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Terms, Abbreviations & Meanings

AD Alzheimer disease
ADHD attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
ADL activited of daily living
AIMS abnormal involuntary movement scale
ASD autism spectrum disorder
CA chronological age
CBT cognitive behavior therapy
CNS central nervous system
DSM-IV-TR Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, revised
DT delerium tremens
ECT electroconvulsive therapy
IQ intellegent quotient
LSD lysergic acid diethylamide
MA mental age
MAO monoamine oxidase
MDD major depressive disorder
MMPI Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
MR mental retardation
OCD obsessive-complusive disorder
PDD pervasive developmental disorder
PTSD post-traumatic stress disorder
Rx therapy
SAD seasonal addective disorder
SSRI selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor
TAT Thermatic Apperception Test
TD tardive dykinesia
THC delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol
WAIS Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale
WISC Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children
affect external expression of emotion; emotional response
agoraphobia fear of leaving home or leaving a safe place
amnesia loss of memory
amphetaphines CNS stimulants
anorexia nervosa eating disorder of excessive dieting & refusal to maintain normal body weight
antisocial personality characterized by lack of loyalty or concern for others & lack of moral standards
anxiety disorders charaterized by unpleasant tensions, distress & avoidance behavior
anxiolytic drug that relieves anxiety & produces relaxing effect
apathy adsence of emotions; lack of interest or emotional involvement
Asperger syndrome pervasive developmental disorder, typically milder than autism
characterized by delays in socilization & communication skills Asperger syndrome
atypical antupsychotics drugs used to treat schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, & other psychoses
autism severe lack of responsiveness to others, preoccupation with inner thoughts, withdrawl & retarded lanuage development
autistic thought preoccupation with self-centered, illogical ideas & fantasies that exclude external world
benzodiazepines drugs used to treat anxiety & panic attacks
bipolar disorder mood disorder with alternating periods of mania & depression
borderline personality instability in interpersonal relationships & sense of self; alternating involvement with & rejection of people
bulimia nervosa eating disorder marked by binge eating followed by vomitting, defecation & depression
cannabis actuve substance in marijuanal THC
catatonia immobility, muscular rigidity & mutism induced by a psychological disorder such as schizophrenia
claustrophobia dear of closed-in places
cognitive behvioral therapy changing behavior patterns & response by training, repetition & learning how thinking patterns cause symptoms
compulsion uncontrollable urge to perform an act repeatedly
conversion disorder physcial symptom appears with no organic basis & as result of anxiety & inner conflict
cyclothymia chronic mood disturbance involving several periods of depression and hypomania
mild form of bipolar disorder cyclothymia
defense mechanism unconcious technique that person uses to resolve or conceal conflicts & anxiety
delirium confusion in thinking; faulty perceptions & irrational behavior
delirium tremens confusion in thinking, anziety, tremors, & sweating ocurring with withdrawl from excessive/habitual use of alcohol
delusion fixed, false belief that cannot be changed by logical reasoning or evidence
dementia loss of higher mental functioning, including memory, judgement & reasoning
depression major mood disorder marked by chronic & excessive sadness, loss of energy, hopelessness, worry & discouragement
dissociative disorder chronic/sudden disturances of memory, identity or consciousness
dysphoria sadness, hopelessness & depressive mood
feeling "low" dysphoria
dysthymia chronic psychiatric illness involving a low level of depression for a period of at least two years
ego central, coordinating branch of personailty
electroconvulsive therapy electric current produces convulsive seizure to treat mood disorders
used in patients resistant to drug therapy or when rapid sadness response is needed electroconvulsive therapy
euphoria exaggerated feeling of well-being; elevated mood; "high"
exhibitionism compulsive need to expose one's body, particularly genitals, to unsuspecting stranger
family therapy treatment of entire family to resolve & understand their conflicts & problems
fetishism use of non-living objects as substitutes for human sexual love object
free association psychoanalytic technique where patient encouraged to reveal thoughts one after another without censorship
fugue flight from customary surroundings; dissociate disorder
gender-identity disorder strong & persistent cross-gender identification with opposite sex
group therapy patients with similar problems gain insight into personalities through discussion & interaction together
hallucination false or unreal sensory perception
hearing voices & seeing things are examples of a hallucination
hallucinogen substance that produces hallucinations
histrionic personality highly emotional, immature & dependent personality type with irrational outbursts, tantrums & flamboyant theatrical behavior
hypnosis induction of trance-like state to conciousness in patient to increase pace of psychotherapy
