasions
Hittite in present-day Anatolia
empire large territorial state
Persian Empire used metallurgy during the Iron Age for military and civilan purposes, conquered the Assyrian Empire's area by 546 B.C.E. using cavalry
Assyrian Empire Iron Age kingdom of all of Mesopotamia by 800 B.C.E., overthrown in 612 B.C.E., ruled by force
Nineveh capital of the Assyrian Empire
cavalry the part of an army mounted on horses, invented in the Eurasian steppes
steppes plains
Sanskrit Indo-European language used by the Aryans, a group of steppe nomads
Aryans migrated into India through the Khyber and Bolan Passes in the Hindu Kush as early as 1500 B.C.E.
Dravidians native people of India, some were conquered by the Aryans and others moved south
Rig Veda oldest religious writings, a collection of hymns dating from 1800 to 1300 B.C.E.
Mahabharata epic poem describing battles between aristocratic charioteers
Ramayana epic poem of India
Ganges River Valley iron tools were used to clear jungles here
monsoons seasonal winds from the Indian Ocean that bring the summer rains essential to agriculture in South and East Asia
Jati the Indian caste system, in which different castes had specific jobs and religious duties, stronger than political ties
dharma religious and moral duties of one's caste
raj local prince, made political centralization difficult
transcendental abstract, metaphysical
Indra principle Aryan god, destroyer of cities and god of thunder and storm
Brahman caste of priests
Vedas four boooks of sacred knowledge in Sanskrit, hymns to the gods
Shiva the aspect of Brahma that represented destruction, the cosmic dancer who creates and destroysdhar
Vishnu the aspect of Brahma that preserved created things
Brahma the universal force in all things, the universal all
asceticism a rival religion unwilling to cede authorities to the Brahman caste, believed that truth could be found in self-discipline and meditation
Upanishads oral tradition of Indian asceticism conceiving the end of religious life as a quest for release from reincarnation
reincarnation a cycle of rebirths
Hinduism religion based on the Vedic and Upanishadic traditions
Hindustan a word meaning riverland describing India
Kush Nubian state that laid the foundations for a "golden age" of trade, culture, and metallurgy, made powerful by iron and traded extensively, became independent in 1000 B.C.E., conquered Egypt in 715 B.C.E., and lost Egypt to the Assyrians in 672 B.C.E.
Meroe Kushan capital in Egypt rich in iron deposits
Phoenicians traded purple dye, emerged on the eastern Mediterranean coast around 2000 B.C.E. and established the cities of Tyre, Sidon, Byblos, and Beirut and the colony of Carthage
Lydians migrated from Greece to the eastern Mediterranean coast and develeped coined money
Aborigines first Australian people
Dreamtime Aborigine belief in a time when great ancestors walked the earth
Hebrews trace their origins to Abraham
Abraham a nomadic herder from Ur who left Sumer at the command of Yahweh to found a new nation
Old Testament Jewish and Christian holy book
Yahweh (Jehovah) Jewish God
Canaan nation founded by Abhahan between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea
Jacob led the Hebrews to Egypt because of famine
Exodus book of the Old Testament that describes Moses's story
Moses led the Hebrews out of Egypt about 1240 B.C.E.
Mount Sinai where Moses received the Ten Commandments
Ten Commandments ethical basis for Judaism and Christianity viewed by the Hebrews as a covenant with God
covenant solemn promise
Torah the first five books of the Old Testament, contain the Law of Moses
ethical monothiesm ethical conduct and belief in one God
Saul leader who united the Hebrew tribes by 1021 B.C.E.
David Saul's successor, built Jerusalem
Jerusalem Hebrew capital
Solomon David's son, built trade networks, especially with the Phoenicians, using chariots
corvee labor work required of those who could not pay taxes in money or goods
Israel kingdom formed by the ten northern Hebrew tribes
Judah kingdom formed by the two southern Hebrew tribes
prophet messenger of God
Messsiah a savior
dessication the process by which the Sahara Desert dried up by 3000 B.C.E.
sahel dry area under the Sahara
savanna grassy area in Africa
Nok African people who lived in central Nigeria between 900 and 200 B.C.E. and produced terra cotta sculptures and cast iron
El Ninos periodic warm water currents in the Pacific that can bring higher temperatures, torrential rain, drought, and earthquakes
Moche civilization in the Moche valley along the Peruvian coast that expanded by conquest, started in 200 B.C.E. and collapsed by 700 C.E. because of environmental challenges
Aymara Peruvian people at Tihuanaco that used intricate irrigation, possibly abandoned by 1100 B.C.E. because of climate change
Hopewell culture used canals along the Ohio River, started 200 to 50 B.C.E., possibly declined in 300 to 600 B.C.E. because of overpopulation, cooling, or warfare
Anasazi lived in canyons 300 to 1200, noted for their ceramics and kivas, part of Pueblo society, matrilineal
Bantu migrations spread agriculture and iron making throuout Africa from central Nigeria
Hellenic Greek
Mycenae city that inherited power in the Aegean from the Minoans about 1400 B.C.E.
Ionia the mediterranian coast of Southwest Asia where Greeks went during the Dorian invasions
polis Greek city-state ruled by a king and a council of elders
civic social and political organization and relationships in a city
Athens polis composed of Attica
Attica a peninsula in eastern Greece
Sparta a polis in a river valley
acropolis a city on fortified high ground
oligarchy rule by a few upper-class citizens
tyrants a leader that illegally seized power and/or member of the oligarchy
democracy system of government in which all citizens (however defined) have equal political and legal rights, privileges, and practices, originated in Athens from traders with increasing power and increasingly impoverished farmers and slaves
phalanx formation of eight ranks of military soldiers in which men formed a wall with theirs shields, wealth and rank mattered little
Hellenic Age 612 to 339 B.C.E.
Draco aristocrat who codified the harsh Athenian laws and made them public
Solon chief magistrate elected in 594 B.C.E. who empowered commoners
Peisistratus tyrant who supported building programs and arts for commoners in 560 B.C.E.
Cleisthenes aristocrat who institutionalized Athenian democracy in 508 B.C.E.
direct democracy used in Athens, all citizens vote on everything
Assembly all male Athenians over 19 who voted on policy and taxes
Council of 500 legislature chosen by lot from the Athenian Assembly
Jury in Athens, tried all cases, chosen from the Assembly by lot
commander-in-chief executive branch of Athens, along with nine generals elected anually by the Assembly
ostracism individuals considered dangerous to Athens were banished
Pericles Athenian leader in 432 B.C.E.
Peloponnesus southern Greek peninsula
helots Spartan slaves
ephors five selected Spartan officials aided by two kings and a council of elders
Battle of Marathon 490 B.C.E., the Persians were defeated by the Greeks
Miltiades Greek general at the Battle of Marathon
Xerxes Persian king seeking revenge after the Battle of Marathon at Thermopylae
Thermopylae a narrow Greek mountain pass where the Persians massacred the Spartans, who were led by King Leonidas
Battle of Salamis Bay Athenians defeated the Persian navy after northern Greece was conquered and Athens was burned
Battle of Plataea Sparta and Athens defeated the Persians in 479 B.C.E., stopping Persian expansion into Europe
Delian League alliance of Greek city states dominated by Athens formed in 478 B.C.E. in response to the Persian threat
Pelopennesian Wars 431-404 B.C.E., Sparta triumphed over Athens, which was using the resources of the Delian League for its own interests
Philip of Macedon conquered the Greek city-states in 338 B.C.E.
Thucydides recounted the history of the Peloponnesian wars using only verifiable facts
Demosthenes orated for Greek unity against the Macedonians
Isocrates orated that outside rule would be preferable to continuing Greek squabbling during the Macedonian conquest
humanism Hellenic cultural achievement a system of thought that makes humans the center of existence, based in rationalism
Rationalism the idea that order can be conceived, not by gods, but by men
Olympia location of a Panhellenic festival in honor of Zeus, including the Olympic Games
Delphi location of a Panhellenic festival in honor of Apollo
Aeschylus wrote Greek tragedies including Oresteia and Promethus Bound
Sophocles wrote Greek tragedies including Oedipus Rex
Euripides wrote Greek tragedies including Trojan Women and Medea
Sappho Greek poet who wrote about love
Thales of Miletus Greek "father of philosophy", described physical reality by earth elements
materialist school of philosophy developed by Thales of Miletus
Pythagoras a mathematician who developed the "harmony of spheres"
Hippocrates the Greek father of medicine who separated natural science from philosophy
Sophists Greeks who believed in logic, and that humans were the proper subject of study
Socrates Athenian philosopher-scientist who challenged ideas with logical questioning, including the opinions of Athenian politicians, for which he was executed
Plato Socrates's pupil, who believed in a world of immaterial forms and that the ideal state was ruled by experienced philosopher-kings
Aristotle Plato's pupil, who advocated the Golden Mean, thought that all matter was an inseparable unity (Metaphysics), analyzed poetry (Poetics), explored deduction and induction (Organon), and argued that the state should serve all, not a few, citizens (Politics)
Parthenon Athenian temple on the Acropolis dedicated to Athena, appears balanced and proportioned from all angles
Doric plain columns
Ionian scrolled columns
Corinthian columns with acanthus leaves
Phidias greatest Greek sculptor who created the equestrian procession on the Parthenon frieze
Herodotus wrote history, including the History of the Persian Wars, by gathering information, not mythology, though he could not verify the facts
Golden Age of Greece last half of the fifth century B.C.E. when Athenians had great artistic and philosophical output
Age of Pericles ca. 461 to 429 B.C.E., when, under Pericles's leadership, Athens showed Greek achievementPersians and Medes
Persia Iran, a land bridge between India and East Asia and Southwest Asia
Cyrus II (the Great) Persian warrior who conquered the Medes and created the Achaemenid dynasty in 550 B.C.E.
Achaemenid Persian dynasty that lasted until 331 B.C.E., included Mesopotamia, Syria, Palestine, the Phoenician cities, Lydia, Greek Southwest Asia, and Egypt
Darius conquered the Indus Valley in 513 B.C.E. to make the Persian empire the largest empire of its time
satrap the governor of one of the 20 Achaemenid province
Royal Road Persian road from Susa in Persia to Sardis in Anatolia with stations for travelers, provided long-distance communication
Zoroastrianism Persian polytheistic religion that sought no converts, making Persia tolerant of other religions
Ahuramazda chief Zoroastrian god, the creator and benefactor fo all living creatures
Mithra Zoroastrian sun-god who saw to justice and redemption
Magi priestly class that developed among the Medes
Zend Avesta a collection of Zoroastrian hymns and poems
Zoroaster (Zarathustra) preached dualism around 600 B.C.E.
dualism teaching that life is a conflict between two opposing forces, Ahuramazda as good and Ahriman as evil for Zoroastrianism
Ahriman Zoroastrian force of evil
Persepolis Darius's capital, shows Zoroastrian and Greek styles
Macedonia northern Greece
Alexander the Great son of Philip of Macedonia who overthrew Persia and spread Hellenism from Egypt to India
Hellenism Greek culture, thought, and way of life
Hellenistic age that lasted from the death of Alexander the Great in 323 B.C.E. to 30 B.C.E.
Ptolemies Egyptian dynasty following the death of Alexander the Great
Bactrian Greece Greek state that probed towards China
koine common dialect of Greek that helped to facilitate trade and government
mystery cult Eastern Hellenistic religions not attached to Greek polises, like Serapis and Isis
Cynicism Hellenistic philosophy led by Diogenes that believed that happiness was possible only by foregoing luxuries
Epicureanism Hellenistic philosophy advanced by Epicures that believed that the principal good of human life was pleasure
Stoicism Hellenistic philosophy introduced by Zeno that taught that people should participate in affairs but not try to change the order of things
Thales founded astronomy based on Babylonian observations
Aristarchus Hellenic astronomer who argued heliocentricism
Ptolemy Alexandrian mathematician and astronomer
heliocentric theory that the earth and planets move around the sun
Nicolaus Copernicus Polish astronomer who reinvestigated heliocentricism during the Renaissance in his book On the Revolution of Heavenly Bodies
Euclid Hellenic mathematician who compiled The Elements of Geometry from existing knowledge
Archimedes Hellenic inventor and mathematician
Eratosthenes Hellenic, calculated the circumference of the earth
Aristophanes wrote Greek comedies like Knights, satirizing corrupt officials, and Clouds, ridiculing philosophers
Herophilus Hellenic scientist who dissected corpses and found that there were two types of nerves, that the brain was the center of intelligence, and that blood circulates through veins and arteries
Etruscans settled north of the Tiber River at the same time that the Dorians moved south into Greece
society organized group of people with identifiable languages and social structures that reflect values purposefully taught
Tiber River in the Italian Peninsula
Italy name given to the Italian Peninsula by the Greeks
Latins people between the Greeks and Etruscans protected by the Appenine mountains, ruled by the Etruscans
Romulus and Remus traditional founders of Rome in 753 B.C.E.
republic power is in the hands of the people
patricians wealthy landowning Roman class making up about ten percent of the population
plebians Roman class of small farmers, artisans, and shopkeepers
consuls two leaders of the republic elected from the patricians who could veto each other, could give power to a dictator elected for a maximum of six months
Senate 300 patricians who advised the Etruscan king and the Roman consuls, served for life, proposed laws
Assembly of Centuries all male citizens organized for military purposes in units of 100 that voted on laws
tribunes representatives elected by plebians starting in 494 B.C.E. as a result of plebian refusal to serve in the army
Assembly of Tribes assembly of plebians that elected tribunes and passed resolutions that the tribunes presented to the Senate for ratification
Twelve Tables Roman law code in 450 B.C.E.
praetors Roman judges who customarily announced laws they considered out of date
jus civile civil law, used predecents, customs, and procedures
jus gentium coalescing of Roman and foreign law to promote justice over the laws of a particular country
jus naturale universal lawlegion
Pontifex Maximus chief Roman priest
Pyrrhus Hellenistic king of Epirus who tried to aid Greek cities and lost them to Rome, which became master of all Italy
Punic Wars fought 264 to 146 B.C.E. between Rome and Carthage allied with Macedonia for Mediterranean power and wealth, Rome won the whole Mediterranean world
First Punic War Rome won Sicily
Hannibal leader of the Carthaginian forces during the Second Punic War, was defeated
Battle of Zama Hannibal was defeated by Scipio in 202 B.C.E.
Second Punic War Carthage sought revenge for the Roman annexation of Sardinia and Corsica
Scipio Roman general during the Punic Wars
Third Punic War Carthage was completely destroyed
latifundia huge Roman estates worked by imported slaves
empiricism based on observations
Tiberius Gracchus a tribune who tried to limit the amount of land a person could own
Gaius brother of Tiberius who tried to get the government to buy grain and sell it to the poor at low prices
Marius general who created a professional army and overrode the Roman Senate, the first successful Roman reform
Sulla took over the government with the Senate's support in 83 B.C.E. and restored it to its former state, ruled as a dictator
Spartacus led a massive slave revolt in Rome shorly after Sulla's rule, which failed
Pompey Julius Caesar's rival, earned fame by conquests in the East, supported by the Senate
Julius Caesar earned fame by conquest in Gaul, supported by the people, became Rome's dictator
Crassus wealthy businessman who shared power with Pompey and Julius Caesar
First Triumvirate Pompey, Julius Caesar, and Crassus shared power over Rome in 59 B.C.E., ending a civil war
Rubicon River boundary between Gaul and Rome that Pompey forbade the popular Caesar to lead his army over, distrusting him
Ides of March March 15, 44 B.C.E., date when Caesar was assasinated
Brutus led the Senatorial conspirators who assasinated Caesar
Antony an ally of Julius Caesar
Cleopatra last of the Ptolemies
Actium where Antony and Cleopatra were defeated following Caesar's assasination
Octavian grandnephew of Caesar who ended almost a century of chaos in Rome and took the titles of imperator, pontifex maximus, and princeps civiatis
Augustus title assumed by Octavian
constitutional monarchy established by Octavian in Rome
Principate age of Augustus during which he tried to restore republicanism outwardly, when in reality he was the dictator
imperator chief military general
princeps civiatis first citizen
Caligula Augustus's descendant, cruel and incompetant
Nero Caligula's successor, excessive and irresponsible
Marcus Aurelius one of the Five Good Emperors of Rome from 161 to 180 C.E.
Pax Romana period from Augustus through Marcus Aurelius, 27 B.C.E. to 180 C.E., coonsisting of relative political peace in Rome, which encouraged trade and wealth
mosaic innovated by the Romans and reached its zenith in the eastern Roman Empire, small, flat pieces of stone or colored glass are fit in mortar
Virgil Roman author of the Aeneid, an epic poem
Livy Roman who wrote the prose counterpart of the Aeneid, a history of Rome
Horace Roman author of odes commemorating Augustus's victories
Latin language of the Latin Christian church and the basis of the romance languages of Europe, advanced by Virgil, Livy, and Horace
romance languages Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Italian in Europe
Pliny Roman who produced Natural History, which discussed several scientific topics from biology to botany
Plutarch Roman who was interested in the moral qualities of famous people, wrote 65 bigraphical sketches
barrel vault Roman invention of extending the Etruscan rounded arch
cross vault Roman building style of setting two arches at right angles to each other, equally distributing a building's weight so that walls didn't need to be as thick as in the post and lintel system
the Pantheon and the arch of Constantine illustration of Roman architecture incorporatin Greek balance and harmony and Roman genius in building
collegia Roman trade guilds organized for soccial and religious purposes
Justinian's Code (Corpus Juris Civilis) corpus of law that included protection for the poor and for slaves, fully codified by the sixth century C.E., preserved the Roman legal heritage and provided the legal foundation for nearly every modern European counrty
Parthia Persia/Iran during the Roman Empire, tried to replicate the classical age after Alexander's empire disintegrated
Amber Road built to carry amber from the Baltic area to Rome, followed the valleys of the Rhine, Danube, Vistula, and Elbe
Hadrian ruled 117 to 138 C.E. withdrew eastern Roman troops to the Euphrates River and built a wall across Britain to protect it from attack
Diocletian ruled 284 to 305 C.E., tried to deal with the problem of trade decreasing in the Roman Empire because of the threat of invasion by establishing price and wage controls, dividing the empire, appointing more caesars, and claiming divine status
Sassanids a people indigenous to southern Iran who replaced the Parthians after they fell to the Romans in 226 C.E., last king was slain by Arabs in 651 C.E.
Ardashir a Persian noble who killed the Parthian king, seized the capital of Ctesiphon, and proclaimed the Sassanid empire in 227 C.E., which followed the Achaemenid style
Manicheism a reformist sect of Zoroastrianism established under the Sassanids
Shapur II Sassanian Persia's greatest monarch, made gains against the Romans and extended Persian influence to China, spreading western religions, including Zoroastrianism, Judaism, and Christianity, and culture
Silk Road overland route linking Parthia, China, India, and Rome that fostered the growth of cities along its length
Kan Ying Han ambassador to the Roman Empire sent by sea from 96 to 98 C.E.
Pontius Pilate prefect of Rome during whose time Rome had direct rather than indirect control of Judea, removing their political autonomy
Zealots Jewish extremists who worked to rid Judea of the Romans
Apocalyptics Jews who believed that the coming of a Messiah was near to end the crisis under Rome
Torah where the Law, the core of Judaism, is recorded
rabbis interpreted the Jewish Law
Talmud writings and interpretations of the Jewish Law
Diaspora dispersion of Jewish peoples outside of Palestine
Gentiles non-Jews, familiarized with the Jewish concept of monotheism and the moral principles of the Law
Jesus of Nazareth a Jew who emphasized the importance of brotherly love, the love of God, and a kingdom in heaven, not on earth, followed by twelve apostles, lived 5 B.C.E. to 29 C.E.
