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A&P Ch 15 Urinary Sy

Urinary Systen

kidneys are located posterior to the peritoneum and in the superior lumbar region
major factor regulating sodium ion concentration in extracellular fluid (ECF) is aldosterone
structural and functional units of the urinary system are nephrons
glomerular capsule, proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule correct pathway of glomerular filtrate through the nephron
hilus is not a layer surrounding the kidney
painful urination dysuria
"tube" that carries urine from the urinary bladder to the outside world is urethra
"tube" that carries urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder is ureter
urinary bladder is made up of 3 smooth muscle layers
when moderately full the urinary bladder may contain 500ml of urine
two sphincters are found in urethra
by the age of 4 yrs old, children should be able to control voluntary urination through the night
this drops by about 50% by the age of 70 glomerular filtration rate
the ascending limb of the Loop of Henle ____ sodium chlorida into interstitim actively transports
active transport in ascending limb of the Loop of Henle _____ concentration of interstitium increases
the fluid inside the ascending limb of the Loop of Henle becomes more diluted
highest concentration of NaCl- in the Loop of Henle is found near bottom of the loop
descending limb of the Loop of Henle supplies ____ to ascending limb sodium chloride
the cells in the descending loop are not permeable to solute, therefore filtrate becomes more concentrated as water diffuses out
very dilute urine with a low specific gravity in the urine indicates diabetes insipidus
excessive fluid intake would lead to the formation of dilute urine with a low specific gravity
blood flows into the glomerulus from afferent arteriole
Podocytes are cells of the inner layer of the glomerular capsule
fluid enters the loop from the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT)
bladder wall contains three layers of smooth muscle, collectively known as the detrusor muscle
bladder wall mucosa consists of transitional epithelium
detrusor muscle & transitional epithelium make the bladder uniquely suited for storage
regulation of blood pH, by elimination of excess acids/alkaline substances from body, is accomplished by renal mechanism
what are the structural and functional units of the kidneys involved in forming urine? nephrons
what enzyme produced by the kidneys helps to regulate blood pressure? renin
aldosterone, a hormone produced by the adrenal glands, helps to regulate the concentration of sodium ions and other ions in the extracellular fluid
what is normally present in filtrate forced from glomerular capillaries but doesn't normally appear in the urine? glucose
filtrate that is formed is essentially blood plasma, which lacks a vital component proteins
what enters the renal tubule by both filtration & secretion? creatine
when appear in urine, indicate a problem blood cells are normally too large to pass through the filtration membrane
cystitis inflammation of urinary bladder
pyelitis inflammation of a kidney
polyuria excretion of a large volume of urine
located within ventral cavity, retroperitoneal position, superior lumbar region kidneys
ADH increases the permeability of the nephron walls to facilitate tubular reabsorption
release of aldosterone is triggered by Low sodium ion levels, high potassium ion levels, & rising levels of angiotensin
lies deep in the kidney & consists of many triangular regions with a striped appearance renal medulla
triangular areas in renal medulla renal pyramids
Cortical tissue that extends between the medullary or renal pyramids is termed renal columns
Each kidney is surrounded by a layer of fibrous tissue called renal capsule
one of the small extensions of the renal pelvis into which the renal papillae open calyx
if one dissected a medullary or renal pyramid, what structure would be found? collecting tubules
when blood volume drops for any reason arterial blood pressure drops
when blood volume drops for any reason hypothalamic osmoreceptors react by becoming more active
when hypothalamic osmoreceptors become more active they send impulses to the posterior pituitary for the release of ADH
The proximal portion of the nephron is located in which layer of the kidney? Renal cortex
The cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus secrete renin
catalyzes a series of reactions resulting in angiotensin II, causing vasoconstriction when juxtaglomerular apparatus secretes renin
expansion of the ureter into the substance of the kidney forms renal pelvis
flat funnel-shaped tube, which is continuous with the ureter as it leaves the kidney the renal pelvis
filtrate materials found in the nephron first leave the blood at the glomerulus
notch on the medial surface of the kidney, through which the blood vessels enter and leave the kidney, is called the renal hilus
portion of the nephron that is most closely associated with the collecting duct is called the distal convoluted tubule