hypochondriasis exaggerated concern about one's health
hypomania elevated excitement that is of lesser intensity than mania
id major unconcious part of personality
instinctual drives & desires are controlled by id
insight-oriented therapy face to face discussion of life problems & feelings to increase understanding of thoughts & behavior patterns
physchodynamic therapy is also called insight-oriented therapy
kleptomania strong impulse to steal, often with little actual desire for the stolen item
labile unstable; undergoing reapid emotional change
lithium drug used to treat manic episodes in bipolar disorder
mania state of excessive excitability, hyperactive elation & agitation
mental pertaining to the mind
mood disorders prolonged emotion dominates a person's life
bipolar & depressive disorders are mood disorders
mutism non-reactive state; stupor
narcissistic personality characterized by graniose sense of self-importance/preoccupation with fanatsies of success/power
self-love without empathy for other is an explination of a narcissistic personality
neuroleptic drug antipsychotic drugs used to treat psychoses; atypical antipsychotics
used to treat schizophrenia & severe depression neuroleptic drugs such as aripiprazole (Abilify) & olanzapine (Zyprexa)
neurosis repressed conflicts lead to mental symptoms, such as anxieties/fers, that disturb ability to function
less serious mental disorder than psychosis neurosis
obsession involuntary, persistent idea or emotion
obsessive-compulsive disorder anxiety disorder involving recurrent obsessions/complusions-dominate patient's life
opoid drug derived from opium
cocaine, morphine & heroin are examples of opoids
paranoia overly suspicious system of thinking with fixed delusions that one is being harassed, persecuted or unfairly treated
paranoid personality characterized by recurrent delusions of persecutuion & jealousy with suspicion & mistrust of others; quick to take offense
paraphilia sexual arousal occurs in response to objects or situations that are not normally considered erotic
fanatsy or behavior involving unusual objects, activities, & situations paraphilia
pedophilia need for sexual gratification with a child
personality disorder established, lifelong pattern marked by inflexibility & impairment of social functioning
phenothiazines drugs used to treat serious mental illnesses/psychoses
modify delusions/hallucinations & behvior phenothiazines
phobia irrational fear of objects/situations
play therapy child, through play, uses toys to express conflicts & feelings that he/she is unable to communicate in direct manner
post-traumatic stress disorder anxiety disorder following traumatic incident; less responsive to extrernal world
symptoms such as intense fear, helplessness, insomnia, nightmares describe post-traumatic stress disorder
projective (personality) test diagnostic personality test using unrestricted stimuli to evoke responses that reflect aspects of patient's personality
inkblots, pictures, incomplete sentences are all used during a projective (personality) test
psychiatrist physician who treat mind & mental disorders
psychiatry treatment of mind & mental disorders
psychoanalysis form of psychotherapy where patient explores unconcious emotions & past to understand & change current behavior/feelings
psychodrama group therapy where patient expresses feelings by acting out roles with other patients
pyschogenic pertaining to produced within the mind
having emotional & psychologic origin rather than physical caused pyschogenic
psychologist Ph.D/Ed.D specialing in mental processes & how brain functions in health/disease
treats patients with psychotherapy but cannot prescribe drugs psychologist
psychopharmacology treatment of psychiatric disorders with drugs
psychosis loss of contact with reality, often with delusions & hallucinations
psychosomatic pertaining to inter-relationsip of mind & body
psychotherapy treatment of the mind
pyromania strong obsessive urge to set objects on fire
reality testing ability to perceive fact from fantasy
repression defense mechanism by which unacceptable thoughts, feelings/impulses are automatically pushed into unconcious
schizoid personality display restricted range of emotions & indifference to/detachment from surroundings
indifferent to praise, criticism or feelings of others schizoid personality
schizophrenia pyschosis marked by withdrawl from reality into inner world of disorganized thrinking & conflict
sedatives drugs that lessen anxiety
sexual disorders conditions involving sexual use of nonhuman objects & involving suffering, humilitation & non-consenting partners
sexual disorders also include sexual ___ dysfunctions
sexual masochism sexual gratification gained by being mutilated, beaten/bound or otherwise made to suffer by another person
sexual sadism sexual gratitification gained by inflicting physical/psychological pain/harm on others
somatoform disorders patient has physical/bodily symptoms that cannot be explained by actual physical illness
substance-related disorders regular overuse of psychoactive substances which can affect CNS
overused/misuse of alcohol, amphetamines, cannabis, cocaine, opoids or sedatives can lead to substance-related disorders
superego internalized concious,judgemental & moral part of mind
supportive psychotherapy treatment involving offers of encouragement, support & hope to patient facing difficult life transitions/events
