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Chem-Carbo Metabolis

Carbohydrate Metabolism Worksheet

Define glycogen Storeage form of glucose
Define glycogenesis Formation of glycogen from glucose
Define glycogenolysis Breakdown of glycogen to glucose
Define glycolysis Glucose changed to give energy
Define gluconeogenesis Formation of glucose from non-carb sources (Fat or protein)
Define ketonuria Keytones in urine
Define ketonemia Keytones in the blood
Define ketoacidosis Blood pH less than 7.35 caused by keytone bodies
Define hyperglycemia High blood glucose
Define hypoglycemia Low Blood glucose
Define glucosuria / glycosuria Glucose in the urine
Define renal threshold The amount of glucose that is more then the kidneys can Reabsorb. (160 - 180 mg/dL)
Define retinopathy Diseases of the retina
What is a example of retinopathy Retina sclerosis (Sclerosis = harding)
Where is glycogen made Liver
Where is glycogen stored In the liver and muscle
Where is insulin made Beta cells of islets of langerhans in pancreas
What does insulin do Transports glucose through the cell membrane (Must be present for glucose to enter cells)
How does insulin affect the blood glucose level Insulin lowers blood glucose
Where is glucagon made Alpha cells of the pancreas
What does glucagon do Glucagon is a hormone that stimulates glyconeogenesis (glyconeogenesis is glucose formation from non-carbo sources)
How does glucagon affect the blood glucose level Increases the blood glucose level
Where are ketone bodies made In the liver
What are ketone bodies made from Partically metabolized fatty acids. (They are the waste products from burning of fatty acid - breakdown of ketone bobies)
What does IDDM stand for Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (Type I)
IDDM is also known as Type I diabetes
What is the age of onset for IDDM Anyage, but most common in young people
Discribe the type of onset from IDDM Abrupt
What are some symptoms of IDDM Weight loss, polyuria, polydisia, polyphagia
What does Endogenous mean Coming from within
Does a person with IDDM have endogenous insulin No, none
What causes IDDM Genic,distruction of beta cells, autoimmune
What does NIDDM stand for NonInsulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (Type II)
NIDDM is also known as Type II Diabetes
What is the age of onset for NIDDM Any, more common in adults (Often over 30)
What are some symptoms of NIDDM Drozzy after eating
What does NIDDM stand for Noninsulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus
What is another name for NIDDM Type II Diabetes
What is the age of onset for NIDDM Any, more common in adults (often over 30)
Discribe the type of onset from NIDDM Gradual
What causes NIDDM Genetics,obesity,beta cells exhausted
Can NIDDM lead to use of oral or insulin use eventually yes
Can you change from typeII to a typeI no
What are the oral agents used with NIDDM 1/3 diet alone
Are oral agents used with IDDM No
Which type of diabetes has a tendency to get ketoacidosis TypeI
Which type of diabetes may be controlled by diet alone TypeI
Which tpye of diabetes is harder to control TypeI
what do diabetics metablolize instead of glucose Fats = Lipids
What is retinopathy Slerosis(hardening) of the tiny blood vessels
Complications of diabetes (8) Aherosclerosis,Retinopathy,CAD,Poor Wound Healing,Neuropathy,Nephropathy,Peripheral Vascular Disease,Suceptable to Infection
What is atherosclerosis Lipids deposits in arteries (too many lipids)
What is CAD Corinary artery disease
What is Retinopathy Hemorrage-impaired vision-blindness(no glucose metabolizes lipids)
What is Peripheral vascular disease Poor circulation due to fatty deposits
What does Poor wound healing mean Poor circulation-lack of nutrients-treat with antibiotics
What does Suceptable to infection mean WBC are not functioning
What is Nueropathy Disease of the Nerves-numbness-loss of feeling in hands and feet
What is Nephropathy Disease of the kidney-leak protein in the urine
What are the symptoms of hypoglycemia Same as insulin shock-too much insulin
What is a fasting blood glucose sample No food or beverage for 12 hours (can take meds with a little water)
What does OGTT stand for Oral Glucose Tolerance Test
What samples are taken for the OGTT Fasting,1 hour,2hours + 3hours (after drinking sugar water) must drink w/in 5 minutes
What samples are taken for the OGTT if hypoglycemia is suspected Also 4 + 5hours blood tests
Given renal threshold,patient's blood glucose level,how would you determine if glucose will be in the urine Threshold is 160-180mg/dLIf Glucose is over 180mg/dLUnder 160mg/dL NO
How is the 2 hours postprandial glucose test done Draw blood 2 hours after a meal
Normal result for 2-hour postprandial glucose test Less than 140mg/dL(fasting normal level is 65-99mg/dL)
What does Hb-A1c test measure HbA1+glucose=HbA1c-measures hemoglobin A1 combined with gluocose Normal is 4-6% (Glucose test not Hemoglobin test)
What is the advantage of the Hb-A1c/glycosylated hemoglobin test Reflexs the blood glucose over three months
Diabetic coma insulin level Low
Insulin shock insulin level High
Dibetic coma blood glucose level High
Insulin shock blood glucose level Low
Diabetic coma have urine glucose yes
Insulin shock have urine glucose No
The onset of a Diabetic coma Hours to days
The onset of Insulin shock Suddenly in minutes
What are the symptoms of a Diabetic coma Deep breathing,Dehydration,Acid tone smell to breath,Drowsy/Lathargic,Coma
What are the symptoms of Insulin shock Shallow breathing,,Perperation,Rapid heart action,Light headed/Fainting,Seems intoxicated,Double vision,Coma
Treatment for Diabetic coma patient Insulin
Treatment for Insulin shock patient 15g carbs-1 small box of raisins,7-8 lifesavers,1/2 cup of orange juice,1/2 cup regular pop, Meal to follow--NO CANDY BARS
Created by: spawmary