enlarged, cup-shaped, closed end of renal tubule, which completely surrounds glomerulus the Bowman's capsule
tubular reabsorption uptake of substances from the lumen of the nephrons
three processes, which result in the formation of urine, are glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption, & tubular secretion
What is the function of renin? catalyses the formation and release of angiotensin
most superficial region of the kidney the renal cortex
where does most reabsorption of substances from the glomerular filtrate occur? in the proximal convoluted tubule
endocrine gland primarily concerned with sodium & potassium ion balance in the body the adrenal cortex releases aldosterone
erythropoietin hormone secreted by kidneys that stimulates RBC production in bone marrow
function of paired ureters serves as transportation channels to carry urine away from one body region to another
function of urinary bladder provide temporary storage reservoirs for urine
kidney small, dark red organs with kidney-bean shape extend from T12 to L3
gives a fresh kidney a glistening appearance fibrous capsule
perirenal fat capsule surrounds each kidney, acting as cushion against blows
renal fascia outermost capsule, anchoring kidney & holds in place against muscles of trunk wall
ptosis kidneys drop to a low position
rapid weight loss can lead to a condition called ptosis
ptosis may cause the ureters of kidneys to becomed kinked & urine backs up exerting pressure on kidney tissue
hydronephrosis distention of renal pelvis and calices with urine
result of obstruction/atrophy of urinary tract hydronephrosis
renal medulla deep to cortex, darker reddish-brown
renal cortex outer region, light in color
apex , tip, points toward inner region of kidney
base faces toward cortex
renal columns separate renal pyramids with extensions of cortex-like tissue
renal pelvis is medial to hilum; it is a flat, basin-like cavity
the renal pelvis is continuous with ureter, leaving hilum
calyces, which collect urine, are extensions of the renal pelvis; cup-shaped areas enclosing tips of pyramids
the blood supply of the kidneys is rich
about 1/4 of total blood supply of body passes through kidneys each minute
renal artery arterial blood supply of kidney
renal artery approaches hilum where it divides into segmental arteries
segmental arteries give off several branches called interlobar arteries
interlobar arteries travel through renal columns to reach cortex
interlobar arteries give off the arcuate arteries at the cortex-medulla junction
arcuate arties curve over medullary pyramids
cortical radiate arteries branch off arcuate arteries
cortical radiate arteries run outoward to supply cortical tissue
venous blood draining from kidney flows through veins that trace pathway of arterial supply, but in reverse
the veins of the kidney emerge from the kidney hilum
there are no segmented veins
glomerulus knot of capillaries
renal tubule closed end enlarged, cup-shaped & completely surrounds glomerulus
Bowman's capsule visceral layer made up of highly modified, octopus-like cells
renal tubule surrounds the Bowman's capsule
podocytes porous membrane surrounding glomerulus; cells of the Bowman's capsule
foot processes of podocytes long branching processes that intertwine with one another & cling to glomerulus
filtration slits openings in podocytes, between extensions
renal tubule extends from glomerular capsule coils & twists, makes a hair-pin loop, then coils & twists again entering collecting duct
as the renal tubule leaves glomerular capsule, coiling & twisting, it is called the proximal convoluted tubule, or PCT
when the renal tubule makes its hair-pin loop, it is called the loop of Henle
when the renal tubule leaves the loop of Henle, coiling & twisting it is called the distal convoluted tubule, or DCT
lumen surface surface exposed to filtrate
lumen surfaces of PCT are covered with dense microvilli
the dense covering of microvilli, in the PCT increases their surface area
most nephrons are called cortical nephrons because located almost entirely in the cortex
situated close to cortex-medulla junction & their loops of Henle dip deep into medulla juxatmedullary nephrons
collecting ducts receive urine from nephrons & run downward through renal pyramid
deliver final urine product into calyces & renal pelvis the collecting ducts
each nephron is associated with 2 capillary beds glomerulus & peritubular
glomerulus capillary bed specialized for filtration
afferent arteriole arises from cortical radiate artery; "feeder vessel" of the nephron
efferent arteriole receives blood that has passed through glomerulus
fed & drained by arterioles, unlike any other in the entire body the glomerulus capillary bed
in the glomerulus capillary bed pressure is much higher because arterioles are high-resistance vessels & afferent arteriole has larger diameter than efferent
the extremely high pressure in the glomerulus capillary bed forces fluids & solutes out of blood into glomerular capsule