tolerance developed insensitivity to a drug
increasing doses of drug needed to produce a desired effect patient with a tolerance
ransference process by which patient relates to therapist as though therapist was prominent childhood figure
transvestic fetishism cross-dressing by male in women's attire
tricyclic antidepressants group of drugs used to treat severe depression
voyerism abnormal desire to look at sexual organs or watch sexual acts
xenophobia fear of strangers
aerophobia fear of air
zoophobia fear of animals
apiphobia, melissophobia fear of bees
hematophobia, hemophobia fear of blood
biblophobia fear of books
ailurophobia fear of cats
necrophobia fear of corpses
gephyrophobia fear of bridges
nyctophobia, scotophobia fear of darkness
thanatophobia fear of death
cynophobia fear of dogs
pharmacophobia fear of drugs
phagophobia fear of eating
trichophobia,trichopathophobia fear of hair
entomophobia fear of insects
photophobia fear of light
gamophobia fear of marriage
androphobia fear of men
belnophobia fear of needles
algophobia fear of pain
coitophobia, cypridophobia fear of sexual intercourse
hypnophobia fear of sleep
ophidiophobia fear of snakes
arachnophobia fear of spiders
hodophobia fear of traveling
emetophobia fear of vomiting
gynephobia, gynophobia fear of women
helminthophobia fear of worms
graphophobia fear of writing
in the DSM, personality disorders are organized into three clusters
cluster A odd/eccentric disorders
cluster B dramatic/emotional disorders
cluster C disorders characterized by anxiety & fear
etiologic explanations for personality disorders insufficiently/incompletely negotiated tasks at certain developmental stages &/or impaired neurologic functioning
schizotypal characterized by peculiarities of thought, appearance, speech, behavior & by anxiety in social situations
paranoid personality, schizoid personality, & schizotypal personality disorders fall into cluster A
antisocial, borderline, histrionic, & narcissistic fall into cluster B
demonstrate marked shifts in mood, an inability to control anger, & impulsivity bordeline personality disorder
formerly called hysterical personality histronic personality disorder
avoidant personality, dependent personality, & obsessive-compulsive personalitys fall into cluster C
avoidant personality hypersensitive to criticism/disapproval & avoids social interactions for fear of this
dependent personality submissive & passive behavior, strong need for reassurance; fears of abandonment & helplessness
Obsessive-compulsive personality inflexibility, preoccupation with perfection, restricted emotional expression, & need for control/order
associated with persistent, intrusive ideas or with ritual behavior obsessive-compulsive personality
psychotic disorder gross impairment of reality testing
poor orientation to time/place, memory disturbances, thinking that is bizarre & disorganized psychosis
refers to group of disorders sharing characteristic symptoms, many involve disordered thought processes schizophrenia
Schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder
Emil Kraepelin identified hallucinations & delusions
Eugen Bleuler described schizophrenia as a thought disorder and helped to clarify its definition
the term schizophrenia means splitting of the mind
heredity/genetics, familial influence, disease/trauma, environment stressors, & drugs etiologic factors cited in the development of schizophrenia
a reference that contains the official classifications of mental disorders Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)
types of schizophrenia, per DSM catatonic, disorganized, and paranoid
datatonic schizophrenia decreased responsiveness to the environment, reduction in spontaneous movements, & mutism
disorganized schizophrenia significant loosening of associations; incoherent speech; childish, silly affect
formerly known as hebephrenic disorganized schizophrenia
paranoid schizophrenia delusions and hallucinations that are often related to the delusions
delusions of reference belief that one is being watched, discussed, or ridiculed by others
delusions of persecution belief that one is being plotted against or singled out for harm
patient with paranoid schizophrenia may suffer from hallucinations in support of the delusional theme of reference
medical intervention of choice when treating someone with schizophrenia administration of antipsychotics
tardive dyskinesia abnormal condition characterized by involuntary, repetitive muscle movements
condition tends to affect people who have undergone long-term treatment with antipsychotic medication tardive dyskinesia
disorders of cognitive functioning in which the impairment is widespread, or global dementia and delirium
chronic, progressive disorder, in the case of AD, the most common form of the illness dementia
patient presents in an acute state of agitated excitement delerium
symptom of delerium include disorganized thinking, incoherent speech, problems with attention, disorientation, & memory impairment
Delirium may be caused by nutritional imbalances, systemic infections, head injury, neurologic disease, and by ingestion and withdrawal of psychoactive substances
important aids to the diagnosis and understanding of many psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia psychological tests
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) use ambiguous or unstructured stimuli to uncover emotional conflict
