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Chemical Digestion

Lab Study STACK

QuestionAnswer
Increases the rate of a chemical reaction without becoming part of the product catalyst
Provides a standard of comparison for test results control
Biologic catalyst; protein in nature enzyme
Substance on which a catalyst works Substrate
List three characteristics of enzymes. Specificity (act on one or a small number of substrates); temperature specific; pH specific
The enzymes of the digetive system are classified as hydrolases. What does this mean? Hydrolases break down organic food molecules by adding water to the molecular bonds, thus cleaving the bonds between the subunits or monomers.
Salivary Amylase is produced in the? Site of action? Substrate? Optimal pH? Salivary glands; oral cavity; starch 6.7-7.0
Trypsin is produced where? Site of Action? Substrate? Optimal pH? Pancreas; small intestine; proteins, 8.0
Lipase (pancreatic) is produced where? Site of Action? Substrate? Optimal pH? Pancreas; small intestine; fats; 7.4-8.0
Name the end product of digestion for proteins amino acids
Name the end product of digestion for fats fatty acids and glycerol (monoglycerides)
Name the end product of digestion for carbohydrates simple sugars
The indicator used to test for protein hydrolysis, indicated by a yellow color BAPNA
The indicator used to test for the presence of starch, which was indicated by a blue-black color IKI Lugol's iodine)
The indicator used to test for the presence of fatty acids, which was evidenced by a color change from blue to pink litmus paper
The indicator used to test for the presence of reducing sugars (maltose, sucrose, glucose) as indicated by a blue to green or orange color change Benedict's solution
What is the optimal incubatin temperature? 37 degress C (body temperature)
Why is bile not considered an enzyme? Bile only physically seperates the fat droplets. It does not break the molecular bonds as do the digestive enzymes.
What role does bile play in fat digestion? Emulsification of fat by bile increases the surface area for lipase activity.
Why are denatured enzymes nonfunctional? Their 3-D structures and active sites are necessary for heir activity. If their structures are changed, the active sites change, thus inactivating the enzyme.
Mechanism of absorption of monosaccharides Most by active transport in the blood
Mechanism of absorption of Fatty acids and glycerol Diffusion, some blood, most lymph
Mechanism of absorption of amino acids active transport in blood
Mechanism of absorption of water osmosis (diffusion) in blood
Mechanism of absorption of NA+ CL- CA2+ Na+, CA2+ are active transport and Cl- is diffusion all in the blood
A person on a strict diet to lose weight metabolize stored fats at an accelerated rate. How does this affect bloodk pH? It would become acidic (decrease pH)
The hormone secretin is produced by what and what are the target organs and effects? Intestinal mucosa. It stimulates (1) the pancreas to release bicarbonate-rich fluid and (2) the liver to secrete bile.
The hormone gastrin is produced where and what are it's target organs and effects? Stomach cells. Gastrin acts on the stomach glands to increase their secretory activity (particularly of HCL)
The hormone cholecystokinin is produced where and what are its target organs and effects? Intestinal cells; It stimulates release of enzymes from the pancreas, causes gall bladder contraction and inhibits gastric secretion.
Swallowing is also refers to as: deglutition
Swallowing occurs in two phases buccal and pharyngeal-esophageal
Which phase of swallowing is voluntary buccal
During the voluntary phase, ______is used to push the food into the back of the throat. tongue
During swallowing, the ______ rises to ensure that its passageway is covered by the epiglottis so that the ingested substances don't enter the respiratory passageways larynx
It is possible to swallow water while standing on your head because the water is carried along the esophagus involuntarily by the process of peristalsis
The pressure exerted by the foodstuffs on teh _________________ sphincter causes it to open, allowing the foodstuffs to enter the stomach gastroesophageal
The two major types of propulsive movements that occur in the small intestine are; peristaltic and segmental
Created by: Donna Pannullo Donna Pannullo on 2009-11-19



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