peritubular capillary bed arises from efferent arteriole that drains glomerulus
low-pressure, porous vessels adapted for absorption instead of filtration the peritubular capillary bed
peritubular capillary bed cling closely to length of renal tubule, so they can receive solutes & water from tubule cells as they are reabsorbed from filtrate in tubule
peritubular capillary bed drains into interlobular veins leaving cortex
glomerular filtration is a nonselective, passive process where fluid passes from blood into glomerular capsule portion of renal tubule
once fluid in glomerular capsule, called filtrate, which is essentially blood plasma without blood proteins
as long as the systemic blood pressure is normal filtrate will be formed
filtrate production stops if arterial blood pressure falls too low
when arterial blood pressure falls too low filtration stops because glomerular pressure becomes inadequate to force substances out of blood into tubules
oliguria abnormally low urinary output between 100-400ml/day
anuria abnormally low urinary output less than 100ml/day
tubular reabsorption begins as soon as filtrate enters PCT
PCT cells are "transporters"
reabsorption of most substances depends on active transport processes
tubular reabsorption uses membranes carries & are very selective
nitrogenous waste products urea, uric acid, & creatinine
poorly reabsorbed & found in high concentrations in urine nitrogenous waste products
urea formed by liver as an end product of protein breakdown when amino acids are use for energy
uric acid released when nucleic acids are metabolized
creatinine associated with creatine metabolism in muscle tissue
in order to maintain blood pH & electrolyte composition of the blood various ions are either reabsorbed or allowed to leave in the urine
DCT & collecting duct are also active in the tubular reabsorption process
tubular secretion is tubular reabsorption in reverse
tubular secretion also gets rids of substances not already in filtrate, such as certain drugs, excess K+ or to balance blood pH
in 24 hours, 150 to 180 liter of blood plasma is filtered by glomeruli into tubules
in 24 hours, 1.0 to 1.8 liters of urine is produced
freshly voided urine is normally clear to deep yellow
urochrome pigment resulting from body's destruction of hemoglobin, gives urine yellow color
diluted urine is pale, straw color
amonia odor in urine is caused by action of bacteria on the urine solutes
urine pH is usually slightly acidic 6
changes in body metabolism & certain foods may cause urine to be more basic or acidic
diabetes mellitus can alter the usual odor of urine
acid-ash foods diet of large amount of protein & whole-wheat products causes urine to become more acidic
alkaline-ash diet makes urine alkaline because kidneys excrete excess bases; vegetarian diet
bacterial infection of urinary tract can cause urine to be alkaline
urine weighs more, or is more dense than distilled water
specific gravity compare how much heavier urine is than distilled water
sensitve early marker for kidney damage proteinuria
each urter runs behind peritoneum from renal hilum to posterior aspect of bladder, entering at a slight angle
peristalsis of smooth muscles layers of ureters propel urine into the bladder
small valvelike folds of bladder mucosa flap over the urter openings preventing urine from flowing back into ureters from bladder
when urine is extremely concentrated solutes, such as uric acid salts, form crystals that precipitate in renal pelvis
renal calculi crystals in renal pelvis, or kidney stones
lithotripsy use ultrasound waves to shatter calculi, so they can be painlessly voided in urine
urinary bladder is a smooth, collapsible, muscular sac that temporarily stores urine
the urinary bladder is located retroperitoneally in pelvis, just posterior to pubic symphysis
ureteral orifices two ureter openings
internal urethral orifice single opening of urethra
trigone smooth traingular ergion of bladder base outlined by ureter & internal urethra orifices
infections tend to persist in this region trigone
urethra thin-walled tube that carries urine from bladder to outside of body, via peristalsis
bladder-urethra junction a tickening of smooth muscle form the internal urethral sphincter
internal urethral sphincter involuntary sphincter keeping urethra closed when urine is not being passed
external urethral sphincter skeletal muscle as urethra passes through pelvic floor; voluntarily controlled
urethritis inflammation of urethra
micturation/voiding act of emptying the bladder
impulses transmitted to sacral region of spinal cord & back to the bladder via pelvic splanchnic nerves
pelvic splanchnic nerve impulses cause the bladder to go into reflex contractions, causing the need to void
incontinence unable to voluntarily control external sphincter
in children incontinence is usually due to emotional problems
urinary retention is a condition in which the bladder in unable to expel its contained urine
often occurs after surgery or due to hyperplasia of prostate gland urinary retention
