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NCLEX-RN

Kaplan Review Course- Nutrition

QuestionAnswer
Carbs used first for energy production in starvation; only source of energy production for the brain
Fats second source of energy production used by the body in starvation; waste products are ketone bodies that can create an acidic environ in the blood
Proteins last energy source used in starvation; depletion leads to muscle wasting, loss of oncotic pressure in the vascular space; low albumin indicates protein malnutrition
Vitamins organic substance in foods; essential in small quantities for growth and transformation of food substances into tissue; three types= fat soluble, water soluble, minerals
Vitamin A Functions and Sources visual acuity; beta carotene, liver, egg yolk, cream, milk, yellow fruits, orange and green leafy veggies like carrots, butter, cheese
Vitamin A Deficiency and Toxicity D= night blindness, skin infection, xerophthalmia, corneal ulceration; T= CNS changes; GI like portal HTN
Vitamin D Functions and Sources Bone calcification, Ca+2 and phosphorus absorption; fish oils, fortified milk/diary products, egg yolks, sunlight’s irradiation of body cholesterol
Vitamin D Deficiency and Toxicity D: rickets, poor bone growth; T: hypercalcemia, renal calculi
Vitamin E Functions and Sources antioxidant and growth; green leaf veggies, fats, oils, liver, grains, nuts
Vitamin E Deficiency and Toxicity D: RBC breakdown, hemolytic anemia; T: fatigue, headache, blurred vision, diarrhea
Vitamin K Functions and Sources blood clotting; leafy veggies, eggs, cheese, synthesized by intestinal bacteria
Vitamin K Deficiency and Toxicity D: bleeding, bruises; T: anemia, liver/renal damage, intestinal bacterial infection
Thiamine Functions and Sources B1= normal growth, carb metabolism; legumes, meat, enriched grains, eggs, fish
Thiamine Deficiency and Toxicity D: beriberi (numbness, decreased reflexes fatigue, wernicke-korsakoff syndrome; T: shock
Riboflavin Functions and Sources B2= coenzyme in protein and energy metabolism; milk and liver
Riboflavin Deficiency and Toxicity D: ariboflainosis, tissue inflammation
Niacin Functions and Sources nicotinic acid= normal growth; meat, grains
Niacin Deficiency and Toxicity D: pellagra (rough, scaly skin, glossitis, decreased wt); T: vasodilation, flushing
Pyridoxine Functions and Sources B6= amino acid metabolism; corn, soy, meat, liver, yeast, egg yolk, sunflowers
Pyridoxine Deficiency and Toxicity D: anemia, CNS changes, peripheral neuropathy; T: diminished proprioceptive sensory function
Folic Acid Functions and Sources RBC formation; liver, oranges, broccoli
Folic Acid Deficiency and Toxicity D: anemia; T: diminished proprioceptive sensory function
Cyanocobalamin Functions and Sources B12= nerve formation, RBC formation; meat, milk, eggs
Cyanocobalamin Deficiency and Toxicity D: pernicious anemia
Ascorbic Acid Functions and Sources vit C= collagen synthesis; citrus fruits, veggies, tomatoes
Ascorbic Acid Deficiency and Toxicity D: scurvy (joint pain and weakness), anemia; T: oxalate hypersensitivity
Calcium Functions, Sources, and Deficiency Sx bone formation, muscle contraction, thrombus formation; milk, green leafy veggies, eggs; rickets, porous bones, tetany
Phosphorus Functions, Sources, and Deficiency Sx bone formation, cell permeability; milk, eggs, nuts; rickets
Fluoride Functions, Sources, and Deficiency Sx dental health; water supply; dental caries
Iodine Functions, Sources, and Deficiency Sx thyroid hormone synthesis; seafood, iodized salt; goiter
Sodium Functions, Sources, and Deficiency Sx osmotic pressure, acid base balance, nerve irritability; table salt, canned veggies, milk, cured meats, processed foods; fluid and electrolyte imbalance
Potassium Functions, Sources, and Deficiency Sx water balance in cells, protein synthesis, heart contractility; grains, meats, veggies, arrhythmias, fluid and electrolyte imbalances
Iron Functions, Sources, and Deficiency Sx Hgb synthesis; liver, oysters, leafy veggies, apricots; anemia, lethargy
Vegan Diet fruits, veggies, nuts, beans, seeds; NO animal protein, fortified foods, and nutritional supplements of animal origin
Lactovegetarian diet vegan diet AND milk, cheese, yogurt and other milk products as only source of animal protein
Ovovegetarian diet vegan diet AND eggs as the only source of animal protein
Lactoovovegetarian diet Vegan diet AND Lactovegetarian AND Ovovegetarian
Clear Liquid Diet Sample meal and NOT allowed items gelatin, popsicle, tea with lemon, ginger ale, bouillon, fruit juice without pulp/NO pulp or milk
Clear Liquid Diet Purpose and Common medical dx to maintain fluid balance/postop, acute v/d
Low Fat, Cholesterol Restricted Diet Sample meal and NOT allowed items fruit, veggies, cereals, lean meat/NO marbled meat, avocados, milk, bacon, egg yolks, butter
Low Fat, Cholesterol Restricted Diet Purpose and Common medical dx to reduce cal from fat and minimize cholesterol intake/atherosclerosis, cystic fibrosis
Sodium Restricted Diet Sample meal and NOT allowed items cold baked chx, lettuce tomatoes, applesauce/NO preserved meats, cheese, fried foods, milk products, canned foods, added salt
Sodium Restricted Diet Purpose and Common medical dx to lower body h20 and promote excretion/HF, HTN, cirrhosis
High Roughage, High Fiber Diet Sample meal and NOT allowed items wheat bread, minestrone, apple, brussel sprouts/NO white bread, pies, cakes, white flour, “white” processed foods
High Roughage, High Fiber Diet Purpose and Common medical dx to maximize bulk in stool/constipation, large bowel disorders
High Protein Diet Sample meal and NOT allowed items 30g powdered skim milk and 1 egg in 100 ml h20 OR roast beef sandwich with skim milk/NO soft drinks, “junk” food
High Protein Diet Purpose and Common medical dx to re-establish anabolism to raise albumin levels/burns, infection, hyperthyroidism
Renal Diet Sample meal and NOT allowed items unsalted veggies, white rice, canned fruits, sweets/NO beans, cereals, citrus fruits
Renal Diet Sample Purpose and Common medical dx to keep protein, potassium, and sodium low/chronic renal failure
Created by: KStratman on 2009-11-24



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