Baptism ritual used by prophets and later by Jesus of Nazareth's disciples
Eucharist communal celebration of the Lord's supper
Paul of Tarsus traveled preaching Jesus's message 5 to 57 C.E. and making it a religion for all believers, not just Hebrews
Gospels histories of Jesus written by Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John
epistles Paul'sletters to various Christian communities
priests met the local needs of parishioners
bishops headed communities of believers
Pope leader the Roman Catholic Church starting with a successor the the Apostle Saint Peter, founder of the church in Rome
canon law the body of law organized by the church using Roman law
martyrdoms dying for one's beliefs, made Christianity more popular when it defied Rome by refusing to offer sacrifices to the emperor
Constantine Roman emperor who encouraged Christianity
Edict of Milan issued by Constantine in 313 C.E. making Christianity a legal religion
Constantinople eastern Roman capital built by Constantine to be safer from Germanic invasions and closer the the new center of trade, made the pope more powerful in the West and the emperor the ruler in the east
Cathedral of the Hagia Sophia crowning building of Constantinople
Gnostic Christians believed in a divine, not mortal, Christ
Arian Christians believed that Christ could not have been a coequal to God
Nestorian Christians believed in the humanness of Jeses, rejected by Western Christian as heretics, established communities from Syria to China
heresy denial of a doctrine of faith
Nicene Creed a church council including Emperor Constantine that determined in 325 C.E. that Christ was the "eternally begotten son of the Father" and established the Trinity
Catholic derived from the Greek work for universal, Christians who claimed one world of believe united in the pope
Saint Jerome translated the Old and New Testaments from Hebrew and Greek into vernacular Latin
Vulgate edition the Bible translated into vernacular Latin by Saint Jerome
Sain Augustine combined the Greco-Roman belief that knowledge is virtue with the Christian idea that even knowledgeable people sin in Confessions, thought that history is the account of God acting in time, as the church's Greco-Roman heritage survived barbarian attacks
Huns pushed Germans to invade Rome
Visigoths a group of Germans that rebelled against Roman rule in 378 C.E.
Alaric leader of the Visigoths who sacked Rome in 410 C.E.
Odoacer German general who seized power in Rome in 476 C.E.
Ancestors worshipped by the family in China because they were thought to provide the communication link to the nature spirits
Yin negative, feminine, and passive force of the Tao
Yang positive, masculine, and active force of the Tao
Taoism Chinese dualistic thought that sought harmony between man and nature, believed that all things were united and governed by the cosmic law or Tao
Confucianism sought harmony between men, based on five relationsphips between rulers and the ruled, the father and the son, the husband and the wife, the older and younger brother, and the older and younger friend
Zhou (Chou) Dynasty ca. 1027 to 256 B.C.E., a time of feudal turmoil and transition during which the formal philosophies of Confucianism, Taoism, and Legalism emerged
Confucius (Kung Fu-tzu) court official appointed by the prince of Lu who taught that humans should live according to the universal natural law and that the family was the basic unit of society
filial piety respect for one's parents or elders advanced by Confucianism
li Confucian moderation and proper conduct by which both aristocrats and the poor could become gentlemen
Analects a book of Confucius's thoughts compiled by his disciples centering on the duties and proper behavior of the individual within society
Mencius Confucius's most famous follower who added the idea of self-perfection as the mode through which society would be ordered to Confucian thought, taught that moral leaders must have the respect and support of his subjects
Mandate of Heaven divine right to govern thought in China to be possessed by good rulers, used by the Zhou to justify overthrow of the Shang dynasty
Dynastic Cycle interpretation of the past to predict the future used in China
Lao Zi (Lao-tzu) lived in the sixth century B.C.E., taought that the tao was a set of values that would allow a person to live in harmony with nature by flowing with it, taught that the best ruler governed least
Tao Te Ching (Book of the Way and Its Power) book attributed to Lao Zi, probably the work of several people, dates from the fourth century B.C.E.
Legalism philosophy gained from many related schools of political thought that flourished during the late Zhou and triumphed under the Qin dynasty, believed that human nature was evil
Han Fei Zi (Han Fei-tzu) leader of Legalism
Li Si (Li Ssu) prime minister to the First Emperor of the Qin who centralized power by crippling the nobles and standardizing China
I Ching the Book of Changes, a book of oracles read by tossing coins
Zhou (Chou) believed to be Turkic-speaking people from Central Asia who subjugated the Chinese
King Wu Zhou leader who overthrew the Shang and extended China, keeping Shang culture
Wei Velley location of a second Zhou capital west of the Huang Ho
well-field system Zhou system in which eight peasant households cultivated one plot each and one plot to be given to the lord as tribute
shi regular, educated, salaried Zhou officials
Warring States period 402 to 332 B.C.E. during which the political organization of the Zhou collapsed
Sun Zi (Sun Tzu) probably a contemporary of Confucius, wrote The Art of War about how to win conflicts with deception, and strategies rather than brute strength
Shi Huangdi (Shi Huang-ti) First Emperor of the Qin Dynasty, deposed the last Zhou king in 256 B.C.E., united China, purged Confucian scholars and alienated the peasants with heavy taxes and forced labor
Quin (Ch'in) Dynasty one rebel state of nomadic origin conquered Zhou China
China Western word derived from Shi Huangdi
Xiongnu (Hsiung-nu) northern nomads who threatened Qin China
Great Wall built and rebuilt in China during the Qin and Ming Dynasties as protection against northern nomads
Sima Qian (Ssu-ma Ch'ien) wrote studies of Chinese history using eyewitnesses and written documents, including Records of the Grand Historian, recorded that Shi Huangdi ordered the building of his royal tomb, Mount Li, which left a record of the clothing and warfare of the period
Liu Bang (Liu Pang) Qin petty official who defiated the Qin and established the Han Dynasty, replaced Legalism with Confucianism
Han Dynasty 207 B.C.E. to 210 C.E., one of two major Chinese dynasties established by a commoner, Chinese civilization was consolidated
Han Gao Zi (Kao-tsu) posthumous imperial title of Liu Bang
civil sevice bureaucracy largest one in the preindustrial world was in Han China
mandarins Confucian scholar-bureaucrats chosen by examination during the Han and Tang Dynasties, provided a reverence for education
sons of Han way the Chinese refer to themselves, showing their identification with the tradition developed by scholar-bureaucrats at the time
Wudi (Wu Ti) Liu Bang's successor who moved from his feudal tendencies towards bureaucratic centralization, starting a struggle in Chinese history between aristocrats and scholars
Changan (Ch'ang An) Han capital of China where an imperial university was established in 124 B.C.E. for the study of Confucianism
tributary relations nomadic rulers had to travel to the Han imperial court with gifts
ridge-and-furrow system of planting developed in the Han period, seeds were planted in ridges along furrows that collected water
Ts'ai Lun (Cai Lun) invented paper in 105 C.E.
paper cheaper than silk, increased literacy
Ban Qao (Pan Chao) China's first woman historian and scholar, wrote Lessons for Women in the Han period
Ching Chi (Ching Chih) wrote Treatise on Fevers in the Han period
Chang Heng (Ch'ang Heng) concluded that the earth was round in the Han period
Dunhuang (Tun-huang) where the Silk Road when from Changan
Brahmanism Aryan religious traditions
Code of Manu where the division into the Hindu castes is written
karma the accumulation of good and bad deeds during life by how one observes dharma
Moksha release from the wheel of life and unity with Brahma
non-violence a tradition especially evident in Jainism originating from the Hindu emphasis on a god-force in all life, not just human life
Bhagavad Gita a Hindu hymn that serves as a spiritual guide to one's problems, like the Christian parables
Arjuna a warrior who struggles with the descision of whether to go to battle against his own kinsmen and is counseled in the Bhagavad Gita
Krishna a manifestation of the god Vishnu who instructs Arjuna to carry out his duties to his caste as a warrior
Jainism a sixth century B.C.E. reform of Hinduism protesting the power of the Brahman caste, said that one must do the least violence as one moves up the hierarchy of life
Mahavira Kshatriya founded Jainism, thought that the whole universe was composed of souls and matter and that one must rid oneself of matter to rise to Brahma as a soul
Siddhartha Gautama Kshatriya who founded Buddhism, most likely to resent Brahman privilege
Buddha "Enlightened One", concluded that happiness was found not by asceticism and changing one's karma but by changing one's thought to be released from desire
Four Noble Truths 1. life is suffering, 2. suffering is caused by desire, 3. one can be released from desire by following the Eightfold Path, after which 4. a state of grace when desire is extinguished (Nirvana) can be reached, releasing one from karma
Eightfold Path way to be released from desire with a conscious descision to adopt right conduct and free oneself from desire at its heart, symbolized by a chariot wheel with eight spokes
Nirvana a state of grace wheen desire is extinguished, releasing one from karma governed by a bureaucracy and by division into provinces
Sangha circle of Buddha's disciples who systematized Buddhism with temples, rituals, etc. making active participation possible and spread it through the Asian trade routes
Theravada "Lesser Vehicle" of Buddhism which rested on the life and teachings of Buddha, strict and conservative
Mahayana "Larger Vehicle" of Buddhism popular in China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam which emphasized compassion and that there were many ways to salvation, more liberal
Bodhisattva a wise, saint-like being, Buddha in his previous lives declining nirvana in order to help others seeking enlightenment, prayed to in Mahayana Buddhism
mudras hand positions consistent through all depictions of Buddha showing what he is doing
Mauryan ca. 322 to 232 B.C.E., largest Indian empire of its time
Gupta 320 to 467 C.E., empire in the Ganges Valley that did not include the Deccan Plateau, considered the Golden Age of Indian culture because of the output in literature, art, and science
Maghadha a strong Aryan kingdom supported by Brahmins that developed around the Ganges Valley to rebuff the Achaemenid Persians
Chandragupta Mauryan ruler of a small state in the Ganges Valley who defeated the Greek general Seleucus to become king in 322 B.C.E., used centralized despotism
Bay of Bengal eastern border of the Mauryan Empire
Hindu Kush Mountains western border of the Mauryan Empire
Deccan Plateau conquered by the Mauryan Empire to its south
Pataliputra capital of the Mauryan and Gupta Empires
Megasthenes Greek ambassador to Pataliputra in 302 B.C.E.
Kautilya chief minister to Chandragupta Maurya
Arthashastra gives advice to rulers about how to amass and use power by any means as long as the subjects are pleased
Ashoka Chandragupta's grandson who embraced Buddhism and used benevolent paternalism, reigned 268 to 232 B.C.E.
centralized despotism used by Chandragupta Maurya, efficient and centralized, governed by a bureaucracy and by division into provinces
benevolent paternalism more compassionate form of government used by Ashoka after slaughtering over 150,000 men in war over Kalinga and killing his brothers for the throne
Kalinga eastern Indian state fought for by Ashoka before using benevolent paternalism
stupas domelike structures that contained the remains of saintly monks, encouraged as shrines by Ashoka
King Demetruis Hellenistic Bactrian Greek invader of northwestern India in the second century B.C.E. who introduced Hellenistic medicine, astronomy, and culture
Kushan invaders who entered India ca. 100 B.C.E. who became the Kshatriya caste, Buddhists who introduced Greek ideas to form the Gandaran school of art, which used Greek styles to portray buddhist subjects
Kanishka Buddhist convert who lead a council of Buddhist monks to form Mahayana Buddhism, like the Council of Nicaea
Chandra Gupta I came to power in 320 C.E., forming the Gupta Empire
Dravidians dark-skinned Tamil-speaking people who ruled the Deccan Plateau in the time of the Gupta Empire, prospered through maritime trade
Tamil language spoken by the Dravidians, who controlled the Deccan Plateau in the time of the Gupta Empire and traded on the east Indian coast
Kalidasa Indian dramatist and poet during the Gupta Empire, wrote not tragedies but stories with romance, tranquility, and happy endings
Nalanda Buddhist monastery in the time of the Gupta Empire
Indian numbers also known as Arabic numerals, developed in India as early as the third century B.C.E. along with decimals, the concept of zero, quadratic equations, and the use of the square root of two in algebra, during the Gupta Empire
Caraka Indian doctor who developed a code of ethics for doctors during the Gupta Empire, when fine steel could be made into scalpels
Sanchi location of a 56-foot high stupa built in the Gupta period
rock-cut temple architectural form of the Gupta period, temple cut into a solid cliff of rock
Chaitya principal chamber of a rock-cut temple
Ajanta rock-cut temple with 29 chambers
Ellora rock-cut temple with 34 chambers
frescoes pictures painted on stucco, decorated rock-cut temples
Lakshmi symbolized fertility in Gupta architecture
Kali symbolized death in Gupta architecture
mandalas cosmic designs in which temple complexes were built in the Gupta period
gurus Brahman role during the Gupta period as teachers of local notables
sati (suttee) tradition of widow's self-emolation at her husband's funeral developed during the Gupta period
White Huns ended the rule of the Gupta by invading in 480 to 500 C.E., causing India to fall into a patchwork of warring rajas until the Moslem invasion
Mesoamerican Middle American civilization resting on the agricultureal Olmec
Oaxaca Zapotecans established a large urban center at Teotihuacan about 150 B.C.E. second only to Rome, rested on agriculture
Teotihuacan near modern Mexico City, burned in about 700 C.E.
barrios apartment compounds that housed working people at the edge of the city in Teotihuacan
Maya city-states and surrounding territories ruled by families 300 to 900 C.E., contemporaries of the Tang, Charlemagne, and the Abbasids, developed politics, a calendar, trade, language, and art, declined because of agricultural exhaustion
Time of Troubles (Mayan) 800 to 1000 C.E. in Middle America, marked by militarism and rule by priests in large cities and by warriors in small states
Toltec feudal confederation/state during the Time of Troubles that admired and absorbed Teotihuacan culture, 1000 to 1300 C.E., collapsed in 1224 when the Chichimec captured Tula
Zamna early Maya culture god from whom the word Maya seems to have been derived
Pacal of Palenque Mayan ruler until 683 C.E. whose deeds in war were recorded, entombed in a pyramid at Palenque
ritual ball games Mayan players hit a rubber ball with their hips and elbows through a ring as a form of worship and sport
ridged rield system Mayan agricultural system used with irrigation and swamp drainage, raised fields were built above seasonally flooded lands
milpa Mayan agricultural system used in areas with heavy rainfall and sunlight in which patches of forest were burned and cotton and maize was planted in the ash
steles Mayan stone slab monumengts
corbeled arch architectural feature of Mayan temples in which stone blocks were placed with upside-down steps over openings
codices Mayan books of hieroglyphs made of bark paper and deerskin
Tikal area of population density resulting from intensive agriculture
Yucatan peninsula where Mayan culture moved to from the area around Tikal after its decline
Chichen Itza center of Mayan tradition in the Yucatan Peninsula, conquered by the Toltec by 1000 C.E.
Tihuanaco Moche city on the shore of Lake Titicaca, extended control through Chile
Huari Moche city in southern Peru
verticality different social and political niches were found by Moche families at different altitudes, where different crops were grown
ayllus Moche kinship units based on descent from a common mythical ancestor
reciprocity Moche concept of cooperative relationships between anyone from family members to different states
Chimu state that Tihuanaco and Huari fell to about 800 C.E., conquered by the Incas in 1465
Nubia early state in Africa in southern Egypt and northern Sudan that appeared by 6000 B.C.E., produced and marketed pottery
Kerma independent Nubian state destroyed by Egyptian forces, appeared between 1800 and 100 B.C.E.
Coptic monophysite branch of the Christian church that expanded in Nubia, faded with the Islamic conquest of Egypt
monophysite sect of Christianity that argued that Jesus had a single divine nature rather than being both divine and human
Aksum literate urban African state that emerved in the Ethiopian highlands around 400 B.C.E., benefited from cultural exchange through trade
Nok people who were woking iron in central Nigeria by 5000 B.C.E.
Bantu people who drew in differing languages based on their farming and metal working traditions, moved east and south from their homelands along the Niger River into southern, Central, and East Africa
Mande complex urban society in the Sudan peopled by farmers who grew sorghum and cotton, including the Ghanians, who fled south
Jenne-Jenno city in present-day Mali, hub of commerce along the Niger River
Mande diverse people including the Soninke, Mandinka, Malinka, and Bambara who had similar languages, customs, dominated the history of the western Niger River Basin
Soninke people who formed Ghana, their name for war chief, used iron technology and horses, occupied the area north of the Senegal and Niger Rivers
Ghana first major Sudanic state formed as early as 500 C.E with a capital near Jenne-Jenno, flourished until the thriteenth century, "the land of gold"
chieftancy Mande political and legal system in which chiefs and village heads combined religious and secular duties
griots Mande class of oral historians and musicians who emphasized the deeds of leaders
Guinea Atlantic coast of Africa from modern Senegal to southeastern Nigeria, mostly swamp with few edible plants and animals, people survived by communal labor
migration process by which people like classical civilizations spread their culture, often because of ecological factors like climate change and overpopulation
cultural diffusion spreading of culture, a method of classical expansion
trade systems trade patterns that became complex, organized, and stable over broad areas, spread religion, culture, and technology
feudalism sometimes followed classical civilizations, characterized by decentralized political system oriented to defense, an agrarian economy, a hierarchical social system, and a culture permeated by the military and a religious preoccupation with death
Polynesians a group of linguistically related peoples who farmed roots and moved across the Pacific by using the outrigger canoe
Austronesian Polynesian language group found in Madagascar, the Philippines, Indonesia, and Southeast Asia
ali'i Hawaiian high chiefs whose claims rested on their ability to recite their genealogical lineages
kapu sets of taboos by which Hawaiian commoners lived
Melanesia a group of islands to the east of New Guinea and Australia from which the Polynesians expanded to Tonga, Samoa, and Polynesia in the east, and to Madagascar in the west about 4000 years ago
Polynesia islands contained in a rough triangle between Hawaii, New Zealand, and Easter Island
Society Islands origin of a group that sailed to New Zealand and established the Maori culture in about the eigth century C.E.
Maori had the highest concentration of Polynesian people in the world in the late eighteenth century C.E.
moa large wingless birds overhunted by the Maori
hapu Maori priest leader who could cut out the heart of the first enemy killed in battle
Easter Island colonized by 20 or 30 Polynesians in about 300 C.E., fell due to the ecological strain, particularly deforestation
ahu large stone statues built on Easter Island
pagodas structures with statues of Buddha reminiscent of the Han watchtowers built by the Northern Wei kingdom along with cave temples between the Han and Sui Dynasties
block printing used by Buddhist monks by 600s C.E. to spread their message in China and later by the Tang to regularize the bureaucracy and for literature
Sui Dynasty united China in 589 C.E., connected it with roads and canals
Wei Valley where the Sui Dynasty, like the Qin, were centered, with the capital at Changan
Yangdi (Yang-ti) second Sui emperor who began a campaign of expansion over northern Vietnam and of Sinkiang and Mongolia and rebuilt the Great Wall
Sinkiang northwestern China, captured by Yangdi
Loyang capital built by Yangdi
Grand Canal built by Yangdi, cemented the unity of north and south China by bringing rice from the Yangzi delta for troops and officials in the semiarid north
Hangzhou (Hangchou) southern terminus of the Grand Canal, later the capital of Song China in 1122, visited by Ibn Battuta and Marco Polo
Beijing (Peking) northern terminus of the Grand Canal and later the capital during the Yuan Dynasty
Tang Dynasty followed and benefited from the Sui Dynasty, reclaimed most Han areas and expanded along the Silk Road into modern Afghanistan and Southeast Asia, ruled for 300 years, Golden Age of China, major exports of porcelain, silk, and tea were established
Taizong (T'ai-Tsung) Emperor under whom the Tang Dynasty profited
Sinification becoming part of Chinese culture, happened south of the Yangzi
Talas River location where Tang territoriall expansion reached its limit in 751 when a coalition of Arabs and western Turks repulsed the Chinese near Samarkand, Chinese captives taught the Arabs the technologies of paper making and printing
moveable type wood or clay type was used by the Chinese by 1050 C.E., iron type was made by 1234
Golden Age cultural high point during which learning and arts flourish
Li Bo (Li Po) Tang poet who wrote lighthearted poetry with images from nature
Du Fu (Tu Fu) Tang poet who wrote somber poems about human troubles connected with Tang expansion
meritocracy system of bureaucratic advancement based on education rather than familial relations, wealth, or power which was established to some extent during the Tang Dynasty
Bureau of Censors Tang department that kept track of officials at all levels
Empress Wu Tang empress from 690 to 705 who favored Buddhism, which led to animosity on the part of Taoists and Confucianists and produced a backlash, which became open persecution in the 840's
Song (Sung) established by a young general in 960, economic growth and innovation continued
Kaifeng Song capital logated near the great bend in the Huang Ho, center of manufacturing and commerce, sacked by Jurchen barbarians, upon which the capital was moved south to Hangzhou, necessitating sea routes to Southeast Asia and India
paper currency issued by the Song government, promoted commerce
gentry class of educated elite that was established during the Song Dynasty
tributary system used by the Song to defend essential territory and appease neighboring barbarian groups with money, bribes, and arranged marriages
kowtows bowing before the emperor, required less of states farther away from Song China
Zhu Xi (Chu Hsi) Song founder of Neo-Confucianism
Neo-Confucianism a mixture of Confucian, Buddhist, and Taoist thought that emphasized self-perfection that supported state and society
Kyushu Japanese island closest to Korea from where they moved north by 400 C.E.