hyperplasia enlargement
catheterization is treatment for the condition of urinary retention
blood composition depends on cellular metabolism, diet & urine output
water account for about 75% of body weight in babies with little fat and low bone mass
water account for about 50% of body weight in women who have more fat than muscle
water account for about 60% of body weight in men who have more muscle than fat
water account for about 45% of body weight in eldery
fluid compartments three main locations with the body occupied by water
intracellular fluid (ICF) fluid compartment contain within living cells
extracellular fluid (ECF) fluid compartment including all body fluids outside the cells
2/3 of body fluid is contained in ICF & ECF
ECF includes blood plasma, intersitial fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, serous fluids, humors of eyes, lymph & others
plasma links internal & external enviroments
important to overall body homeostasis types & amounts of solutes in the body
deficit of sodium ions in ECF results in water loss from bloodstream into tissue spaces & muscular weakness
thirst mechanism driving force for water intake
an increase in plasma solute content of 2-3% excites hypothalamic thirst center
reabsorption of water & electrolytes by kidneys is regulated primarily by hormones
osmoreceptors highly sensitive cells in hypothalamus react to change in blood composition
antidiuretic hormone (ADH) hormone prevents excessive water loss in urine
nerve impulses, caused by active osmoreceptors, are sent to posterior pituitary to release ADH
target for ADH is the kidney's collecting ducts
sodium ion is the electrolyte most responible for osmotic water flows
80% of sodium in filtrate is reabsorbed in PCT of kidneys
for each sodium ion reabsorbed chloride ion follows & potassium ion secreted into filtrate
water follows salt
renin-antiotensin mechanism most important trigger for aldosterone release
juxtaglomerular apparatus consists of complex modified smooth muscle cells (JG cells) in the afferent arteriole
juxtaglomerular apparatus consists of modified epithelial cells forming part of the DCT
when JG apparatus stimulated by low blood pressure in afferent arteriole respond by releasing renin into blood
acts directly on adrenal cortical cells to promotes aldosterone release when juxtaglomerular apparatus secretes renin
acidosis drop in arteial blood pH below 7.35
alkalosis arterial blood pH rises above 7.45
physiological acidosis any arterial blood pH between 7.35 & 7
acid-base balance is distrubed by acidic substances entering the blood, due to H ions originating as by-products of cellular metabloism
kidneys assume most of load for maintaining acid-base balance of the blood
chemicals buffers are systems of 1 or 2 molecules that act to prevent dramatic changes in H+ concentration when acids/bases are added
first line of defense in resisting blood pH changes are chemical buffers
weak acids are effective at preventing pH changes since they are forced to dissociate & release more H+ when pH rises over desirable range
important role in chemical buffer system weak acids
weak bases are valuable chemical buffers becasue when Ph drops, they become "stronger" & tie up more H+
three major chemical buffer systems are bicarbonate, phosphate & protein
bicarbonate buffer system mixture of carbonic acid & sodium bicarbonate
strong acid is changed to a weak one, in the bicarbonate buffer system, by salt acts as base to tie up H+ released by stronger acid forming more carbonic acid
cabon dioxide is released expelled from the lungs at the same rate as it is formed in the tissues
lungs can elimanate cardon dioxide but the other acids generated during metabolism can only be elimanted by the kidneys
only the kidneys have the ability to regulate blood levels of alkaline substance
most potent mechanism for regulating blood pH is the kidneys
most important menas the kidneys maintain acid-base balance of blood are extreting bicarbonate ions & reabsorbing or generating new bicarbonate ions
urine pH varies from 4.5 to 8
variation in urine pH reflects the ability of renal tubules to excrete basic/acid ions to maintain blood pH homeostasis
the third set of tubule system in an embryo develops into the functional kidneys
embryo is excreting urine by the third month of fetal life
polycystic kidney degenerative condition where one or both kidenys enlarged with cysts containing urine
two most common congenital kidney diseases polycystic kidney & hypospadias
hypospadias condition found in males only, when urethral orifice located on ventral surface of penis
newborn kidneys are not able to concentrate urine for the 1st 2 months because bladder is very small
escherichia coli normal residents of digestive tract
excherichia coli are dangerous pathogens when they enter urinary system
account for about 80% of urinary tract infections escherichia coli
glomerulonephritis glomerular filters become clogged with antigen-antibody complexes from strep infections