Graphomotor projection tests include Draw-A-Person Test & Bender-Gestalt Test
Draw-A-Person Test patient is asked to draw a body
Bender-Gestalt Test which picks up deficits in mental processing and memory caused by brain damage
used to screen children for developmental challenges or delays Bender-Gestalt Test
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) true/false self-report questionnaire that is used to evaluate personality
mutism is a physchotic reaction
changing rapidly from one emotion to another labile
cognitive behavior therapy changing behavior patterns & responses through training /repetition
practice of conditioning a person cognitive behavior therapy
cognitive behavior therapy can be used to relieve anxiety and to treat phobias and other disorders
great for helping patients with identified common problems gain insight by interacting with one another family therapy and group therapy
types of individual therapy insight-oriented psychotherapy & supportive psychotherapy
vague feeling of apprehension or dread resulting from a perceived/anticipated threat description of anxiety
Many theorists believe that anxiety occurs along a continuum from mild-moderate-severe
emotional reaction to a specific object or situation fear
types of maladaptive behavior in which anxiety is the most prominent feature, take many forms anxiety disorders
panic disorders recurrent panic attacks
discreet periods of intense anxiety; occur unexpectedly & with no apparent cause in immediate environment panic attacks
symptoms of panic attacks SOB, sweating, trembling, palpitations, nausea, blurred vision, & sense death is approaching
neuorsis is considered an axiety disorder
marked anxiety about encountering the object or situation and will go to extreme lengths to avoid it patient with phobic disorder
feel intense anxiety about leaving home or may need to have a companion when away from home patient with agoraphobia
social phobia marked and persistent fear of doing something foolish, humiliating, or embarrassing while in presence & under scrutiny of others
this type of disturbance include conversion disorder and hypochondriasis Somatoform disorders
conversion disorder emotional conflict repressed & changed into loss/alteration of physical functioning
may assume many forms, including blindness, anesthesia, paralysis, and involuntary muscle movements conversion disorder
fear is fueled by the person's misinterpretation of real or imagined symptoms and persists despite medical reassurance that no physical illness exists hypochondriasis
event range of normal human experience; induces feelings of terror/helplessness posttraumatic stress disorder
cognitive and/or behavioral, and medication are treatments for anxiety or somatoform disorders
most frequently encountered responses to anxiety and other pressures are the development of substance abuse disorders, alcoholism, and eating disorders
idealization and promotion through media images of an extremely thin female body type has contributed to need to focus attention on eating disorders
group of eating disorders includes anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating
Psychological factors associated with the development of an eating disorder include problems with perfectionism, insecurity, the need for approval, low self-esteem, and a disturbance in body image
characterized by prolonged refusal to eat and a fear of becoming obese anorexia nervosa
behaviors associated with anorexia include self-starvation, sometimes to the point of emaciation, and the use of purging, self-induced vomiting, laxatives, diuretics, and/or excessive exercise to avoid weight gain
sensitivity to cold, decreased pulse and body temperature, and amenorrhea physical health problems associated with anorexia nervosa
referred to as compulsive overeating bulimia
measures to ensure that the client is adequately meeting his or her nutritional requirements and psychotherapy to overcome the associated emotional conflicts treatment for bulimia and anorexia nervosa
psychoactive substances substances that alter mood and behavior by their effect on the central nervous system
involve a maladaptive pattern of use of a psychoactive chemical Substance abuse and substance-related disorders
develop in response to a host of interrelated components, including biologic, genetic, psychosocial, cultural, and environmental factors alcoholism
alcoholism depresses the functions of the central nervous system
chronic alcoholism can result in coronary artery disease and cause irreversible damage to the heart
Potential effects of chronic alcoholism on the reproductive system include impotence and infertility
overdose can result in convulsions, coma, depressed respiration, and death overdose of opoids
opoids are considered sedative-hypnotics
result in symptoms that include impaired judgment, slurred speech, and loss of motor coordination abuse & dependence on opoids
often linked to accidental overdose and are frequently implicated, in combination with alcohol, in suicide attempts barbiturates and benzodiazepines (BZDs)
synthetic psychoactive substances that work by stimulating the sympathetic nervous system amphetamines
amphetamines have been used effectively as appetite suppressants and in the treatment of narcolepsy, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and respiratory conditions that cause bronchial constriction.