Honshu main island of Japan
Yamato clan seized control of the coastal plain near Osaka Bay by the third century C.E., traced its descent from the sun-goddess
Shinto religion established by the Yamato with the sun-goddess as the chief deity, celebrated the beauty, not the wrath, of nature, appealed to nationalist concerns during the Meiji restoration
kami spirits of nature respected by Shintoism
Prince Shotoku introduced Chinese political and bureaucratic concepts to Yamato Japan, 547 to 622
Seventeen Article COnstitution Buddhist blueprint written by Prince Shotoku that stressed the proper goals of government and ethical conduct
Taika Reforms supporters of Shotoku's reforms overthrew the government in 645 and tried to create a complete imperial and bureaucratic system like that of Tang China
Nara Japan's first capital and city, modeled on the Tang capital, gave its name to the period that lasted from 710 to 794, characterized by the importation of Chinese ideas, an imperial court, and Buddhism, which stopped after 838
Kyoto where the capital was moved to from Nara after a Buddhist monk tried to usurp the throne
Heian name for Kyoto when it was the capital
Kana phoenetic system that was used to transcribe Japanese, replacing Chinese characters
Fujiwara clan ended the Japanese meritocracy, increased influence through intermarriage with the imperial family, ruled 858 to 1086, gave way to the Kamakura period in 1185
Lady Murasaki author of the Tale of Genji, considered the world's first psychological novel, described court life
Daimyo Japanese territorial rulers who became de facto rulers over their lands during the Fujiwara period
samurai frontier warrior class tha emerged as Japanese settlement moved northeastward beyond the Yamato area
Indianization of Southeast Asia Indian monks and merchants spread Indian classical culture throughout Southeast Asia between 650 and 1250
devaraja god-king pattern adopted by Southeast Asian rulers as an intermarriage of Indian culture and the indigenous cultures
Thais lived to the west in Southeast Asia, united in a confederacy in the eight century and expanded northward against Tang China
Siam (Thailand) home of the Thais
Burmese migrated in the eighth century to modern Myanmar (Burma)
Pagan Burmese capital
Khmer indigenous people of Cambodia, lower classes adopted Buddhism for its compassion and equality, upper classes adopted Hinduism because of its social order, rulers later adopted Buddhism and added it to temples, weakened by excessive spending and invasions
Cambodia home of the Khmer
Srivijaya indigenous people of Sumatra who established a maritime empire, suffered a stunning blow from a commercial rival in Southern India, when the king and capital were captured and Indian culture took hold
Sumatra island, home of the Srivijaya and later the first place in Southeast Asia that Islam spread through by sailors and traders
Borobudur Buddhist monument in Indonesia that illustrates the influence of Indian Buddhist culture
Angkor Thom location of a Khmer capital and Hindu temple complex built by King Yasovarman in the ninth century
Angkor Wat Hindu temple complex built less than a mile to the south of Angkor Thom by Suryavarman II, who ruled 1113 to 1150, wat meaning temple
barays Khmer reservoirs in the Mekong floodplains which collected water during heavy monsoon rains and provided irrigation during dry times, allowing for three harvests a year
Islam product of a synthesis of the nomadic and settled Arab cultures, means submission to the will of Allah
Bedouin nomadic Arab herders
Umayyad Bedouin nomad clan, later a caliphate that ruled until 750, establishing control over Syria, western Iraq, and Palestine, then Egypt and Lybia in the early 640's, and later Central Asia and northwest India
Mecca town whose politics and commercial economy was dominated by the Umayyad
Kaaba most revered religious shrine in pre-Islamic Arabia, located in Mecca
Yemen and Hadramaut coasts where regional Arab kingdoms arose, destroyed by Bedouin clans before the time of Muhammad
Semitic languages spoken by Babylonians, Assyrians, Hebrews, and Arabs, who migrated north from the Arabian Peninsula in the third millenium B.C.E. because of its unfertile nature
Muhammad Islamic prophet born about 570 C.E. into one of Mecca's leading families, believed in the resurrectuion of the physycal body in the afterlife and an eventual Last Judgement, as in Christianity
Archangel Gabriel said to have given Muhammad visions and the word of Allah in 610 C.E.
Allah Arabic word for God
Qur'an (Koran) Muslim holy book, contains Muhammad's revelations, required reading for Muslims which placed an emphasis on literacy
Muslim one who submits to the will of God and wins forgiveness by living the pillars of faith, accept Christians and Jews as worshipping the same God, recognize Abraham, Moses, and Jesus as prophets and Muhammad as the last prophet, of the Last Judgemet
pillars of faith five tenets of Islam, 1. profession of the creed (Allah is the only god and Muhammad is his prophet) 2. prayer five times a day called by a muezzin 3. almsgiving 4. fasting during Ramadan 5. a pilgrimage to Mecca
muezzin reciter who called Muslims to prayer
zakat Islamic almsgiving
Ramadan holy month during which Muslims fast
hajj pilgrimage to Mecca
Seal of the Prophets Muhammad, who was believed by Muslims to have revealed the full and perfect religion, making him the last prophet
Hadith a collection of traditional sayings and acts of Muhammad, contains Islamic social teachings
Sharia codified Islamic law, which has an ethical basis in the Hadith and the Qur'an
Jihad holy war through which Muslims believed they must spread Islam with the heart, tongue, hand, and sword, has recently found favor again among poor, unemployed youth bitter toward their own government or the West
Sufism mystic Islamic movement in the eighth and ninth centuries like the Christian monastic movement, played a role in spreading Islam in Africa, India, and Southeast Asia, named for coarse wool robes called sufs
Hegira emigration, name for Muhammad's flight to Medina in 622, won over 1000 converts before his return to Mecca in 628
caliph successor to Muhammad
Abu Bakr political follower and close friend of Muhammad chosen as Caliph by the Sunnis
Sunnis believed that the caliphs should be selected by consensus of the community of believers and that they should be responsible for political and military power
Shi'ites believed that the caliphs should be relatices of Muhammad and that they should be political and religious leaders, became a majority in Persia
Ulema religious scholars who reached consensus on religious policy like the interpretation of the Qur'an and the Hadith by study and discussion
Imam Shi'ite successor of Muhammad believed to be inspired by Allah
Karbala pilgrimage site, location of the martyrdom of the son of Muhammad's cousin Ali, Husayn, which is remembered with the festival of Muharram
Ismailis small branch of the Shi'ia sect who recognizes the Aga Khan as their Imam, located in Pakistan, India, and East Africa
Abbasids established a Persian Caliphate following the Umayyadin 750
Battle of Tours Charles Martel halted the Arabs (Ummayads) coming through the Iberian Peninsula in France in 732
Damascus Umayyad political capital
Muawiya first Umayyad caliph, ruled 661 to 680, established a system of government modeled on Rome
mosques Islamic places of worship, usually simple courtyards with roofed porticoes decorated with calligraphy and mosaics
Dome of the Rock Mosque built in 691 in Jerusalem at the site where Muhammad is believed to have ascended into heaven
emirs Arabs appointed as governors by the Umayyads to maintain Arab and Muslim control over people who were not Muslim or Arab
Abdullah al-Mansur firmly established the Abbasids, 754 to 775
Baghdad where al-Mansur moved the Islamic capital to
vizier (wazir) chief administrator of the Abbasid bureaucracy
dhows Arab sailing vessels with two or three masts built in India of teakwood that traveled in the western Mediterranean to the Indian Ocean to the South China Sea, using the Afro-Eurasian trading network revived under the Tang and Song Empires
lateen sails triangular sails of dhows
caravanserais a kind of camel motel that kept land routes in good condition during the Abbasid Caliphate
Harun al-Rashid ruler during the Golden Age of Islam, when the Islamic Abbasid Empire contained centers of Hellenistic, Egyptian, Mesopotamian, Christian, Jewish, Persian, and Indian culture and preserved the learning of ancient civilizations
Omar Khayyam wrote the synonymous Rubaiyat in the Late Abbasid
Ibn Sina (Avicenna) Muslim scientist who published the Canon of Medicine, in which he identified diseases and their causes
Averroes (Ibn Rushd) Spanish-born Muslim scholar who taught, after studying the writings of Aristotle, that religious beliefs could not be reconciled with philosophy
Fatamid took Egypt from the Abbasids in 969
Samanids took control of parts of Persia and territories east of the Oxus in Central Asia from the Abbasids
Seljuk Turks originally from central Asia, swept through the Middle East, conquered Baghdad in 1055 to become the leaders of the Muslim world, won against the Byzantines in 1071, Sunni
Arabian Nights a collection of stories, some of which are Indian, popular during the Umayyad and Abbasid empires
Mahmud of Ghazni led Turk Muslims to invade northern India, where the slaugher alienated Indians, but the promise of equality attracted them, 971 to 1030
Delhi Sultanate Muslim rule in the Gangetic plain and Indus valley established by Mahmud of Ghazni
Bali island that remained impervious to Islam along with the interiors of the Southeast Asian islands during Umayyad and Abassid expansion
stateless societies African culturally and ethnically homogenous societies without a central government present before the penetration of Islamic civilization between 800 and 1450
camel efficient, economical beasts of burden introduced to North Africa before 200 C.E., gave nomads a political and military advantage
Ibn Battuta Arab traveler likened to Marco Polo who traveled by caravan throughout the Islamic world
Sahil Arabic for the boundary between sand and grassland, where camel caravans going through the Sahara reached safety
monetization happened to European commerce in the late Middle Ages, partially because of West African gold
Slavic refers to Caucasian Slavs from the area around the Black Sea, origin of the word slave
manumission freedom of slaves which contributed to the high demand for them in Muslim trade
Sudan south of the Sahara, Islamized starting in 753, originally ruled by the Berbers, southernmost area in Africa where horses can survive
Berbers indigenous Caucasoid nomads of Northwest Africa, originally Phoenician colonists
Senegal River southern boundary of Ghana
Niger River southern boundary of Ghana, provided a communications network for Mali
al-Bakri Muslim geographer who described Ghana
diwan Muslim recordkeeping agency adopted by the king of Ghana, later Mughal bureau of finance created by Akbar, later Ottoman council
Almoravids Saharan tribesmen converted to Islam who imposed a Muslim king on the Ghanians in 1076 to 1077
Mali formed by the Mande-speadking clans and people who fled from Ghana south of Ghana, most powerful West African state ca. 1250 to 1460 C.E.
Sundiata founder of the Mali empire who put together a state of subservient governors combining the southern half of Ghana, Mali, and parts of what is now Guinea to form a major gold-producing area and communications network, claimed to be both tribal and Muslim
Uli pious Muslim son of Sundiata, establishing good politics and trade relations
mediums of exchange like currency, gold and salt, and cowries introduced by the government, in Mali
Mansa Musa devout Muslim ruler of Mali during its zenith, visited Mecca and Egypt with gold that caused inflation in 1324 to 1325, Mansa meaning emperor in the Mandinke language
Timbuktu capital of Mali, began as a nomad campsite, became a commercial and intelectual center
Songhay fishermen who refused to pay tribute to the Mali empire around 1375, formed into a gold-based Muslim kingdom larger than Mali with the slave trade, fell to Arab rulers in Morocco by 1591
Sonni Ali Songhay leader who captured Mali
Gao Songhay capital
Askia Muhammad followed Sonni Ali as ruler, expanded Songhay territory into the largst West African kingdom in history
Swahili city-states in East Africa, which had strong commercial links with India and the Mediterranean
Ethiopia (Abyssinia) remained Coptic Christian during an emigration from Arabia that accelerated Muslim penetration of the area
Mogadishu where Arabs and Persians settled on the Ethiopian coast beginning in the twelfth century
Kilwa where Arabs and Persians moved to after settling at Mogadishu
Madagascar where Indonesians settled
shiek Arabic title for sultan taken by leaders of mercantile families in Muslim Ethiopia
sultan Turkish word for ruler, rather than Caliph, an Arabic word
Great Zimbabwe empire created in South Africa by the Islamic trade complex, ca. 1000 to 1400
Shona inhabitants of the area of Great Zimbabwe before 1000 who panned and later mined gold
Zambezi River the Shona panned the alluvial gold in its tributaries
Sofala where Shona gold was shipped east and met up with the East African coastal trade complex
Karl Mauch German explorer who found the ruins of the city of Zimbabwe in 1871
Eastern Roman Empire eastern part of the Roman empire after collapse in late fifth century C.E., Greek in language, Roman in jurisprudence, and Christian in culture
Greek or Eastern Orthodoxy form of Christianity followed by the Eastern Roman Empire
Byzantium old Greek city on the Bosporus, location of Constantinople
Bosporus narrow straits beween the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmora
Black Sea under Ukraine and above Turkey
Sea of Marmora between the Black and Aegean Seas
monasticism present in the East church earlier than in the West, which was more focused on missionary work, influenced by Eastern religions, focused on denial and separation from the world
iconoclasm prohibition of veneration of icons that caused controversy in the church in the 700s and 800s
icons sacred pictures or images
Trinity concept of the God the Father, Son, and Holy ghost established in the Nicene Crede that caused the split of the eastern and western churches in 1054
schism separation, split the Eastern and Western Roman Empires over theological issues that divided the Roman Catholic church from the Eastern Orthodox church in 1054
Justinian Emperor under whom the Byzantine Empire reached its greatest height in 527 to 565 C.E., helped to stave off the Sassanid Persians and reconquer lost territory
Theodora Justinian's wife, had Justinian issue a decree allowing a wife to own land
Hagia Sophia most beautiful Byzantine church with a dome anchored by four piers
Battle of Manzikert Seljuk Turks defeated the Byzantines, gaining control of Syria, Palestine, and Turkey in 674 to 678 C.E., initiated the Crusades
Mehmet (Mehmed) II Ottoman ruler who besieged Constantinople with cannons until it surrendered in 1453, ending the 1000-year-old Byzantine Empire
Golden Horn waterway on the northern side of Byzantium where a chain was hung in the water to prevent the entrance of ships
themes districts with governors that the Byzantine empire was divided into
stirrups borrowed from the Persians by the Byzantines, unknown to Romans, gave a steady seat when using weapons
Greek fire ignited when shot as a projectile onto a ship, used by the Byzantine navy
Procopius Byzantine historian who wrote Secret History, in which he reveals the cruelty of an autocratic system where the emperor rules by divine providence and has no order of succession
byzantine word that means extremely entangled and complicated politics, from the Byzantine court's intricate intrigue
Slavic peoples Russians, Belorussians, and Ukrainians, migrated into the Baltic and Black Sea areas sometime during the Roman era
Dnepr River formed the basis of a trade network from Constantinople to the Baltic Sea and then to Europe
Varangians Scandinavians or Swedes, provided boats and sleighs as well as protection along the Dnepr River trade network, crossed into the Casian where they encountered the Persians
Russian Primary Chronicle first Russian history
Rus 12 Russian tribes who called on Prince Ruruk to unite them as told by the Russian Primary Chronicle
Prince Rurik of Scandinavia Varangian prince who founded the Russian state and dynasty in 862 C.E.
Kievan Russia confederation of about 300 city-states united by Prince Rurik, fell when Venice offered competition for trade in the eastern Mediterranean and the Seljuk Turks won the trade through Turkey to Asia from Byzantium
veche council of a Kievan city-state that hired a prince with limited powers for protection
Cyrillic alphabet adopted by the Russians after converting to Orthodox Christianity
Saint Cyril namesake of the Cyrillic alphabet, Byzantine missionary sent to eastern Europe during the 800s C.E. to help convince the Slavs to turn to Christianity
Vladimir officially adopted the Orthodox faith for Kiev in 988, because of the brilliance of the Byzantine court according to legend
liturgy Christian ceremony and rituals that innspired the delegation sent by Vladimir to the Byzantine court
Ibn Khaldun Islamic historian who urged historians to analyze the similarities and differences between the present and the past, 1332 to 1406
paradigm model that not only explains the past but is capable of predicting the future
Edward Gibbon historian who wrote Rise and Fall of the Roman Empire
Arnold Toynbee studied civilizations and believed that they rose and fell as recurring patterns
Oswald Spengler produced a cyclical theory of history in which he predicted the eclipse of Western civilization.
medieval between eras, describes the period in western European history after the collapse of classical Greece and Rome and before the modern period, started with the nomadic invasions of the fifth century
Dark Ages name for the medieval period because of its war and illiteracy
Age of Faith name for the medieval period because Christianitiy was the most powerful unifying force of the time=
lords ruled feudal districts with miniature governments, from war chiefs of the Germanic tribes
castle seat of a feudal lord
vassal pledged personal loyalty, military service, and other duties to lords in exchange for fiefs, by which they could outfit themselves for battle
fief (feudum) grant of land given to a vassal by a lord
manor one or several peasant villages on a fief
serf or villein peasants who inherited their position and were bound to their land in exchange for protection
open field system leaving half fallow for refertilization, used by European feudal peasants
charters documents of self-government given from medieval lords to townsmen
guilds medieval organizations of artisans that regulated their goods
university system spawned by guilds, students were taught by masters
Umam sanctam papal bull issued by Pope Boniface VIII in 1302, statement of the medieval Church's claim to spiritual and temporal supremacy
heresy unorthodox views, appeared in the thirteenth century in medieval Europe by the Albigensians
Inquisition "interrogation" created by the Pope to convert, convict, and prevent the spread of heresy in medieval Europe
lay investiture medieval lords and kings claimed the right to appoint local prelates to the pope
Crusades military campaigns of conversion, most famous of which were those to free the Holy Land from the Muslim Turks
Pope Urban II called the first Crusade in 1095 after a cry for help from the Byzantine emperor Alexius I after the Battle of Manzikert, regretting past differences
Moors Islamic infidels in Spain against whom Crusades were directed
canon church law, which carried forward the Roman legal tradition
sacraments Church ceremonies, including baptim, confirmation, penance, the Holy Eucharist, extreme unction, matrimony, and the holy orders, observed under threat of excommunication
excommunication expulsion from the Church and thus condemnation to an afterlife in Hell
chivalry knightly code of behavior with religious origins, consisted of honor, attitudes toward women, and a Christian order of life
Romanesque medieval architectural style characterized by heavy, thick walls and small windows, adaption of the Roman basilica and barrel arch form
Gothic medieval architectural style developed in the late twelfth century in northern Europe to add height and light, exemplified in the cathedral at Chartres, France
flying buttresses braced high walls and stained glass windows in Gothic architecture
Scholasticism major medieval philosophy, an attempt to wed religious beliefs to rational thought
Thomas Aquinas most famous scholastic, attempted to unify all knowledge and describe the nature and destiny of Christian man in his book Summa Theologica
monarchy state headed by a hereditary king, formed in medieval Europe from lords with large tracts of land, major three in the sixth century C.E. were the Frankish in France, Anglo-Saxon in England, and Holy Roman in Germany
Charlemagne early Frankish king who ruled 768 to 814, tried to unite the western territories of the Roman Empire
Holy Roman Emperor title given to Charlemagne by the pope in 800
Treaty of Verdun divided the Western Roman Empire among Charlemagne's three grandsons in 843
Vikings warriors composed mostly of Swedes, Danes, and Norwegians, raided coastal medieval European monasteries, churches, and villages
Norsemanland (Normandy) area of northwestern France colonized by the Vikings
Danes group of Vikings that raided the coasts of medieval Germany, France, Spain, and England
Norwegians reached North Amerians ca. 1000, established Green land and Icy land
Norman invadors who moved south into the Mediditerranean to establish kingdomesin Italy and Sicily
Capetian line of medieval monarchs centered around Paris, or Ile de France, who ruled with a well organized centralized government from 987 to 1328
Estates General assembly of the clergy, nobility, and commoners called by Philip IV "The Fair" of the Capetian monarchs to strengthen his government against the pope because he needed money beyond the feudal dues
parlement high court of trained lawyers, nobles, and clergymen
Hattle of Hastings William I defeated the Saxon army under Harold with 5000 warriors in 1066
William I "Conqueror" Norman duke (of France) who became a strong medieval king in England
Salisbury Oath oath of loyalty given by feudal lords used by William I to centralize England
Domesday Book record of taxable property used by William I to centralize England
Henry II brought the court system under royal control in 1166
common law law for all people of a country, happened to English law under Henry II
Thomas a Becket elected archbishop with Henry II's influence in an attempt to bring the church under his control, refused to be a royal puppet, insisted that the church should be free of temporal control
Geoffrey Chaucer wrote the Canterbury Tales in vernacular in which pilgrims go to worship at the shrine of Thomas a Becket at Canterbury, where he was murdered
King John irritated his vassals by losing English possesions in France, surrendering England as a fief to the pope, and making vassals pay undue taxes
Magna Carta constitutional document that King John's vassals forced him to sign in 1215 at Runnymede in which his powers were limited
Parliament established under Henry III and Edward I as a permenant intsitution with powers of taxation, came from English nobles with large tracts of land in France, comprised of the bishps, barons, knights, and towns
House of Lords represented the nobles in Parliament
House of Commons represented common people in Parliament
Concordat of Worms Henry V of Germany surrendered his claim to invest bishops and the pope gave up his right to govern religious estates in 1122
Otto I brought all of Germany under his control by allying with the Church in Rome, ruled 936 to 973
Frederick the Great Frederick Barbarossa, reunited Germany and Italy, reasserted authority over the popes, ruled 1152 to 1190
Golden Bull allowed seven "electors", lords, authority over their own territories to choose the emperor, continuing feudalism in Germany, written in 1356 after the House of Hapsburg won control of Germany
shoen private domain outside of imperial control in feudal Japan
samurai private soldiers organized by feudal lords to control the shoen, originally only received shiki rights, but later began receiving land in a ceremony like knighting
mappo decline in Buddha's law in feudal Japan thought to be the end of history
JoDo Pure Land form of Buddhism popular in feudal Japan that promised the pure land, heaven, for those who lived upright lives on earth
Amida Buddha of Infinite Light thought to preside over the Western Paradise, reminiscent of the Shinto sun-goddess, central to JoDo Buddhism
shiki rights a certain portion of an estate's produce in feudal Japan
Bushido (Way of the Warrior) harsh samurai code of honor, the bedrock of which was complete loyalty to the lord
seppuku ritual suicide by self-disembowelment committed by samurai to avoid dishonor, to demonstrate loyalty, or to display a protest
Zen Buddhism popular religion among the samurai because it emphasized meditation, giving the warrior the courage to face death
Noh Theatre performed by two masked actors accompanied by music and chorus, became the classical theater of Japan during its feudal era
White Heron Castle most famous Japanese feudal castle
shogun feudal Japanese generals-in-chief, military dictators, to Emperors, who possessed little power beyond the court
Minamoto family that ended civil war in Japan in 1192
Yoritomo leader of the Minamoto family who became shogun
Kamakura Shogunate established by the Minamoto family, 1192 to 1333, unseated because the numbers of samurai grew, though there was little wealth to support them
bakufu "tent government", described the Kamakura Shogunate, during which Yoritomo tried to centralize power
Hojo line of regents starting from Yoritomo's wife's father, who became the de facto shogun at his death, codified law
Ashikaga Takauji military leader who established the Ashikaga Shogunate in 1338
Ashikaga Shogunate lasted until 1573, a commercial class formed because of competing small states
Oda Nobunaga subdued and united Japan by force starting in 1560 by standardizing currency, eliminating customs barriers, and encouraging trade and industry
Toyotomi Hideyoshi centralized institutions like the feudal system after Nobunaga subdued them by force, collected information about taxable property like the Domesday Book, used both a gun-carrying infantry and samurai with swords in 1584
Tokugawa Ieyasu established the Tokugawa Shogunate
Tokugawa Shogunate 1600 to 1867, isolated the emperor and nobility from the military class, aimed to establish control over the feudal lords by requiring daimyo to reside in Edo in alternate years, maintained a monopoly of gunpower, introduced to Japan by the Portuguese
Nagashino location of a battle in 1575 where Oda Nobunaga's foot soldiers, equipped with muskets, triumphed over mounted warriors by rotating positions
geisha girls accomplished in the arts that samurai spent heavily on
Kabuki Theatre consisted of bawdy skits about adventure, love, and romance that samurai spent heavily on
appanages separate holdings by individual princes that Kievan Russia collapsed into because of internal division and invasion from abroad, lasted from 1240 to 1462
Tartars Mongols as referred to by Russians, mostly Turkic peoples who attacked Kievan Russia, ruled indirectly through Russian princes
Novgorod and Pskov small appanages to the northwest which essentially escaped Mongol pillage
Prince Alexander Nevsky repelled the Swedes and Teutonic knights from Novgorod in 1240 and 1245, respectively
Volynia and Galicia appanage to the southwest ruled by boyars when they grew independent as Kiev's strengh waned, united in 1197 by Prince Roman and delivered to Catholicism by his son Daniel
Estonia, Lithuania, and Latvia places where Catholic Germans moved into, stopped before Russia, where Orthodoxy was preserved
Rostov, Suzdal northeast appenages whose distance from the Mongold heartland allowed them to move towards independence more quickly
Boyars aristocratic families, independent landowning class
Tula Toltec capital
kiva circular pit used for religious meetings by men of the community
Chaco Canyon area of New Mexico where about 125 planned Anasazi towns built of stobe and adobe are round, show classical Mesoamerican influences
Mississippians group of people in the south central part of the United States who flourished about 800 to 1300 C.E., showed expansionism and feudal decentralization, contemporary to the Pueblo, based on cultivation and trade
Adena culture agricultural people who inhabited the area around the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers around 2000 B.C.E., prior the the Mississippian culture, constructed great earthen mounds for defense and for burial
Hopewell culture rose in the Ohio valley around 200 to 500 C.E., extended Adena culture trade networks as far south as the Gulf of Mexico and the Rocky Mountains
pastoral nomadism people with herds who were driven from the fertile valleys of civilization, widely distributed across Eurasia about 800 B.C.E., displacing hunting-gathering, played a role as herders, mercenaries, empire builders, and long-distance travelers
khans pastoral nomadic rulers in the Asian steppes
Shamanist religion found in East Asia, predominated among nomads in Central Asia, based on the belief that shamans chould serve as intermediaries between humans and deities
Temujin Mongkhal (Mongol) nomadic leader born in Mongolia, 1162 to 1227, later known as Genghiz Khan, "Prince of all between the Oceans"
Mongolia north of China
Genghiz Khan conquered Beijing, Khwarizm, and Bukhara, welcomed and tolerated all religions, devised a law code, and used the wisdom of various cultures
Khwarizm Islamic state between the Caspian Sea and Pamir Mountains
tumens fighting units of 10,000 cavalrymen used in the Mongol war machine divided into units of 10 with commanders at each level
Karakorum capital established by Genghiz Khan south of lake Baikal
Ogedei third son of Genghiz Khan elected Great Khan, extended the Mongol attack against China, Persia, and Europe, overthrew the Northern Song in 1234
Batu Khan a grandson of Genghiz Khan who launched the only successful winter attack on Russia, conquering it, and proceeded into eastern Europe, stopped by disputes over succession after the death of Ogedei in 1241, which altered the course of European history
Monke Ogedei's nephew, elected the Great Khan, undertook a campaign against the Song Empire in southern China, died in 1259, saving the Muslim world from Hulagu
Hulagu Monke's younger brother who captured Baghdad in 1253, destroying much of the world cultural heritage dating back to the Persian empire of Darius, descendants ruled Persia, Russia, and Chagatai, the Mongol homeland
hordes independently ruling divisions of the Mongol empire starting from their defeat at the hands of the Egyptian Mamluks in 1259 near Nazareth
Kublai Khan younger brother of Monke, proclaimed the fifth Great Khan but only had direct authoritiy over China starting in the 1270s
Pax Mongolica imperial peace established by the Mongols which allowed for trade and the spread of ideas and goods and allowed European traders to travel through the east instead of buying goods in Southwest Asia
Levant name for Southwest Asia during the Pax Mongolica, eastern shore of the Mediterranean
Yuan Dynasty 1271 to 1368, founded by Kublai Khan, absorbed into Chinese society
Hung Wu peasant monk who, with his followers, drove the Mongols out of China in 1351 and established the Ming dynasty, 1368 to 1644
kamikaze typhoon that saved Japan from Mongol invasion, myth of a "divine wind" that was revived during World War II when American invasion threatened
Golden Horde Batu Khan's domain with Kievan tributary states
Sarai Batu Khan's headquarters on the Lower Volga, far to the south of the Golden Horde, from which he ruled indirectly through the Russian princes
autocrats rulers with unlimited authority, describes the Russian princes who served as intermediaries of the Khan over the Russian people
Battle of Kulikovo Mongol's first defeat at the hands of Moscow on the Don River in 1380
Ivan III, or Great 1462 to 1505, Moscow prince who declared Russian independence from the Mongols, assumed the title of czar
autocracy refers to power above and beyond political power, over the church and any other national instruments
Russian Orthodox Church created when the Russian Church became independent of the Eastern Orthodox Church because of the Byzantine Empire's fall to the Ottoman Turks in 1453, had its own patriarch or pope
Third Rome refers to Moscow's status as the center of the Russian Orthodox Church
czar Caesar,Sovereign of all the Russias, and autocrat
Sudebnik code of laws promulgated by Ivan the Great to implement his autocratic authority
Moscow northeast appanage that later became the home of a line of Russian princes who claimed descent from Rurik
serfdom tying of peasants to the land
Ivan IV, or Terrible 1533 to 1584, serfdom began and the boyars were replaced by a dependent and politically loyal class of gentry
Time of Troubles (Russian) 1598 to 1613, years of turmoil resulting from civil war because of Ivan IV's lack of heirs and Polish invasion
Indian math now known as Arabic numerals
Delhi captured by a second wave of foreign invaders, Turkic Muslims from Afghanistan, in 1192
lameseries Buddhist monasteries characteristic of Tibetan culture, where Buddhists took shrine during the second wave of invasions in India
Delhi Sultanate Muslim kingdom in northern India established by Qutb-ud-din, 1206 to 1526
Urdu mixture of Persian, Arabic, and Hindi, developed under the Delhi Sultanate, official language of Pakistan today
Bhakti rennaissance of pious Hinduism during the Delhi Sultanate which emphasized devotion to a personal divinity
Tamerlane claimed descent from the Mongol Jagatai, Genghiz Khan's second son, conquered Persia, the Fertile Crescent, and southern Russia from Samarkand, then invaded India for booty, leaving it politically divided
Babur claimed descent from Tamerlane, invaded India and established the Mughal Empire, 1526 to 1858
gunpowder empires Chinese technology moved along the reopened Mongol Silk Road to the West, and those with guns created empires, like the Muscovite czars, Mughal Indians, Ottoman Turks, Ming Chinese, Tokugawa Japanese, Spanish, and Portuguese
Akbar Babur's grandson, assembled an empire including Afghanistan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and all of present day India north of the Godavari River, 1556 to 1605, famous for his policies of religious toleration and leaving village life intact
mansabdars 800 imperial officials appointed by Akbar who performed military, judicial, and financial functions at the local level
syncretic religion religion that reconciles different views reached by scholars in Akbar's court
Red Fort built by Shah Jahan, grandson of Akbar, to house the imperial palace, administrative treasury, and arsenal
Peacock Throne consturcted from emeralds, diamonds, pearls, and rubies for Shah Jahan, carried off to Persia by raiders in 1739
Taj Mahal monument built from white marble for Shah Jahan's wife
Aurangazeb Shah Jahan's son who executed his older brother and locked away his father until his death, reigned with extreme Islam
Ottoman powerful Sunni Turkic family in Anatolia, rival of the Safavids after the Mongol destruction of Baghdad
Anatolia Turkey
Safavids powerful Shi'ite Turkic family in Persia that launched a militant reformation of Islam, formed a state, 1501 to 1736
Ismail Safavid commander who proclaimed himself shah in the Islamic heartlands in 1501
shah Islamic emperor, Persian for king, revolted against by a nationalist coalition in 1906, forcing the Majlis
Chaldiran location of a battle between the Ottoman and Safavid Turks in 1514, won by the Ottomans by gunpowder but not followed up, resulting in two empires in Southwest Asia
theocratic state based in religion, like that of the Safavid Turks, who claimed descent from one of the imams, still distinguisihes Iran
Shah Abbas ruler under whom Safavid power reached its height, built a strong army based on the Ottomans' using cannons and the skills of Sir Anthony Sherley, expanded militarily and endowed the arts, 1587 to 1629
Isfahan capital city of Shah Abbas
Osman Ottoman leader who began expansionist moves, 1299 to 1326
gazis frontier fighters in the jihad
Dardanelles strait between the Black and Mediterranean Seas, also known as the Hellespont, crossed by the Ottoman Turks near Gallipoli in 1352
Gallipoli peninsula in the European part of Turkey where the Turks, who entered on Germany's side in World War I, repulsed an Allied attempt to invade via the Dardanelles
Balkans mountains in southeastern Europe
Battle of Mohacs Suleiman crushed the Hungarians in 1526
Battle of Lepanto Ottoman fleet was driven out of thier bid to control the Mediterranean by a combined Spanish, Venetian, and Hapsburg force led by Charles V in 1571
Suleiman the Magnificent expanded Ottoman Turkey to its farthest limit, 1520 to 1566
Mustafa Naima Ottoman historian who described how society was divided into producers of wealth, Muslim and non-Muslim, and the military
trimars landed estates given to the Ottoman Muslim bureaucratic ruling class for thier lifetime, reverted to the sultan upon death
devshirme system in which boys in the Ottoman empire from poor villages were taken as slaves for civil service jobs and military service, ensuring a class loyal to the sultan for their lives
janissaries Turkish for rectuits, boys taken as slaves and prepared for military service
pashas Ottoman provincial governors
vizirs Ottoman sultan's closest advisers, met together in a diwan, Grand Vizir acted as a prime minister
Pasha Sinan a Christian contemporary of Michaelangelo rounded up in the devshirme, designed 312 public buildings
harem the place a Muslim house assigned to women
Dar al Islam community of Islam, monopolized Eurasian trade by 1500
indulgence remission of sin in Christianity for those who crusaded or gave money to the church
Crusader states states resembling feudal European states set up from the upper Tigris valley to the boundary of Egypt by Crusaders, had Italiian merchants and religious tolerance
Saladin Turkish leader who reunited the Muslim world from Egypt to Mesopotamia, warred with the Crusader states, especially with Richard the Lion-Hearted of England, signed a truce leaving the Crusaders a foothold in the Holy Land in 1192
Moors Muslims on the Iberian peninsula warred against in a Crusade
el Cid "Master", cruel, self-seeking, and haughty but fearless and daring Spanish hero who became a model for later noblemen
Teutonic Knights conquered lands on the southern coast of the Baltic, now Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, and converted them to Latin Christendom
heretics people who believe other than the official doctrine, popes called a number of mostly unsuccessful Crusades against them, fellow Christians, which discredited the Church
Marco Polo journeyed to China, stimulating interest in travel and geography
Ming dynasty proclaimed by Zhu Yuan-chang (Chu Yuan-chang), a southern rebel, in 1368 during the Yuan dynasty
Yongle (Yung-lo) Zhu Yuan-chang's fourth son, moved the capital back to Beijing in 1398
Forbidden City palace city built in Beijing by Yongle, showed the lofty despotism of the Ming and Qing Dynasties
Qing (Ch'ing) Dynasty 1644 to 1912
Zheng He (Cheng Ho) Muslim admiral sent by Yongle to find his rival, explore, expand trade, and find luxury objects for the imperial court, went to the Indian Ocean, Ceylon, the Persian coast, and the east coast of Africa, brought tribute
junks Chinese ships that used square sails able to carry up to 1500 tons, sturdier than dhows
Ibn Majid wrote Arab sea manuals describing trade routes driven by monsoon wind patterns in the Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal and Straits of Malacca, and for going to the Mediterranian by rounding the Cape of Good Hope
Cape of Good Hope southern tip of Africa sailed past by Arabs and later Vasco da Gama
Gujarat western Indian peninsula where trade developed, especially during the Delhi Sultanate
Cambay major port of Gujrat, most inhabitants were foreign merchants
Malaba area of trade on the west Indian coast
Calicut major city of Malaba, later a center of British trade
Chola state that supported Tamil traders, who lost ground in the twelfth century to Muslim merchants
Flanders where the North Sea meets the English Channel
Flanders Fleets Italian ships that took luxury goods from the Eastern trade to Italian ports and then to Atlantic ports near Flanders starting in the early fourteenth century
Henry the Navigator younger son of the king of Portugal in 1415 who explored the Atlantic coast of Africa, helping to find offshore islands and places from which goods like gold, ivory, and slaves were exported
Bartholomew Dias rounded the Cape of Good Hope in 1488
Vasco da Gama rounded the Cape of Good Hope in 1497 and arrived at Mozambique, where Muslim traders were already established, then to Mombasa and Calicut, starting a Portuguese movement to divert the Indian Ocean trade from Muslim into Christian hands
Pedro Alvares Cabral sent by King Manuel of Portugal to the Indian Ocean to set up trading posts and destroy Muslim commerce in 1500, accidentally discovered and claimed Brazil on the way
Yoruba group of people who produced art in wood and ivory around 1000 C.E., organized in a small number of city states under the authority of regional kings who were considered divine, similar to the Edo people to the east
Ile-Ife major Yoruba city
Benin large Yoruba state formed sometime in the fourteenth century under Ewuare the Great, reflected contact with outsiders like Portuguese soldiers
Oba Benin's ruler and theme of its artistic output in ivory and cast bronze
Nordic North European countries that began active trade and exploration to England, the Baltic, Iceland, Greenland, Ireland, and France in the ninth to eleventh centuries
Iceland and Greenland islands settled by Nordic barbarians in small war parties
Lubeck example of a town built on the northeast European coast by people pushed by an increase in population and Viking (Nordic) raids, rebuilt and fortified on the Baltic in 1143 near a dam, assuring future prosperity in processing by watermills