manifestations of amphetamine dependence include compulsive behaviors, paranoia, hallucinations, dramatic mood swings, & aggression
produce a state of central nervous system excitation and distort the perception of reality Hallucinogenic drugs
produce mood changes, anxiety, hallucinations, and impaired thinking hallucinogens
emotional changes accompanying certain mood disorders correspond to altered levels of neurotransmitters within the brain or to changes in the sensitivity of their receptors
prolonged emotional state that dominates the personality and colors a person's view of the world mood
defined by the complex of associated symptoms and the pattern of episodes mood disorders
bipolar and depressive disorders distrubances of mood disorders
may include agitation, irritability, inflated self-esteem, distractibility, and a decreased need for sleep manic episode of bipolar disorder
feelings of sadness, hopelessness, loneliness, and worthlessness may emerge depressive phase of bipolar disorder
pronlonged emotional state mania
exaggeratedly positive expansive
extreme excitement dysphoric
"two extremes" bipolar
Major depression can present as a single event or as a recurrent disorder
seasonal affective disorder (SAD), pattern in the onset and remission of a major depression often develops during October or November and subsides during March or April
has many of the same symptoms as the manic phase of a bipolar disorder hypomania
not significant enough to meet the criteria of either a major depressive or bipolar disorder cyclothymia disorder
dysthymic disorder another name for dysthymia
symptoms of dysthymia may include loss of appetite or overeating, fatigue, low self-esteem, difficulty with concentration, and isolation from others
Treatment for mood disorders often includes a form of psychotherapy
mood disorders may require medication, mood stabilizers for manic behavior or antidepressants
Severe depression is sometimes treated by administering electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
gender identity one's inner sense of maleness or femaleness
Differentiation of gender begins during infancy
Eric Erikson singled out identity vs. role confusion as the major developmental task to be mastered during middle adolescence
adolescent's developing sense of self must take into account the physical changes of puberty
persistent and profound disturbance in accepting one's assigned sex and the role that is its public expression gender identity disorder
sexual disorders are another classification of psychiatric disturbances
sexual disorders fall under classifications of sexual dysfunction & paraphilias
sexual dysfunction alterations in the sexual response cycle
William Masters and Virginia Johnson are 2 reasearchers who advanced our understanding of human sexuality by studying sexual response and dysfunction during the 1960s
sexual dysfunction can be subdivided into problems with sexual desire, arousal, and the ability to achieve sexual satisfaction
male erectile disorder inability to attain or maintain an adequate erection
sexual aversion disorder aversion to or avoidance of genital sexual contact with a partner
dyspareunia genital pain associated with sexual intercourse
sexual dysfunctions, provided in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual include dyspareunia, male erectile disorder & sexual aversion disorder
atypical sexual behaviors include acts, impulses, and thoughts that are recurrent and intense paraphilias
psychiatric disorder named for the rumored sexual practices of the Marquis de Sade sexual sadism
sexual sadism is usually chronic and, when severe can result in rape, torture, or murder
term that is derived from the name of the Austrian author, Leopold von Sacher-Masoch sexual masochism
sadomasochism disorder that includes elements of both sadism and masochism
term that literally means "to love a child" pedophilia