Hanseatic League alliances lead by Lubeck in 1294 from London to Novgorod and Bergen to Cologne, increased trade and wealth and decreased conflict
Aztec empire formed by the last of the Chichimec to arrive in central Mexico, spoke Nahuatl like the Toltec, absorbed Olmec, Maya, Teotihuacan, and Toltec culture, comprized all central Mexico from the gulf to Guatemala by 1502, 1224 to 1520
Quetzalcoatl Aztec god who gave crops, learning, and the arts who warred with the Toltec god Tezcatlipoca, who required human sacrifice, driven into exile by Tezcatlipoca, promised to return the same year as Cortes's landing in Mexico
Tenochtitlan Mexico City, founded by the Aztecs on an island in Lake Texcoco in 1325, from where they started expanding in 1428
Moctezuma I conquered the area around the central plateau around Tenochtitlan in 1440 to 1469
Moctezuma II ruled 1502 to 1520
chinampas gardens that, along with tribute from conquered people, maintained the Aztec professional army
Codex Mendoza one of the few surviving manuscripts about pre-Columbian America, contains a copy of the register of tribute paid anually to the Aztec emperors
calpulli original clan heads that became the Aztec upper class
macana Aztec weapon, paddle-shaped wooden club edged with obsidian that any freeman could master in military training to become a warrior
Bernardino de Sahagun Spanish missionary who prepared an encyclopedia about the Aztec Empire called The General History of Things of New Spain
metates stone slabs used in the Aztec Empire to grind corn by hand, took up six hours of a woman's day and limited social development
Huitzilopochtil Aztec war god whose temple crowned the central square of Tenochtitlan
Tlatelolco Tenochtitlan's sister city, site of a market
Alexandria city established by Alexander the Great on the Nile Delta
Pachacuti Inca who came to the throne in 1438, he and his successors, including his son, Topa Inca, extended Inca control for 2000 miles along the Andes in 40 years using a bureaucracy, state religion, conscripted army, and communication network
Cuzco Inca capital connected to the fringes of the empire with an elaborate system of roads, which facilitated an advanced communication network
Quechua official Inca language imposed on all conquered peoples along with the Inca gods
Machu Picchu Inca temple which clings to a crag on a mountain
Pueblo from the Spanish word for permanent town, culture in the dry American Southwest
Hokohum culture that emerged in Pueblo society ca. 700 C.E., built large buildings and develeped masonry technology for hosue building, abandoned about 1300 C.E. due to drought, like the Mogollan settlements, also in Pueblo society
Mesa Verde center of the Anasazi where huge sandstone blocks were used to construct masonry homes
Chaco Canyon center of the Anasazi, adobe towns with multistoried houses around central plazas sat on the rim of the canyon
Cahokia main Mississippian center, strategically located near the junction of the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers, St. Louis today, trade enrepot for the midsection of North America reaching the Great Lakes and the Gulf of Mexico, reflects Mesoamerican influences
states soveriegn entities based on conquest and control (empires), dynastic heritage and lineage (kingdoms), cultural and religious bonds (tribes, theocracies), or civic cohesion (polis or city-state), until the rise of nation-states
nations people who share a common language, geography, history, and culture, soveregnty of the people rather than leadership
Niccolo Machiavelli 1469 to 1527, wrote The Prince recognizing that princes of nations should be loved by their people, but also feared
universities appeared secularly in response to increasingly political churches and increasingly bureaucratic nation-states in Italian cities and France by the twelfth century
scholastics first university teachers who, in lectures, tried to use faith and reason to arrive at truth, using Roman law and Greek and Arabic medical texts
Peter Abelard inspirational university teacher who challenged accepted dogmas by systematic questioning, 1079 to 1142
Saint Thomas Aquinas 1225 to 1274, devoted his time to collecting and organizing knowledge on all topics into summa, or reference books
Summa Theologica most famous of Thomas Aquinas's summa, dealt with a vast number of theological questions
Assize of Clarendon issued by Henry II in 1166, created a system of juries, the processes o indictment, and English common law
rights institutionized in 1215 by English lords to keep King John under conrol
William Shakespeare wrote plays in the national English language with national themes, 1564 to 1616
Louis IX Capetian king during whose reign a uniform coinage, standard system of law, and parlement developed, and a money tax and court of commoners for appeals over the heads of nobles was introduced
Philip IV "Fair" challenged the power of the Church and the pope by calling the first Estates General, governed most of France and made the language of the Ile de France supplant many local dialects
Babylonian Captivity the papacy was transferred from Rome to Avignon, France, 1305 to 1377, by Philip IV
fabliaux vernacular literature in little songs about animals, spreading the Ile de France dialect
chansons de geste vernacular literature in heroic tales, spreading the Ile de France dialect
Hundred Years' War 1337 to 1453 between England and France, forced inhabitants and nobles to identify themselves as English or French, kings gained the loyalty of the commercial middle class at the expense of the nobles and challenged the rights of the popes
Joan of Arc French peasant girl who led an army to free France of the English during the Hundred Years' War, successful
Jacquerie peasants agitated for higher pay and greater freedom during the Hundred Years' War in 1358, partially because of the Black Plague
Holy Roman Empire German leader attempted to create a state that relied on the church rather than a German state, causing power to remain in the hands of the local princes
Investiture Controversy controversy over who had the power to appoint bishops and abbots, caused by the close relationship between German emperors and the Church
Maximilian I Hapsburg emperor who unsuccessfully tried to restore a German central government, added the Netherlands and Spain, 1493 to 1519
condottieri hired soldiers who were used by northern Italian towns to fight each other, which, along with the southern division of the kingdoms of Naples and Sicily, meant that no nation-state was formed
Iberian peninsula peninsula containing Spain and Portugal
Cortes Portuguese parliament that elected John I in 1385, the king who united Portugal and brought it independence from the Spanish and Arabs, later became a commercial empire
Castile and Aragon Christian kingdoms in the Iberian peninsula contemporary to Portugal whose kings tried to create national spirit over religious unity
Granada Moorish state in the Iberian peninsula contemporary to Portugal, fell to Spain in 1492, which, along with Isabella's removal of the Jews, united Spain religiously
Ferdinand heir to the throne of Aragon, married Isabella in 1469, paving the way for a single Spanish monarchy in which the people were given a voice in the Cortes
Isbella heiress to Castille
Renaissance fourteenth to sixteenth centuries, a cultural movement that began in Florence, Italy, then moved into northern Europe, rebirth of classical Roman and Greek civilization that stressed science and secularism
individualism hallmark of the Renaissance, stressed uniqueness, creativity, genius, and personality
Baldassare Castiglione gentleman type of Renaissance individual, wrote The Book of the Courtier, a Renaissance guide to proper behavior
Francesco Petrarch scholar type of Renaissance individual, studied and admired the classics
Lorenzo de' Medici tyrant ruler of an Italian city type of Renaissance individual, from a banking family
humanism hallmark of the Renaissance, stressed the relearning of antiquity and classics to be educated and civilized, copied classical authors' concern with man's problems and possibilities on Earth
Dante wrote The Divine Comedy, an example of humanist writing in which classical figures appear
Leonardo da Vinci showed the Humanist stress of the classical interest in science, remembered for his artistic masterpieces and inventions
secularism hallmark of the Renaissance, concern with the material world instead of with eternal and spiritual considerations, caused by the rising prosperity of the Italian cities, which shifted people's thoughts towards the material world
Julius II pope 1503 to 1513, patronized artists during the Renaissance, showing secularism
Michelangelo Buonarotti Renaissance artist whose hiring by the church showed the secularism of the time
Raphael Renaissance painter whose bright colors inspired Leonardo and Michelangelo
Johann Gutenburg developed movable metal type around 1450
Scholastic Renaissance philosophy that joined classical ideals of broadmindedness and stoic patience to Christian virtues of love, faith, and hope
Desiderius Erasmus famous Scholastic who launched a humorous attack on the problems of the Catholic Chuch in his book In Praise of Folly, 1511
Thomas More humanist who explored the idea of an ideal socialistic community in Utopia
Albrecht Durer "Leonardo of Germany", example of a northern Renaissance painter who painted everyday and religious subjects with attention to perspective and proportion
Hieronymus Bosch Flemish Renaissance painter who painted Death and the Miser, which had a "dance of death" theme and reflected on worldly wealth versus the divine
Galileo Galilei Renaissance scientist who supported heliocentricism with telescopic observations and mathematical proof, aided by Muslim ideas in math, formulated the law of inertia
Rene Descartes introduced analytical geometry and the deductive method during the Renaissance, kept separate religious and physical worlds
Blaise Pascal introduced the law of probabilities during the Renaissance, said there was no separation between the religious and physical worlds and that one must "wager" that the world has meaning in his book Pensees
Isaac Newton Renaissance scientist who explained the law of gravitation as a governing principle of the universe, insisted that ideas must meet the test of reason and observation in his book Principia, mathematically proved the basic laws of physics
Lateran Council called by Pope Julius II from 1512 to 1517 to discuss the Renaissance attack on the Church's theology
Martin Luther argued that salvation could be attained by faith alone and that the church was the entire Christian community, not just the clergy
Ninety-Five Theses attached to the door of the Wittenburg church by Martin Luther in 1517 before the Lateran Council could institute reforms, challenged the pope in matters of faith
Charles V Holy Roman Emperor who put out the Edict of Worms, prevented from taking strong measures against the Protestants because of his preoccupation with his territories in Flanders, Spain, Italy, the Americas, and the Muslim siege of Vienna by the Ottoman Turks
Edict of Worms declared Martin Luther and outlaw
Protestant movement following Martin Luther's ideas, named for the meeting of German princes in 1529 to protest the Edict of Worms
Confessions of Augsburg formally defined the Protestant movement in 1530
On Christian Liberty treatise by Martin Luther which Holy Roman peasants interpreted as license to rebel against local lords in 1525
Peace of Augsburg Charles V officially recognized Protestantism in 1555 after it was advanced by Catholic French kings during the Hapsburg-Valois wars as an opposing force to the Holy Roman Emperor
Calvinism Protestant movement with a belief in predestination and the value of work, had a strong and well-organized church and a systematic theology, promoted education so that people could read the Bible, originated in Switzerland
Henry VIII set up the Anglican Church
Anglican Church Protestant church initially set up by Henry VIII to challenge papal attempts to enforce his first marriage
Council of Trent met between 1545 and 1563 to discuss Catholic counter-reformation, corrected many of the abuses that had previously plagued the Catholic Church
Society of Jesus Jesuits, played a powerful role in converting Asians, Latin American Indians, and others to Catholicism and in spreading Christian education
Ignatius of Loyola founded the Society of Jesus
Inquisition instrument of the Catholic Counter-Reformation which ferreted out heretics and punished them
Huguenots French Protestants who fought the Catholics
Edict of Nantes granted tolerance to the Huguenots in 1598, also ended rebellions by landed nobles against royal authority
Thirty Years' War German Protestants and their allies, such as Lutheran Sweden, fought the Holy Roman Emperor, backed by Spain, starting in 1618
Treaty of Westphalia ended the Thirty Years' War in 1648, allowed princely cities and states to choose one religion or another, reduced Spanish power in favor of France
Commercial Revolution greatly increased amount and distance of trade and the middle class, originated in the increase in trade in Eastern luxury items and staple items, noted in the rise of maritime trade complexes, the nation-state, and in the scientific and secular spirit
"putting out" or "domestic" system merchants would distribute wool to cottage weavers and sell the finished cloth in the marketplace, greatly undermined the medieval guild system, prelude to the factory
capitalism ownership of private property allowed traders to take great risks hoping for great profits, or capital, which they invested in their own businesses or held in banks to lend to others, hallmarked by private ownership, capital reinvestment, and free market
entrepreneurs capitalistic merchants who were willing to take great risks, took measures to reduce risks and formed trading leagues and partnerships with governments to protect markets and create monopolies
insurance system formed by entrepreneurs to reduce financial risks
partnerships formed by entrepreneurs to reduce financial risks
joint stock companies formed by entrepreneurs to reduce financial risks
banking system made loans to merchants for the vast amounts of capital they needed
Johann Fugger founded an influential bank in Germany in the late 1300s
mercantilism policy instituted by governments to increase state wealth by exporting more than importing, attempted to create a favorable balance of trade with tariffs, trade monopolies, and increased foreign trade
Holland province of the Netherlands which dominated the republic because of the middle class merchants who dominated the republic, emphasizing the value of thrift and separating the state and religion
Dutch East India Company joint stock company formed in 1621 by Dutch provincial ruling merchants, or regents, traded with Latin America and Africa
absolutism unlimited sovereignty is embodied in the person of the ruler, who often claimed to rule by "divine right" and controlled all important institutions of state including the church, bureaucracy, and military, freed from the nobility and church
Philip II Spanish king who believed that his inability to restore Catholicism and regain the Netherlands was due to Elizabeth I's rule
Spanish Armada sent by Philip II to England in 1588, defeated, Spain went into decline afterwards
Escorial palace of Philip II, Spanish equivalent of Versailles
Louis XIV French king 1643 to 1715 who exemplified and inspired absolute monarchy
Cardinal Richelieu set in place the cornerstone of French absolutism by subordinating all groups and institutions to the monarchy
intendants agents of the central government sent by Cardinal Richelieu
Cardinal Jules Mazarin Richelieu's successor, attempted to increase royal revenue, which led to the Fronde
Fronde French uprising between 1648 and 1653 which resulted in certain factions of French society remaining beyond taxes
Versailles palace built by Louis IV to symbolize order and the king's power
baroque style used in Versailles characterized by religious emotionalism, drama, and lavish decoration and frescoes
bastion key to land warfare of the period, projected outward from a fort, had low walls, vast moats, outworks, and defensive cannons, counteracted by blockates, making siege the most common form of warfare
field army military revolution of absolutism, army size grew, technology improved, and field training was developed, meant that small countries needed alliances with large countries
War of the Spanish Succession 1701 to 1713, Dutch and English countered the French acquisition of the Spanish Netherlands and rich trade with Spanish colonies, provoked by dynastic and territorial questions
Treaty of Utrecht ended the War of the Spanish Succession, balance of power and partition principles prevailed, England gained American territories and control of the Spanish African slave trade
Boubon French, such as Louis XIV's grandson Philip of Spain
Peter the Great absolutist monarch of Russia 1682 to 1725
St. Petersburg city built by Peter the Great to rule from, like Versailles or the Escorial
Great Northern War Peter the Great gained much of Estonia and Latvia from Sweden from 1700 to 1721
Hapsburgs monarchs who created an absolutist state in Austria, not a nation state
Hohenzollern monarchs who created an absolutist state in Prussia, not a nation-state
Puritanism movement in England to inject middle-class values and ethics into the Church of England and "purify" it
Long Parliament called by Charles I 1640 to 1660 in response to the Scottish revolt, limited the power of the monarch
English Civil War 1642 to 1649 between Parliament and its supporter, the Roundheads, who prevailed, and the king and his supporters, the Cavaliers
commonwealth republican form of government following the English Civil War
Oliver Cromwell controlled the parliamentary army in the English Civil War and the commonwealth government, instituted a sort of Puritan military dictatorship which collapsed on his death
Glorious Revolution 1688 to 1689, Parliament bloodlessly replaced the Stuart monarchs with William and Mary, who recognized Parliament's supremacy once and for all
Prester John mythical Christian ruler of Ethiopia searched for by the Portuguese from Ceuta, a Muslim city in northern Morocco, in 1415 along with gold, a sea route to India, and the Christian conversion of the Muslims
Prince Henry's School of Navigation sent out Portuguese navigators to explore the West African coast ca. 1394 to 1460
Alfonso de Albuquerque destroyed Muslim coastal forts with cannons at Calicut, Ormuz, Goa, and Malacca from 1509 to 1515 to control South Asian trade
Christopher Columbus Genoese merchant funded by Isabella and Ferdinand after religious unification, discovered several Central American lands from 1451 to 1502
Hispaniola Haiti, where Christopher Columbus left a crew before returning to Spain for the first time
Treaty of Tordesillas negotiated by the pope in 1494 to end the New World rivalry between Spain and Portugal
Line of Demarcation drawn by the Treaty of Tordesillas, gave Portugal trading rights in Asia, the East Indies, and eastern Brazil, and the Spanish trading rights in the Americas
Ferdinand Magellan commissioned by Charles V of Spain to find a direct route to Southeast Asia in 1519 because precious metals had not been found in the Carribean, killed, expedition was successful and proved that the earth was round
Cape Horn southern tip of South America, passed by Magellan
Malay Archipelago passed by Magellan's expedition through the Pacific Ocean to Spain
Hernando Cortes Spanish adventurer who crossed from Hispaniola to Mexico in 1519 and conquered the Aztec Empire, helped by disgruntled Aztec subjects who believed him to be Quetzalcoatl, disease, horses, and superior weaponry
Francisco Pizzaro crushed the Inca Empire in Peru like Cortes crushed the Aztec Empire
Montezuma Moctezuma I, taken captive by Cortes
conquistador Spanish New World explorer, conqueror
Atahualpa Inca leader imprisoned and killed by Pizzaro
Potosi richest New World silver mine, found by Pizarro in the Peruvian highlands, caused the Spanish to lose interest in the spice trade
John Cabot Genoese merchant living in London who discovered Newfoundland in 1497 and the New England coast in 1498
Jacques Cartier Frenchman who explored the St. Lawrence region of Canada between 1534 and 1541
caravel light, three-masted Portuguese ship with lateen sails that was slower than a galley but could hold more cargo, gave Europeans navigational and military supremacy when exploring the New World
Reconquista reconquest of Spain from the Muslims after which young upper-class Spanish found economic and political opportunities limited to the aristocracy and sought their fortunes in the New World
Colombian Exchange process of exchange across the Atlantic of people, disease, plants and animals, and traditions
missionaries Franciscans, Dominicans, Mercedarians, Augustinians, Jesuits, etc. who followed the Conquistadors to spread Christianity using already established local traditions
Pachamama Andean earth mother identified with the Virgin mary by missionaries
Santeria "Worship of Saints", reflected fused art, blended the African pantheon with the iconography of Catholic saints
encomienda system through which Native Americans were granted to the Spanish in a kind of serfdom
Council of the Indies vehicle of Spanish rule, made policy and appointed viceroys, and oversaw the treasury and audiencia
viceroys Spanish colonial governors
audiencia colonial Spanish royal court of appeals
New Laws Spanish legislation in 1542 that prohibited exploitation and enslavement of Indians, who died in large numbers because of disease, dislocation, and the rigors of mine work
Bartoleme de las Casas Bishop who argued that Native Americans were like children who needed protection and care
diaspora dispersion of people, like that of the African slaves to replace the Indians
mestizo racially mixed between European and Native American
mulatto racially mixed between European and African
zambo racially mixed between Native American and African
castizo racially mixed between Mestizo and European
castas people of mixed origin segregated to secondary status, Portuguese word meaning race or lineage, origin of the word caste
peninsulares whites in the New World born in Spain
Creoles whites born in the New World, later became the upper class during the Latin American Revolutions
Roanoke first North American New World colonization attempt in 1587, abandoned
Jamestown English sustained colony established in 1607
St. Lawrence settled at Quebec by the French in 1608
Middle Passage two-month voyage of African slaves, usually debtors or prisoners of war, to the Americas
factories European settlements along the West African coast that collected slaves from African kingdoms and merchant groups in the interior, later British ports in India with walled compounds, later buildings with power-driven machines used to produce goods
Ashanti kingdom located in the Gold Coast, present-day Ghana, that profited from the slave trade
Osei Tutu first Ashanti leader, built a powerful army using guns, conquered neighbors and sold them into slavery, died in 1717
Agaja king of Dahomey from 1708 to 1740 under who used the gun-for-slaves exchange
Dahomey kingdom inland from the Bight of Benin which became a royal monopoly
Bight of Benin Lagos, Benin, and Togo
Kanem-Borneo and Hausaland Muslim states that rose due to slave trade, which was limited by the Koran's teachings prohibiting slavery of fellow Muslims
Mauritius and Zanzibar islands where Swahili, Indian, and Arabian merchants set up plantations with African slaves following the European model
Boer name for the Dutch in pushed African populations north and west in a series of wars for the Dutch East India's plantation colony on the Cape of Good Hope in 1760
chattel slavery form of slavery in which slaves are considered as legal property
metis mostly French mulatto class in West Africa which adopted the French language and Catholic religion and gained economic and political power
Goa Portuguese port established in 1510 on the Arabian Sea
British East India Company organized under the charter of Queen Elizabeth to compete with the Portuguese for control of the Indian spice and cotton trade
sepoys native troops that manned British garrisons in India because of disorder and violence in the early eighteenth century
Treaty of Paris France recognized British control in India in 1763
India Act 1784, British governors in India had to be picked from outside the British East India Company
Francis Xavier led a Jesuit order to convert low-caste Indians to Christianity starting in 1540, won many converts in Japan in 1547
Robert di Nobili Italian Jesuit who tried to convert the elite class in India in the early 1600s, a strategy that never had much success
Matteo Ricci Jesuit who settled in Macao on the mouth of the Canton River in 1582, failed to convert people to Christianity because it ran counter to Chinese traditions but admired China
Shimabara Rebellion revolt by Christian peasants in Japan, 1637 to 1638, Western contact was supressed afterwards
Manchus Manchurians, threatened China from the north during the Ming Dynasty and established the Ch'ing dynasty
Ch'ing dynasty establised in 1644 by the Manchus that replaced the old bureaucracy, covered China Proper, Manchuria, Mongolia, and Tibet, and had tribute trade from Myanmar, Nepal, Laos, Siam, Annam, and Korea
Manila galleons tied the system of European exploration and conquest together, made in the Philippines, synthesis of Europe and the Orient
Malacca Malay peninsula from which, along with Goa, Portuguese ships sailed to Macao
Macao Portuguese settlement on the South China Sea where ships loaded with Chinese silks and porcelains
Nagasaki Japanese port used by Portuguese ships coming from Macao to trade for Spanish silver
Manila Philippine port used by Portuguese ships coming from Macao to trade for Spanish silver
Philippines conquered by the Spanish and used to build galleons from tropical wood
galleons trade warships with three or four decks at the stern and one or more at the bow, used by the Spanish to create a world exchange
Miguel Lopez de Legazpi led a Spanish fleet from America to claim the Philippine islands for Philip II of spain in 1565
Francisco de Coronado Spaniard who moved across Texas to Kansas in search of gold in the 1540s
Hernando de Soto Spaniard who advanced into Florida in search of gold in the 1540s
presidio military garrisons used by the Spanish starting in 1769 to consolidate holdings gained by missionaries before conquistadors north of the Rio Grande
Juniperro Serra Franciscan monk who established a series of missions
missions religious outposts where Native Amerians were either persuaded or coerced into living and working
Northwest Passage sea route past America to Asia sought by the French near the St. Lawernce river
Company of New France chartered by the French king in 1627 to encourage emigration to America, failed because population pressures were less than England's, the weather was cold, and Huguenots were barred from emigrating for fear of revolt, became a fur trading enterprise
Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet French Jesuit priest and fur trader, respectively, who reached the Mississippi, which was claimed in the name of Louis XIV in 1681
Henry Hudson of the Dutch East India Company, named the Hudson river and established fur trading posts on Manhattan island
Dutch West India Company given a trade monopoly in America by the Dutch government in 1621, "purchased" Manhattan
New Amsterdam founded by the Dutch West India company as the capital of its New Netherlands colony, became a British colony after a series of Anglo-Dutch wars because Dutch emigrants were lured to Brazil's slave-worked plantations
corporate colony colony that is an enterprise started by ambitious merchants
Virginia Company received a charter from James I to settle North America for commercial and religious reasons
indentures bound migrants to the New World as laborers for four to seven years in exchange for passage
Pilgrims settled Plymouth in 1620 without a charter from James I
Mayflower Compact constitution created by the Pilgrims
Puritans settled in the Massachusetts Bay Colony in the 1630s
Old Believers religious traditionalists like the Puritans fleeing east of the Ural Mountains along with runaway serfs in the sixteenth century
Anika Stroganov Russian trader whose agents crossed the Urals in the early 1500s in search of furs to exchange for liquor
Siberia largely mapped by the Stroganovs, who had a monopoly of Siberia's fur trade by 1594, became a haven for free farmers, and a place of exile after the Treaty of Nerchinsk
Yermak a Cossack (horseman) in the czar's employ who swept across Siberia in search of gold, claiming territory for Russia as he went
Lena River location of Siberian fortresses such as Tobolsk, Sunger, and Yakutsk
Okhotsk place where a small band of Cossacks reached the Pacific coast of Russia in 1639
Kamchatka and the Kuriles explored by Russia by 1711
Russian American Company established by Russians who crossed the Bering Strait and founded permanent settlements, established a trading point at Fort Ross a few miles from San Francisco by 1812
Treaty of Nerchinsk established the Sino-Russian border after Russians moved into the Amur Valley
gender refers, in history, to the roles that men and women have played in their societies
patriarchy system of social organization in which descent and succession are traced through the male line, increased in in urban societies
matriarchy system of social organization in which descent and succession are traced through the female line, dominated in agricultural societies
liberalism ideology based on Enlightenment ideas that favored emancipating the individual from restraints, especially governmental, economic, and religious ones
republicanism political system in which the power to govern is granted by the "people" (however defined) rather than inherited or assumed by force
liberal democratic thought that can be traced back to the science and politics of the Enlightenment, during which the scientific view was that the natural world is regulated by laws of nature that maintain order and harmony in the universe
Scientific Revolution began during the sixteenth century in Europe, stimulated by Islamic science, born in the medieval university system when science began to develop as a distinct branch of philosophy
laws of nature govern the natural world and maintain order and harmony, discovered by Renaissance science using the scientific method
Francis Bacon formalized the inductive method during the Scientific Revolution
inductive method also the empirical method, way of finding knowledge through observations, measurement, experiment, hypothesis, and verification
Enlightenment intellectual movement centered in France that advocated using scientific methods to study human society, believed that humankind's condition could improve with the discovery of the laws of nature, used to justify the bourgeois revolution
laws of society believed during the enlighenment to govern society as the laws of nature governed the natural world, supported the view that all men have natural rights that, if violated by a government, disrupt the balance of power
philoshophes French intellecutals who developed much of the new thinking that challenged absolute morality and truth during the Enlightenment
natural rights include life, liberty, and property, posessed by all men, must not be violated by a government, which is a contract between the ruler and the ruled
Thomas Hobbes applied natural laws to society, observed after the English Civil War that people must enter into a contract with the ruler in which they give up some of their freedom to avoid a brutish state without laws
John Locke wrote during the Enlightenment that all people have natural rights and that the government must protect them in order to keep the consent of the governed, who have the right to rebel otherwise
Charles, Baron de Montesquieu French, argued that despotism could be avoided if the power of the state were divided so that neither one person nor one governing body had unlimited power
separation of power distinct branches of government responsible for specific functions of government with power to check the other branches, envisioned by Montesquieu
Voltaire pen name of Francois Marie Arouet, who advocated equality before the law, believed that the best government was one with a good monarch, and envisioned God as a clockmaker who built an orderly universe and then stepped aside and let it run
civil rights included in natural rights by Voltaire, especially the choice of religion and cultural expansion
Jean-Jacques Rousseau last great philosophe, committed to individual freedom, argued in The Social Contract in 1762, influenced by Chinese thought, that sovereign power is vested not in the monarch but in the people, who had the right to revolt if their will was ignored
bourgeois middle class, used to refer to the American, French, and Latin American Revolutions
American Revolution 1776 to 1789, both only asserted English liberties and achieved goals way beyond independence
Thomas Jefferson drafted the Declaration of Independence
Declaration of Independence adopted by the Second Continental Congress in 1776, listed tyrannical acts and then proclaimed rights for all humanity, appealed to Creole leaders
first and second estates clergy and nobility, generally exempt from taxes until 1788, when a tax was imposed by Louis XIV, who faced bankrupcy, on all landed property
Louis XIV French king during the revolution
third estate middle class, mostly lawyers and government officals
National Assembly name taken by the third estate after the first and second estates refused to meet with it, gained lawmaking power and established a constitutional monarchy for the following two years
Tennis Court Oath the National Assembly swore not to disband until a constitution was written
sans culottes French lower classes, who had suffered inflation and food shortages and took to the streets prior to the French Revolution
Bastille medieval fortress where prisoners were held, stormed by the sans culottes during the Great Fear, when countryside peasants revolted
liberty, equality, and fraternity ideals of the French Revolution
Declaration of the Rights of Man issued by the National Assembly, closely followed the American Declaration of Independence, guaranteed liberal ideas like equality before the law, representative government, and individual freedom based on natural rights
Jacobins liberal majority of the Legislative Assembly of France elected in 1791, enlarged the republican crusade on Austria and Prussia
Maximilien Robespierre leader of the Jacobins, executed by the Thermidorian Reaction in the National Convention
Reign of Terror 1793 to 1794, put in place by the Committee of Public Safety after France declared war against Britain, Holland, and Spain
Directory five-man executive put in place by the constitutuion written after Robespierre's execution
Napoleon Bonaparte replaced the Directory with a dictatorship in 1799, abdicated in 1814, replaced by a Boubon monarch who accepted a constitutional monarchy
Napoleonic Era 1799 to 1815, when France created and lost an empire enshrining revolutionary ideals
Civil Code 1804, created by Napoleon, based on Roman law's equality of all citizens and the security of wealth and private property, made women dependent
Lord Nelson English leader at the Battle of Trafalgar
Battle of Trafalgar kept Napoleon from invading England
Battle of Austerlitz Napoleon beat a combined Austrian and Russian force in 1805
Tilsit Russia sued for peace from Napoleon when defeat was certain in 1807
Waterloo where Napoleon's comeback was defeated
Declaration of the Rights of Wome Olympe de Gouge's attempt to extend the Declaration of the Rights of Women in 1791
Mary Wollstonecraft argued for the elimination of economic and sexual inequality
A Vindication of the Rights of Women written by Mary Wollstonecraft in advocacy of feminist ideas like educational opportunity and professional achievement
Klemens von Metternich Austrian leader of the Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna representatives of Russia, Austria, Prussia, and Great Britain constructed a peace settlement based on balance of power
balance of power meant, during the Congress of Vienna, an international equilibrium of political interests and military forces that would preseve the freedom and independence of the great powers
Congress System agreement that the members of the Congress of Vienna would meet periodically to settle international crises, lasted well into the nineteenth century and kept the peace in Europe
Haiti revolted in a way that the Creole elite wanted to avoid and that the lower classes saw as a symbol of hope
Toussaint L'Ouverture led a slave revolution that resulted in the indepenent republic of Haiti in 1804, the only successful slave revolt in world history
juntas control the government after a revolution, set up by the Creoles to rule in place of Ferdinand VII during the Napoleonic Era
Father Miguel de Hidalgo led Creoles to a number of early victories in Mexico in 1810, lost their support when he called for Indian and Mestizo help, executed
Augustin de Iturbide a Creole officer who linked up with insurgents to occupy Mexico City in 1820, named the Emperor and briefly included Central America in the Mexican Empire, which became a republic in 1838
Simon Bolivar wealthy Creole officer who led a movement for independence in northern South America centered in Caracas in 1810 which led to a nation called Grand Colombia, which broke up, rejected all efforts to crown him king
Jose de San Martin leader of the South American independence movement centered around Buenos Aires, a booming commercial center which resented Spanish trade restrictions, ranged across the Andes
caudillos generals who ruled in practice instead of the Creole revolutionaries, who had no expirence in government
nationalism a feeling of allegience to a national group rather than to monarchy
Alexander Ypsilanti led the Greeks to revolt against the Ottoman Turks in 1812, helped by Russians, Europeans, and Americans though opposed by the Great Powers, who had pledged to maintain the status quo at the Congress of Vienna
Victor Hugo romantic who immortalized the 1830 French Revolution, a response to Charles X's retraction of voting rights and free press, in Les Miserables
Eugene Delacroix painted Liberty Leading the People during the 1830 French Revolution, in which Liberty unites the worker, bourgeois, and street child in a righteous crusade against privilege and oppression, example of women in romantic attire symbolizing revolution
Louis Philippe leader produced by the 1830 French Revolution, disappointed the republicans, democrats, social reformers, and poor of Paris as the elite actually tightened its control
June Days revolution of French workers, who wanted a socialist republic, in response to Louis Philippe's retraction of voting rights from the middle and lower classes, ending with Louis Napoleon, a strong executive contained with a constitution
Louis Kossuth led Hungarian nationalists in the Austrain empire to demand national autonomy, civil liberties, and universal suffrage, fell apart serfdom was abolished and the minorities went over to the monarchy, exemplified the revolutions of 1848
romanticism artistic and cultural movement that accompanied liberalism, reaction to the enforced rules of classicism and of the Enlightenment, stressed emotionalism, imagination, and yearning for the unattainable
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe German romantic poet and dramatist, saw the cosmos as an organism composed of innumerable individual elements, which was easy to apply to the relationship of the individual to the state
William Wordsworth leading English romanticist, whose works are filled with fantasies of the glory of the English countryside
J. M. W. Turner and John Constable English romantic artists who painted wild storms, sinking ships, and the unspoiled English countryside in emotional terms
Ludwig von Beethoven early romantic composer who wrote symphonies that inspired emotional heroics and patriotic sentiment
Pyotr Tchaikovsky Russian romantic composer
modernization process of change along the lines of Western societies, hallmarked by republican and democratic political systems, a free market, economies, and military establishments based on technology and industry, secularism, and consumerism
Industrial Revolution transformation of the economy, environment, and living conditions due to the replacement of human labor and energy with mechanized processes and technologies that spurred innovation particularly in production, transportation, and communication
enclosed fields common grazing lands were put into private cultivation, an innovation of the intensive agriculture that led to the Industrial Revolution
Charles Townsend learned intensive agriculture innovations like enclosed fields in the Low Countries (Belgium and Holland) and introduced them to England in 1674 to 1738
Jethro Tull made the agricultural advance of sowing seeds with a drill instead of scattering them by hand, an innovation of the intensive agriculture that led to the Industrial Revolution
James Hargreaves invented the cotton spinning jenny with a wheel turned by hand which supplied the power in 1765
Richard Arkwright invented the water frame, in which water supplied the power for cotton spinning
James Watt used coal to power a steam engine
steam engine powered by coal, adapted to work in the iron industry to power bellows, to power mills, and to pump water out of coal mines, applied to sailing ships and overland transportation
George Stephenson built an effective locomotive (train) in 1825
Zollverein internal customs union among the German states created in 1834 to increase industry
Credit Mobilier of France most famous big stockholder or industrial bank, which supported industrial development, founded in 1852 by two young Jewish journalists
Alfred Krupp set up an armaments works in the Rurh in Germany in the 1840s, an example of abrupt and large-scale urbanization
proletariat class of urban workers bred by city life
bourgeoisie entrepreneurial middle class during the Industrial Revolution, stressed hard work, usually rented homes, devoted most of the family budget to food
Jeremy Bentham Industrial Revolution philosopher who taught that public problems could be solved according to the dictum "the greatest good for the greatest number", believed that the government should solve industry-related problems
Edwin Chadwick advocated a public health movement during the Industrial Revolution that included clean, piped water, public parks, and transportation
Georges Haussmann transformed Paris during the Industrial Revolution with broad boulevards and parks and streetcars instead of letting it turn completely into the usual Industrial mess
Louis Pasteur developed the germ theory during the Industrial Revolution, which replaced the miasmatic theory that bad odors cause disease and allowed identification of organisms that caused disease and vaccines to protect against them
Joseph Lister formed the "antiseptic principle" during the Industrial Revolution, which led to the use of disinfectants and improved the surgical and public hospital environment
iron girders and glass new industrial-age building materials
Crystal Palace reflected new industrial-age building materials, designed by Joseph Paxton with a steel frame with large windows
Exhibition of 1851 housed in the Crystal Palace in London's Hyde Park
socialism came from a romantic view of how progress could be achieved for workers, originated in France, argued that the government should organize the economy and not depend on competition, protect the poor, more equally distribute wealth, and own property
laissez-faire opposition to government interference
classical liberalism form of liberalism with no government interference, used by businessmen to outlaw labor unions as they restricted free labor competition
Adam Smith outlined the idea of a free economy in Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations in 1776, which founded modern economics
free capitalist economy described by Adam Smith, characterized by private property, profit, and a free market whose "invisible hand" guides and regulates supply and demand
Thomas Malthus argued that the population always tends to rise faster than the food supply, and that government interference would make the population too high
David Ricardo postulated that population could be controlled by wage rates in Iron Law of Wages
Count Henri de Saint-Simon early French socialist thinker who believed that the "doers" in society, the scientistss, engineers, and industrialists, should plan the economy, create public works projects, and create national banks
Charles Fourier French utopian socialist who envisioned a social utopia in which self-sufficient communities lived communally, and in which women were totally emancipated
Louis Blanc French utopian socialist who advocated universal voting rights and government-backed workshops and factories guaranteeing full employment
Pierre Joseph Proudhon French utopian Socialist who wrote in his pamphlet What Is Property? that property was theft as it was profit stolen from the worker, also feared the state as a solution to this problem
Robert Owen successful Scottish cotton manufacturer who testified before a parliamentary committee about the poor working conditions in factories, especially for women and children, and suggested that healthy people would be better producers
John Stuart Mill argued in his Essay on Liberty that voting rights should be extended to procect the rights of individuals and minorities
George Hegel German predecessor of socialism who proposed the theory of change, or dialectics
Karl Marx wrote the Communist Manifesto, which said that the bourgeoisie would be conquered by the proletariat in revolution as they had triumphed over feudal aristocracy, which would produce communism
Frederick Engels German socialist who, like Karl Marx, applied Hegel's theory to economic relationships between classes
dialectical materialism state of conflict between factory owners and workers, or bourgeoisie and proletariat, over material things proposed by Karl Marx
communism a utopia in which the state would wither away, there would be freedom from want, and the world would be united in a world of international workers without national bounddegasaries
realism reflected life in the second half of the nineteenth century as it was, using scientific objectivity rather than emotional intuitiondegas
Emile Zola realist author who sympathized with socialism and wrote about inequality in his stories about urban slums, coal strikes, and the stock exchange
George Eliot pen name of Mary Ann Evans, who examined the way people are shaped by their society in her novel Middlemarch
Edgar Degas realist painter who captured the hard work of the laboring classes in Women Ironing
determinists realists, believed that human beings were governed by unalterable natural laws of heredity and environment, not individual freedom
Charles Darwin determinist who concluded in On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection that life had evolved or changed on the basis of a struggle for survival
Herbert Spencer applied Darwin's theory to society in Social Darwinism
Social Darwinist believed that social progress occurred as a result of human survival of the fittest
Sigmund Freud determinist founder of psychoanalysis who theorized that much of human behavior was motivated by unconscious emotional needs
Feodor Dostoevsky Russian author whose works, filled with problems of the conscience, explored the mind
feminists campaigned for equal rights for women and access to higher education in the nineteenth century
nationalists believed that every nation, like every citizen, should have the right to exist in freedom after the Napoleonic Era
Monroe Doctrine from the U.S. in 1823 warning against European territorial expansion in the western hemisphere
manifest destiny belief that God had ordained America to cover the continent, coined by John L. Sullivan in 1845
Count Camillo Cavour united Sardinia and Piedmont (northwest Italy) during the unification of Italy from 1858 to 1870, after which Victor Emmanuel II was elected king
Giuseppe Garibaldi rallied the people of Sicily during the unification of Italy from 1858 to 1870, after which Victor Emmanuel II was elected king
Otto von Bismarck prime minister of Prussia who wanted to unite Germany with "blood and iron", used obtaining Schleswig Holstein, the Seven Weeks' war, in which Austria approved the dissolution of the German confederation, joining the northern states to Prussia in 1867
Franco-Prussian War fought in 1870, ended in the French cession of Alsace Lorraine
Second Reich empire made up of all of the German states but Austria in 1871
Suez Canal opened in 1869, cut the sea journey from Europe to India by half, a cause of imperialism
Panama Canal completed in 1914, shortened the trip from New York to San Francisco
Trans-Siberian Railroad completed in 1905, linked Europe and Asia
neo-imperialism acquisition of territory to keep other European countries from doing so, as with European nations seeking expansion and resources outside Europe after the Congress of Vienna
Cecil John Rhodes discovered diamonds, made a fortune, and became prime ministeer of the Cape Colony
John Livingston missionary who spread Christianity in Africa
Rudyard Kipling wrote the poem "The White Man's Burden", which rationalized imperialism by saying that Europeans had a duty to spread their civilization
J. A. Hobson criticized imperialism in Imperialism, saying it was an outgrowth of capitalism's need for labor, raw materials, and markets, influenced Lenin and others
Joseph Conrad castigated Europeans for pure selfishness in "civilizing Africa"
Zulu South Africans who fought the Boers in 1835
Boer War the Afrikaner states, the Orange Free State and the Transvaal, were conquered by the British from 1899 to 1902
Berlin Conference arranged by Bismarck to establish principes for European claims in Africa in 1885, causing a push to the interior
Khartoum where Muslim forces stopped British imerialists in Sudan in 1885
Horatio Kitchener British general who built a railroad to suppy arms and reinforcements for expansion attempts in Sudan after they were stopped at Khartoum
Omdurman where Britain defeated the Sudanese forces in 1898 and pushed on to Fashoda on the upper Nile, where Britain came in conflict with France
Scramble for Africa relentless quest of the European nations for African empire
doctrine of lapse British method of expansion in India, in which native states without a clear successor fell under British rule
Sepoy Rebellion mutiny in 1857 among the native regiments of the British army in India, resulted in the transfer of India from the British East India Company to the crown
Indian National Congress organized by British-educated middle-class Indians in 1885, demanted an end to British rule by the early twentieth century
The Opium War Chinese imperial court tried to halt the opium trade in 1832, defeated, forced to cede Hong Kong to Britain, open five cities to foreign trade, and to accept low tariffs in the Treaty of Nanking in 1842
Taiping Rebellion brought on in 1853 by the economic dislocation caused by the replacement of silver with opium, favored a redistribution of land, gender equality, and tax reduction, weakened Ch'ing rule
Boxer Rebellion aimed at ousting foreigners in 1900 after the Russians captured the Amur Basin, Britain acquired Burma, France, Indochina, and Japan, Korea, caused the Ch'ing to call on Western powers to restore order, was divided into spheres of influence in return
Spanish American War the United States gained Cuba and the Philippines in 1898
modernizers people in imperialized countries who tried to adapt to the ways of the conquering country
traditionalists people in imperialized countries who tried to maintain their old ways
anti-imperialists people in imperialized countries who resented foreign domination and eventually used their masters' theories of liberalism and nationalism to overthrow the Europeans
Commodore Matthew Perry American, arrived with a fleet in Edo Bay in 1853 to threaten bombardment if Americans were not allowed to trade, forcing Japan concede
Tokugawa shoguns dynasty of military autocrats that ruled Japan and created a centralized state
Emperor Meiji threw out the shogun system because of the Tokugawa shoguns' failure to stand up to the Westerners
Meiji Restoration Empreor Meiji reclaimed the right to rule in 1868, starting political and economic restructuring
genro Emperor Meiji's advisers
Diet Japanese parliament, only about 5 percent of the adult male population could vote
zaibatsus large new industrial combines that emerged in Japan as a result of accumulations of capital and far-flung merchant and industrial operations by the 1890s
Taiwan acquired by Japan from China in 1895 after annexing the Ryukus in 1879
Russo-Japanese War caused by conflicts over Russian influence in Manchuria and Japanese influence in Korea in 1904, after which Japan annexed Korea in 1910
Karlowitz location of a peace treaty in 1699 between the Ottoman empire and Austria, proved a turning point after which the Ottoman empire declined
Serbia where a Christian uprising was ended in 1804 under the Ottoman empire, gained independence in 1867, Austria's rival
capitulations series of agreements signed by the Ottomans allowing French, English, and Hapsburg merchants to travel, buy, and sell throughout Ottoman dominions, pay low customs duties, and be exempt from Ottoman law
the sick man of Europe name given to the Ottoman empire at the beginning of the nineteenth century because of loss of territory, pressures of European imperialism, and unresolved internal problems
ulama Muslim religious scholars, primary interpreters of Islamic law, and the core of Muslim societies, opposed internal reform
Tanzimat Reforms carried out by Mahmud II from 1839 to 1876, westernized the Ottoman empire but did not end the sultanate
Young Turks organization of Ottoman Westernized officers and civilians who staged a bloodless coup in 1908 against the despotism reintroduced by Sultan Abdul Hamid
Muhammad Ali undertook a modernization program in Egypt after Napoleon left the Egyptian part of the Ottoman Empire, in which he developed commercial agriculture geared to the European market
Khedive Ismail continued the modernization trend started by Muhammad Ali from 1863 to 1879, promoted education, infrastructure, and communication, supported the Suez Canal, incurred huge debt like many modernizing countries and was occupied by Britain
Crimean War lost by the Russians to the English and French in 1853 because of the lack of a modern military, making the urgency for reform apparent
Emancipation of Serfs proclaimed in 1861 to avoid revolt among the peasants following the Crimean War and to provide a labor force for industry
Zemstvos institutions of local government in Russia, marked a limited first step towards popular participation in government
Sergei Witte Russian Minister of Finance from 1892 to 1903 under whom the government enacted high tariffs to protect industry, improved the banking system, and encouraged foreign investors to build industry in Russia
Bloody Sunday a peaceful demonstration of factory workers marched to the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg in 1905 following the Russo-Japanese War, when troops suddenly opened fire, after which more protests followed, such as that of the ship Potemkin
October Manifesto granted civil rights and the Duma following massive strikes in Russia
Duma popularly elected legislative branch in Russia
Fundamental Laws issued by the czar limiting the powers of the Duma, backtracking from the October Manifesto
Peter Stolypin Chief Minister of Russia who pushed through land reforms after the Fundamental Laws, encouraging the most enterprising peasants to produce for the market, as land was no longer collectively owned by villages
golden age of the middle class (bourgeoisie) nineteenth century, because their culture and habits became the aspirations for many
working classes proletariat, four out of five people in the nineteenth century, people who depended on physical labor like landowning peasants and factory owners and did not employ domestic servants
immigration movement to become part of another country, as opposed to the more favored migration, from which many people returned to their homelands in the industrial revolution
Great Potato Famine major reason for Irish immigration to the Americas between 1845 and 1851
pogroms organized persecutions or massacres, like that of the Russian Jews that began in 1881, causing emigration
science the study of the natural world
technology knowledge regarding fashioning of implements
blitzkrieg swift, systematic barrages in World War II that used the weapons introduced in World War I and perfected in the interwar period
mutually assured destruction deterred nuclear war for countries with large economies, wars of traditional and guerrilla nature continued among those without such advanced weapons capability
Sputnik I first sattelite, sent by the Russians in 1957
Yuri Gagarin first man in space, sent by the Russians in 1961
Neil Armstrong first man on the moon, sent by America in 1969
Balkans location of Russia and Austria-Hungary's sparring prior to World War I
Triple Entente France, Russia, and Britain
Triple Alliance Germany, Austria, and Italy
Powder Keg of Europe the Balkans
Archduke Franz Ferdinand Austrian, assassinated in 1914 by Serbian-backed terrorists
Schlieffin Plan German war plan that advocated a swift knock-out blow against France before turing on Russia used during World War I after Russia mobilized in response to Austria declaring war on Serbia
Battle of the Marne German troops were stopped by French and British forces, outflanking maneuvers failed, trench warfare started
trench warfare losses were appalling due to artillery, poison gas, and the horrors of the trenches
U-boat submarine, German use succeeded in blockading Britain during World War I, which brought the United States into the war
Peace of Brest-Litovsk Russia left World War I in early 1918 because of the Russian revolution
Weimar Republic replaced Emperor William of Germany, who abdicated, during World War I and authorized a cease-fire
Erich Maria Remarque German author of All Quiet on the Western Front, the classic statement of disillusionment with war that documented life in the trenches
Albert Schweitzer a theologian who saw in Christian revival in the 1920s in the United States the return to sanity and the moral path
Washington Naval Agreements plans for arms reductions were agreed to after World War I
Wilson's Fourteen Points influenced the peace treaties after World War I, along with the interests of the victors
Treaty of Versailles ended World War I, blamed Germany for the war and invoked repartations and demilitarization of Germany
national self-determination principle applied in redistributing European territory after World War I, allowed historic peoples and ethnic groups to form their own nation-states
mandate system used in former colonies of defeated powers of World War I instead of national self-determination, "nations on the road to independence" were assigned to the supervision of one of the victors, applied in Africa, the middle east, and in the Pacific islands
League of Nations administered the mandate system, the first worldwide association of governments in world history dedicated to the resolution of disputes by peaceful means
Great Depression started in the United States in 1929 and spread throughout the world, bringing extremist governments, and in the West, pacifism, isolationism, and appeasement, partially caused by the withdrawal of government involvement in the economy after World War I
John Maynard Keynes postulated an economic theory that stressed the importance of government spending to compensate for the loss of purchasing power during the Depression
welfare state grew because of World War I, meant to reduce the impact of economic inequality, social insurance measures from medical care to housing, retirement insurance, and child care
Benito Mussolini seized power in Italy in 1922
Fascists Mussolini's party, ruled Italy as a one party state, both antidemocratic and anticommunist, advocated nationalism, authoritarianism, totalitarianism, militarism, and idealism
Adolf Hitler German dictator during World War II, believed in German racial superiority
National Socialist or Nazi Party Hitler's party
Sun Yat-sen established a fragile national republic in China after the fall of the Manchu dynasty in 1911
Twenty-One Demands signed by the Allies after World War I, giving Japan control of Shantung and southern Manchuria
May Fourth Movement Chinese students protested the Twenty-One Demands in 1919
Kuomintang Sun's Nationalist party, allied with the communists in the face of civil disorder after the May Fourth Movement
Three Principles of the People democracy, people's livelihood, and especially nationalism, used by Sun in an campaign against warlords who threatened Chinese republican unification
Chiang Kai-shek purged the communists from China in 1927 after Sun's death
Mao Tse-tung (Mao Zedong) leader of the Chinese communists, shifted their focus to the countryside after being purged by Chiang Kai-shek
Lucknow Pact Muslims and Hindus joined in 1916 to work for self-governing status as a British dominion in return for help during World War I
Government of India Act established dual administration in 1919, part Indian and elected, part British and authoritarian
Rowlatt Acts indefinitely retracted bipartisan rule in India in 1919 as "wartime emergency measures"
Amritsar Massacre protest erupted at a Hindu religious festival, followed by several Indians being killed and wounded by British troops
Mohandas Gandhi led Satyagraha for Indian national liberation starting in 1920
Satyagraha "strength of spiritual truth", nonviolent protest
Jawaharlal Nehru led radical Indian nationalists in calling for outright independence, tempered by Gandhi, who involved the general population, prime minister who introduced reforms like equality and economic advancement, hindered by population growth
Dawes Plan worked out in 1924, German reparations to Britain and France would pass on to the United States in repayment of war debt, led to a massive imbalance in economy as Europe diverted resources to debt payment, reduced the market for American industrial goods
Enabling Act abolished the German Reichstag, or parliament, in 1933, followed by a program of Nazification, which brought people back to work with public works, as with many dictatorial regimes at the time
Long March Chiang Kai-shek's chase of Mao and his followers from their southern bases in Kiangsi and Hunan to a new base in the northwest, where a truce was formed primarily because of fears of Japan
Mein Kampf Hitler's outline of his domestic and foreign policy goals
appeasement giving in for the sake of peace, Britain and France's allowance of Italian and German aggression
Nuremburg Laws Hitler's enforcement of German racial superiority in 1935, deprived Jews of civil and commercial rights
Final Solution deliberate Nazi extermination of Jewish communities throughout Europe starting in 1941
Dachau and Auschwitz concentration camps where Jews were transported by rail and systematically gassed
Gestapo German secret police that ran the state with SS, Hitler's private army
Anschluss German annexation of Austria in 1938
Munich Agreements Great Britain and France's sanctioning of German annecation of large areas of Czechoslovakia
Francisco Franco fascist leader in the Spanish Civil War, aided by Germany and Italy
Pablo Picasso immortalized the Spanish Civil War's horricic cruelties for civilian populations in his painting Guernica
Non-Aggression Pact signed by Germany and Russia, allowed Hitler to attack Poland from the west as Stalin invaded from the east, at which point appeasement ended and Great Britain and France entered the war
Vichy city from which the Southern half of France was ruled by a puppet government as the northern half was occupied by Germans
Winston Churchill led England as it withstood massive German bombings in World War II without capitulating, alone after France surrendered
Erwin Rommel brilliant German general during World War II who advanced across North Africa towards the Suez Canal in 1941
Pearl Harbor attacked by the Japanese in 1941 after Russia was attacked by Germany, bringing the United States into the war, took the Philippines, Malaya, Singapore, and Hong Kong shortly thereafter
El Alamein crucial defeat of the Germans during World War II in North Africa in 1942
Stalingrad turning point of World War II in Russia in 1942
Lend-Lease program through which the United States supplied weapons and war material to Britain and Russia during World War II
Arsenal of Democracy name given to the United States for the Lend-Lease program
D-Day Operation Overlord, started the same year as the fall of R, a Cold War allianceome, amphibious operation that ended in the surrender of the Nazi leadership in 1945
Harry Truman U.S. President who ordered atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima, and then Nagasaki
Hirohito Japanese emperor who accepted the terms for Japan's surrender after the dropping of atomic bombs, several months after the war ended outside the Pacific theatre
Nuremberg where Nazis were put on trial for "crimes against humanity", part of Fascist regimes being blamed for the war
United Nations replaced the League of Nations in 1945 after World War II, with its main power in the security council, whose permanent members, the United States, Soviet Union, Britain, France, and China, could veto any descisions
Atlantic Charter expression of war aims of World War II's aims in 1941 calling for peace without territorial expansion or secret agreements and for free elections and self-determination for liberated nations, broken by Stalin's territorial gains in Poland
Tehran location of an agreement in 1943 by which Soviet troops could liberate eastern Europe
Yalta where the Red Army were already in eastern Europe in 1945 before Britain and France could enter Germany
Franklin Roosevelt U.S. President who agreed to divide Germany, pay reparations to the Soviet Union confiscated in the occupied areas, and welcomed Soviet help against Japan
Potsdam where President Truman demanded free elections in eastern Europe after Roosevelt's death, instead, elections were held under Stalin's Communist party
Iron Curtain declared by Winston Churchill to divide Europe into two camps during the Cold War
Tito (Josip Broz) Yugoslavian communist leader who kept Yugoslavia out of the Soviet sphere because he had his own army and had not been dependent on Soviet troops to liberate Yugoslavia from the Nazis
containment the United States's foreign policy during the Cold War, taking action where necessary to stop the spread of Soviet and communist influence
Truman Doctrine announced by the U.S. during the Cold War, making it a duty to support people resisting communism
Marshall Plan Secretary of State John Marshall's offer of economic aid to rebuild Europe on behalf of America
Douglas MacArthur American general who led the occupation of Japan during the Cold War, dismantling the military, adopting a democratic constitution, and restoring the economy with American aid
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization, European defense alliance formed by the U.S., a Cold War alliance
Warsaw Pact military alliance between the Soviet Union and eastern European allies to counter NATO, a Cold War alliance
European Economic Community western European economic union, a Cold War alliance
COMECOM eastern European trade union between the Soviet Union and its allies to oppose the EEC, a Cold War alliance
SEATO Southeast Asia Treaty Organization signed by the United States in Asia, a Cold War alliance
Sino-Soviet Alliance Russia's counter to SEATO, a Cold War alliance
Berlin Wall built by the Soviets in 1961, sealed off East Berlin from West Berlin
Syngman Rhee leader of the republic established by elections in 1948 in the south in Korea
Kim Il Sung Moscow-trained leader of the Democratic People's Republic set up by the communists in the north of Korea
Korean War lasted from 1950, when North Korea, heavily armed by the Russians, invaded the south, until an armistice signed at Panmunjom in 1953, division remains at the 38th parallel
Cuban Missile Crisis began when the United States issued an ultimatum to end missile shipments from the Soviet Union to Cuba and dismantle them
peaceful coexistence when the United States and the Soviet Union accepted the existence of an antagonistic relationship but began to work together where possible
Gamal Abdel Nasser Russian-backed Egyptian President who seized the Suez Canal from Great Britain, bringing them to the brink of war, ended by the United States and the Soviet Union in peaceful coexistence to avoid a superpower war
Test Ban Treaty signed between the United States and the Soviet Union in 1962, prohibited nuclear tests in the atmosphere, outer space, and underwater
detente relaxation of tensions during the cold war due to the fragmenting of Cold War blocs and the spread of nuclear capability to other countries
revolution complete change in the political, economic, and social system within a country, as in Russia in 1917 and China in 1949
decolonization the process by which colonial powers gradually turned over power and gave independence to former colonies, like Britain and India and Pakistan in 1947
wars of national liberation wars of independence fought by former colonies against former colonial powers, often towards communism, like in Vietnam
Mensheviks faction of the Russian Social Democratic party in 1903 that believed that Russia was not yet ready for a Marxist revolution because it was not industrialized
Bolsheviks faction of the Russian Social Democratic party in 1903 that believed that a proletarian revolution in Russia was inevitable
V. I. Lenin Bolshevik leader who orchestrated the Bolshevik takeover of the St. Petersburg and Moscow soldiers' and workers' soviets from his exile
1905 Russian Revolution disappointed the Bolsheviks because it resulted in a Western liberal government instead of a Marxist one
soviet workers' council formed by the Russian Social Democrats instead of associating with the Duma
dictatorship of the proletariat goal of Lenin's planned and directed revolution for Russia
Communist International (Comintern) exported the Soviet brand of communism around the world, added to communism by Stalin
Marxism-Leninism socialism as modified for Russia, with a revolution of worker and peasant, a planned revolution ending in dictatorship of one class over another, imperialists as well as capitalists as the enemy, and the power of the state to carry out socialism
communism Marxism-Leninism
Nicolas II czar away at the front of World War I during start of the Russian Revolution directed by Lenin, forced to abdicate upon his return
Provisional Government name of the Duma following the czar's abdication, ran the state, discredited by the failure of the July 1917 offensive
soviets worker-soldier committees who controlled the streets of Russia following the czar's abdication, issued an order placing military affairs under the control of elected street committees
Alexander Kerensky moderate socialist appointed prime minister of the Duma who exiled Lenin
Whites separatists, former officers, and Provisional Government proponents, assisted by Japanese, Polish, and Western armies, during the Russian Civil War
Reds communists during the Russian Civil War, controlled the central part of Russia and the railroads
New Economic Policy instituted by Lenin to inject some capitalism at the consumer level to make up for the cost of the Russian Civil War
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics reorganization of Russia with other states following the Russian Civil War
collectivization pursued by Joseph Stalin, Lenin's successor, with forced industrialization to fully implement communism
kulaks class of peasant landowners purged by Stalin
Third World used during the Cold War to refer to Asia, Africa, and Latin America, looked up to the Russian model of revolution, lacked the literacy, national cohesiveness, strong middle class, and business economy needed for liberal democracies, many ended up with di
Porfirio Diaz dictator of Mexico from 1881 to 1910, made great strides in the economy through huge U.S. investment, making for political, social, and antiforeign discontent
Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata Porfirio Diaz's rivals, who challenged the politicians that supported the new constiturion, which guaranteed universal suffrage, the right to strike, eight-hour work days, and the redistribution of land to peasants
PRI Mexico's Institutional Revolutionary Party, claimed to represent all factions of Mexican politics, though Mexico City politicians gained the upper hand
Alvaro Obrego Mexican president who reneged on most of the constitutional promises
Alliance for Progress U.S. pledged $10 billion in economic assistance to stop the growth of leftist governments like that in Cuba during the Cold War, often propped up dictatorships instead
North American Free Trade Agreement NAFTA, decreases tariffs and customs among the U.S., Canada, and Mexico, allows for the free flow of money, investment, and goods and services, helped to modernize the Mexican economy
Vincente Fox Mexican president elected 2000 in a democratic election, made reforms like a free press, stabilized economy, national health insurance, and credible voting procedures, but didn't reform the state owned oil monopoly (PEMEX) or stop migrants to the U.S.
Felipe Calderon Mexican president of the right-center National Action Party elected in 2006, narrowly defeated Andres Manual Lopez Obrador of the left-wing Democratic Revolution Party (PDR) in what was considered a fair election
Pakistan "land of the pure", called for by the Muslim League in India when the popular nationalist movement was coalesced around Hinduism
Congress Party Gandhi's movement
Quit India called for by Gandhi when Britain declared war on Germany on India's behalf without consultation, though India had been given limited self-rule
Muhammad Ali Jinnah English-educated leader of the Muslim League who called for a Muslim state in India when the Congress Party leaders were arrested following the Quit India movement, leading to West and East Pakistan (Pakistan and Bangladesh), leading to great tragedy
Kashmir disputed area between Pakistan and India
Bangladesh nation created by East Pakistan by a revolt, as they were only related to West Pakistan by religion
Indira Gandhi Nehru's unpopular daughter, who subverted parliamentary democracy in order to attack corruption and carry on a campaign of mass sterilization
Sikhs one Indian group that posed a challenge to democracy, have a religion between Islam and Hinduism and a military culture marked by turbans, militants occupied the Golden Temple of Amritsar and used it as a base for attacks against the anti-Sikh government
Punjab border region between India and Pakistan dominated by Sikhs
Majlis Persian national assembly crushed by Britain and Russia, who divided Persia into spheres, formed, with a constitution, by a nationalist group of merchants, religious leaders, and intellectuals revolting against Russia and Britain's puppet shah in 1906
Reza Shah Pahlavi strong military dictator who came to power in Persia, ousting the British, in 1921, tried, as in Turkey, to build a modern secular nation, overthrown for his son because of his courting of Western powers, his brutal rule, and his support of Nazi Germany
Ayatollah Khomeini religious leader who seized power in Persia in 1978, forcing the shah to flee abroad, set up a radical Shi'ite Muslim government, fought a bloody war with Soviet and American weapons against Iraq, a Sunni state
Saddam Hussein Iraqi leader who invaded Kuwait in 1990, the Persian Gulf War, foiled by swift action on the part of the U.S. and other Arab states
mujahidin "holy warriors", conservative Islamic Afghan rebels who revolted against Sovietization
Taliban "students", took control of Afghanistan, instututed strict Islamic rules, spends money on fighting internal opposition rather than on economic development
Hamid Karzai leader of Afghanistan's democracy following the U.S. invation in 2001
Sykes-Picot treaties Britain and France agreed on how to divide the Arabs in 1916, though they had allied with the British against the Ottoman Turks with the vague promise of independence after World War I
Balfour Declaration showed British favor towards forming a Jewish state in Palestine in 1917, has contradictory promises to both Jews and Palestinians
Syria Arab country that gained independence from French imperialism, which made use of ethnic and religious groups, in 1936, by giving a treaty of friendship
Lebanon French Arab mandate from the Ottoman Empire, became a mostly Christian republic, collapsed into civil war in 1990 from the Muslim minority, ended in a quasi-democracy plagued by sectarian tensions, Syrian occupation, and Israeli and Palestinian influence
Fatah Palestinian terrorist militia that has plagued Lebanon
Hezbollah Shi'a Islamic terrorist militia that has plagued Lebanon
Hamas Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), a terrorist militia that has plagued Lebanon
OPEC Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, Islamic alliance among the Pan Arab nations
Arab League Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria, and Yemen, Islamic Pan Arab alliance opposed to Jewish settlement in Palestine
Israel created by the Jews out of the former Palestine after the British mandate ended in 1948
Arab-Israeli War fought in 1948 between the Arab countries and Israel, who used modern weaponry acquired with U.S. help, left a bitter legacy between Israel and its allies, the U.S. and Great Britain, and the Arab states and their growing ties with the Soviet Union
Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), Palestinian independence organization formed after the Arab-Israeli War, main weapon was Terrorism
Six-Day War resulted in Israeli occupation of Gaza, Sinai, Old Jerusalem, the Golan Heights, and the West Bank in 1967, after persistent Palestinian raids
Anwar el-Sadat led the Egyptian foces in the Yom Kippur War of 1973, showing new fighting ability against the Israelis
Golda Meir led the Israeli coalition government in the Yom Kippur War of 1973
Henry Kissinger U.S. secretary of state who tried to find a diplomatic solution to Israel following the Yom Kippur War of 1973
Menachem Begin agreed with Egyptian president Anwar Sadat for Egypt to recognize Israel in return for the Sinai, frustrating the PLO
Yasser Arafat PLO leader who moved into Lebanon and instigated its dismemberment
neocolonialism economic or political dependence, followed liberal nations in China, Southeast Asia, Africa, and Latin America after decolonialization, context of national liberation wars, resulted in nations susceptible to dictatorships
Chinese Communist Revolution led by Mao Zedong, followed the Russian model, but with only the peasants, the most oppressed by the Kuomintang, as the engine of change in the countryside with guerilla tactics against imperialists, became the model for Third World peasant revolution
guerrilla warfare inspired by Sun Tzu, used by Mao during the Chinese Communist Revolution
The Little Red Book a collection of Mao's sayings that became a bible of Chinese communism, in which Mao defined the enemy as the imperialist rather than than the capitalist
Taiwan where Chiang Kai-shek and a million mainland Chinese fled after the civil war in China between the communists and the nationalists, weakened by fighting the Japanese while the communists gained peasant support
People's Republic of China proclaimed by Mao in 1949, who claimed a new Mandate of Heaven
Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution launched by Mao, who feared that China was becoming bureaucratic, capitalistic, and "revisionist", object was to purge the party of the time-serving bureaucrats and recapture the revolutionary fervor
Red Guards young people who denounced their teachers and parents, dispatched by Mao during the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution
Jian Qing radical Maoist, Mao's wife, arrested, tried for crimes against the people, purged from the party, and imprisoned for life after the Cultural Revolution
Deng Xiaoping moderate leader during the liberal counter-shift to the Cultural Revolution, began economic liberalization after Mao's death, which caused demands for political liberalization
Tiananmen Square where Xiaoping crushed the liberal student revolt in 1989, the year the Berlin Wall fell in Europe
Indochina included Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia, French colony since the 1880s scramble for empire after seventeenth century Christian missionaries won converts there, reluctant to decolonize because of the rubber and plantations and the universalist attitude
Ho Chi Minh leader of the Vietnamese Communist party educated in France and Russia, followed Mao's path of peasants
Viet Minh Vietnamese Communists who advanced into Vietnam as the Japanese withdrew, gaining peasant support by helping them
Dien Bien Phu where the Viet Minh descisively defeated the French, aided by the U.S., after a ten year guerrilla war, winning North Vietnam
domino effect U.S. fear that if one Southeast Asian country fell to communism, others would follow
Ngo Dinh Diem backed by the U.S. as the leader of South Vietnam, discredited as a Catholic, elite, and sometime U.S. resident, overthrown by a U.S. coup when he could not handle the Viet Cong
Viet Cong southern Vietnamese communists supplied weapons by the Viet Minh to counter Diem
Richard Nixon withdrew U.S. troops from Vietnam because of popular sentiment in 1973
boat people fled Vietnam after the Vietnam War was won by the North, many coming to the U.S.
Pol Pot led Chinese-backed communists in Cambodia, which was later invaded by Vietnamese communists, led a holocaust in which over one-third of the population died
Thailand also Siam, only Southeast Asian country to avoid colonization, built a culture based on a reverence for Buddhism and the monarchy, threatened by Muslim and communist insurgent factions and a military coup in 2006
Aung San nationalist Burmese leader supported by Britain, assassinated, succeeded by U Nu
U Nu Buddhist idealist and supporter of democracy, deposed by the army in 1962
Aung San Siu Kyi Burmese dissenter who has been under house arrest for years, while Burma has been closed
Ahmed Sukarno President of the Republic of Indonesia in 1950, feared Western efforts to exploit Indonesian natural resources
Bandung Conference sponsored by Sukarno, called on newly independent states to be neutral during the Cold War
Thojib Suharto overthrew Sukarno, who had been becoming increasingly dictatorial, in a coup, began to court Western capital
negritude idea formulated in the 1920's by black and white intelluctual, blackness, meaning racial pride, self-confidence, and black creativity
Kwame Nkrumah example of an African leader who kept European boundaries, focusing instead on thier own power, led Ghana to independence in 1957, first in Africa, set up a socialist state with the support of communist countries that was plagued by political instability
Nigeria adopted a feudal system after independence because of divisions between the Yorubas and Ibos and Christians and Muslims, which led to breakdown
Biafra Ibo nation that seceded from Nigeria for three years after being persecuted, became the site of genocide and starvation
Zaire current neame for the Congo, where, after the retreat of the extremely dictatorial Belgian regime, a series of rulers and then leftist rebels came to power
Joseph Mobuto created a military rule in the "republic" of Zaire
Jomo Kenyatta led the Kenyan independence movement to success, sought the support of all races but became increasingly repressive
Mau Mau rebel Kenyan independence movement, crushed by the British
Daniel Moi Kenyatta's successor, has maintained power despite debt, inflation, and disputes with neighbors
apartheid Dutch policy of legal racial separation in South Africa, giving whites the upper hand, armed by America and counter-armed by the Soviets
Nelson Mandela South African nationalist leader who was jailed
F. W. de Klerk white president of South Africa who began discussions with Nelson Mandela after the Cold War to start ending apartheid
Namibia Southwest Africa, a German colony mandated to South Africa after World War I
Southwest Africa People's Organization (SWAPO) Marxist Namibian organization that launched guerrilla warfare during the Cold War, gained independence at its end
Angola and Mozambique former Portuguese colonies where Cold War violence began in a civil war after they were given independence
UNITA (National Union for Total Independence of Angola) led by Jonas Savimbi, who negotiated Cuban and South African troop removal as the Maoist president Samora Machel promised communism, ending the civil war
Guantanamo Bay location of a United States naval base used to dominate the Cuban economy
Fulgencio Batista assumed dictatorial control of Cuba in 1952, overthrown immedietly by Fidel Castro's guerrillas
Fidel Castro instituted a communist government in Cuba, which became a Soviet satellite
Salvador Allende Marxist who took over in Chile, overthrown by a repressive anti-Marxist military junta, which was later rid of in 1989
Sandinista Marxist guerrillas who battled Somoza in Nicaragua
Anastasio Somoza "elected" general backed by the U.S., fled, leading to increased intervention
less developed countries (LDCs) characterized by subsistence agriculture, low capital, poor infrastructure and technology, an illeterate workforce, and dependency on primary products, many borrowed heavily for modernization, which turned into revolution
NEP new economic policy, allowed private trade and property, abandoned by Stalin
Five-Year Plans meant to industrialize Russia without Western aid by Stalin
collecivize farms are gathered into collectives so that profit can be used for industrialization, resisted by the peasants in Russia to the point of man-made famine
communized in China, farms were made to work like factories
Great Leap Forward program of industrialization launched by Mao after agricultural failures, displayed success because, as in the U.S.S.R., any gain was a leap forward
Four Modernizations agriculture, industry, science and technology, and national defense, campaign started by Deng Xiaoping, capitalism was introduced, successful
Japan Inc. institution of policies that foster higher economic growth rates by strengthening the relationship between government and business in Japan in early 2000
Afro-Marxism rigorous Marxism-Leninism used by LDCs after socialism failed, if capitalism was not used
World Bank a U.N. agency whose purpose is to pglasnost
International Monetary Fund an international bank funded by industrialized countries to make money available to countries having difficulty securing loans
multinational corporation problem for capitalism in Third World countries along with debt, invested on the behalf of other countries so that the profits flowed back to America and Europe, stunting local development and limiting LDCs to raw materials
Tanzania began independence with a mixed economy, growing communism, organized the resistant peasantry, improved the literacy rate and health care, hampered by inefficiency, corruption, and a lack of infrastructure
Julius Nyerere leader of Tanzania during its attempt to modernize
Mozambique started Afro-Marxism, which failed because of the disruption of agriculture, has since tried to make economic connections to the West and South Africa
Grameen Bank Bangladeshi model for banks that lend small sums of money to women to get them out of poverty
newly industrializing countries states between the LDCs and the industrializing countries, like Taiwan, South Korea, Singapore, and Vietnam, distinguished by their emphasis on education and social and political structures, integrate their own traditions with industrial economic models
South Korea has the hightest literacy rate in the world, huge industrial firms were created, industry was helped along and encouraged by the government, workers responded well
Singapore became a center of merchant and individual capital for Southeast Asia with a strong political leader
Vietnam the most recent economic area in Southeast Asia, starting foreign investment, education, and industry under a quasi-communist political system
neoliberalism an economic model encouraged by the United States that promoted free markets, Western investment, and privitization, adopted by some Latin American nations starting in the 1980s, weakened by corruption, rich elites, and dependence on foreign loans
privitization relying less on government to meet people's needs and more on private institutions like the marketplace, family, and voluntary organizations
Augusto Pinochet launched privatization in Chile by unilaterally freeing prices, gutting labor laws, and auctioning off hundreds of companies
glasnost "openness", one of Gorbachev's reforms in 1985 by which he hoped to gain new political allies among the intellectual class and to explore new solutions to Soviet problems
perestroike "economic restructuring", one of Gorbachev's reforms in 1985 in which he encouraged private investment and growth of the consumer economy
Brezhnev Doctine proclaimed the right of the Soviet Union and its allies to intervene at will in eastern Europe, denounced by Gorbachev
Boris Yeltsin replacement for Gorbachev after his downfall, faced problems including the transformation of the economy and political system from socialist and communist to free market and republican
oligarchs well-placed former communists who amassed enough property, prosperity, and wealth to control major segments of the Russian economy after the fall of the U.S.S.R.
Vladimir Putin replaced Yeltsin in 2000, faded liberalism, has taken control of much on the media and industry, the contrast between the rich and poor has become stark
Solidarity Polish democratic movement that represented the workers, Catholicism, and nationalists, won in the free elections in 1989
Lech Walesa Solidarity's leader, sworn in as the first non-communist leader in eastern Europe
Vaclav Havel elected president of Czechoslovakia in 1989
Velvet Revolution massive demonstrations forced Czechoslovakian communist leaders to resign before the election of Havel
Nicolae Ceausescu communist dictator of Romania who was defeated by an opposing coalition government in a violent revolution
Bosnian War breakup of Yugoslavia because of ethnic rivalries, from 1992 to 1995
Max Planck challenged the "God is a clockmaker" theory by showing that subatomic energy is emitted in uneven spurts called quanta and not in a steady stream, calling into question the distinction between matter and energy
Albert Einstein explained what happened to Newtonian laws at the speed of light
relativity Einstein's idea that time and space are not absolute
Ernest Rutherford showed that the atom could be split
Niels Bohr physicist who held that, within the atom, properties are massless, and that small particles move randomly
quantum physics quantum meaning quantity or discrete amount with the connotation of smaller, rather than subatomic, particles
James Watson and F.H.C. Crick developed a model for the DNA molecule in 1953
computer an extension of memory and a machine of numeracy
Internet technology of linkage that moved to the public sector largely due to the work of Tim Berners-Lee, made English the language of the world
Fourth World Conference on Women held in 1995, reached a consensus that women's rights are human rights
Mukhataran Bibi illiterate Pakistani woman who gained sympathy for her resistance to conservative Muslim practices against women, publicized throught the internet
hijab veil, has caused conflict over the rights of French Muslim girls to wear it in public schools
Guglielmo Marconi started transatlantic "wireless" communication in 1901, making world-scale interaction possible
Sergei Eisenstein Russian, the first to use the camera as a device to tell a story rather than to record events, made The Battleship Potemkin
Leni Riefenstahl made the documentary The Triumph of the Will, using the camera to make Nazi propaganda
Louis Sullivan invented the skyscraper with steel and concrete
Frank Lloyd Wright student of Louis Sullivan, built a series of modern houses featuring low lines and attentiveness to the surrounding environment
Bauhaus group that worked to merge the schools of fine and applied arts with architecture, culminating in buildings using steel frames and glass walls
Claude Monet, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, and Camille Pissarro impressionists, tried to capture the overall feeling, or impression
Vinvent van GOgh Postimpressionist, or Expressionist, painted with a style that allowed him to depict worlds other than the visible world of fact, painted the vision of his mind's eye in The Starry Night
Paul Cezanne Expressionist, said, "You must see in nature the cylinder, the sphere, and the cone"
Henri Matisse Expressionist painter
Pablo Picasso, Marc Chagall, and Salvador Dali surrealist painters, used dreams and complex symbols
Arnold Schoenberg led musical experimentation in the twentieth century, abandoned traditional harmony and tonality in favor of abstract mathematical patterns, or "tone rows"
Frantz Fanon and Chinua Achebe Third World writers of The Wretched of the Earth and Things Fall Apart, argued that real independence would come only with a total rejection of Western values
Alexander Solzhenitsyn opened up the secrets of the slave labor camps and psychological torture in the Soviet Union in books like One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich and Cancer Ward
Milovan Djilas Yugoslav writer who unmasked the ideological failures of communism in The New Class
Rachel Carson wrote environmental protest in her book Silent Spring
Green Revolution higher yields and more land in cultivation because of population increase and famine after the 1960s
deforestation has become a major problem in rural areas
Chernobyl where a nuclear reactor in the Ukraine experienced a meltdown and devastated immediate regions with radiation in the 1980s
Earth Summit U.N. Conference on Environment and Development, held in Rio de Janeiro, where 178 nations reached acccords on sustainable development
sustainable development reconciling economics with environmental responsibility
global warming rising average temperature of the earth, thought to be caused by pollutants
Kyoto Protocol many nations pledged to begin reducing harmful gases that contribute to global warming in 1997
terrorism small-scale but violent attacks aimed at undermining a government or demoralizing a population
Irish Republican Party (IRA) wanted the independence of Ireland from Britain in 1945
Al Qaeda "The Base", reflects increasingly global terrorist organizations
Osama bin Laden leader of Al Qaeda, used modern communication technology
AIDS a disease that has spread from Africa to many other parts of the world
genocide any effort to destroy a national, ethnic, racial, or religious group
Darfur where genocide was carried out in 2005 between African Muslim farmers and Arab pastoralists, when the government faced further rebellion
famine a catastrophic drop in food supplies causing widespread death and the diseases of malnutrition, occur as a result of commercial changes, or are politically motivated
globalization a pattern in which economic, political, and cultural processes reach beyond political boundaries after 1945
General Agreement on Trades and Tariffs (GATT) established by twenty-three nations in 1947, evolved into the World Trade Organization, (WTO)
European Union trading bloc, successful, lowers tariffs for cross border trade and systemizing regulations
Maastrich Treaty recogniced the Euro, a central bank, and the goal of achieveng an economic and monetary union
euro European currency
Created by: okori-makuri on 2009-11-25



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