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A&P Ch13 Respiratory

Respiratory System

respiratory system organs that oversee gas exchanges occurring between blood & external enviroment
The respiratory membrane is very thin
the thin respiratory membrane allows rapid ______ of O2and CO2 diffusion
The superior, middle, and inferior nasal conchae serve to increase the mucosal surface area and increase air turbulence in the nasal cavity
A normal tidal volume is about 500 ml
normal tidal volume represents the amount of air moved into and out of the lungs with each breath
Most of the carbon dioxide (CO2) carried in the blood is carried as the bicarbonate ion (HCO3-) in plasma
O2 loading & CO2 unloading between pulmonary capillary blood & air in alveoli is called external respiration
The amount of air that enters and leaves the lungs through normal quiet breathing is known as the tidal volume
Over 90% of lung cancers are associated with smoking cigarettes
The acronym COPD is the abbreviation for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
surfactant is a lipid
surfunctant acts to raise the surface tension of water with the alveoli
The most common lethal genetic disease in the United States is cystic fibrosis
respiratory zone bronchioles, alveolar ducts & sacs, & alveoli; only site of gas exchange
conducting zone structures serve as conduits to & from respiratory zone; includes all other resp. passageways not in resp zone
terminal bronchioles lead into respiratory zone structures
respiratory zone structures terminate in the aveoli
network of branching/rebranching respiratory passageways within lungs is referred to as brochial tree/respiratory tree
stroma elestic connective tissue of lungs allowing it to reoil passively on exhalation
walls of alveoli are composed largely of single, layer of squamous epithelial cells
alveolar pores connect neighboring air sacs, providing alt. routes for air to reach alveoli
external surfaces of alveoli are covered with "cobweb" of pulmonary capillaries
respiratory membrane is also called air-blood barrier
the air-blood barrier is constructed of avleolar & capillary walls, fused basement membranes & occasional eleastic fibers
has gas (air) flowing through on one side & blood following through on the other side the air-blood barrier
oxygen passes from the alveolar air into the capillary blood
carbon dioxide leaving capillary blood enters the gas-filled alveoli
alveolar macrophages are sometimes called "dust cells"
wander in & out of alveoli picking up bacteria, carbon particles & other debris alveolar macrophages
there are cuboidal cells scattered among the epithelial cells forming most of alveolar walls
produce lipid molecule called surfunctant, which is very important to lung function cuboidal cells of alveoli
major function of respiratory system is to supply blood with oxygen & dispose of cardob dioxide
four distinct events allowing respiratory system to complete their function collectively called respiration
pulmonary ventilation air must move in/out of lung so gases in alveoli are continuously refreshed
process of pulmonary ventilation is called breathing
external respiration gas exchange between pulmonary blood & alveoli
gas exchanges are being made between blood & exterior in external respiration
repiratory gas transport O2 & CO2 must be transported to/from lungs & tissue cells of body via bloodstream
internal respiration at systemtic capillaries gas exchnaged between blood & tissue cells
gas exchanges occur between blood & cells inside body during internal repsiration
cellular respiration actual use of O2 & CO2 produced by tissue cells
cornerstone of all energy-producing chemical reactions in the body cellular respiration
breathing is a completely mechanical process that depends on volume exchanges occurring in the thoracic cavity
volume changes lead to pressure changes
pressure changes lead to flow of gasses to equalize pressure
unlike liquid, gas fills its container
in a large volume gas molecules will be far apart and the pressure is low
pressure is created by the gas molesules hitting eachother & walls of container
if volume is reduced the gas molecules will be closer together and the pressure is rising
inspiration when air is flowing into the lung
expiration when air is leaving the lungs
inspiratory muscles are the diaphragm & external intercostals
when inspiratory muscles contract the size of the thoracic cavity increases
when diaphragm contracts it moves inferiorly & flattens out, or is depressed
result of diaphragm contraction, superior-inferior dimension of thoracic cavity will increase
contraction of external intercostals lifts rib cage & thrusts sternum forward
contraction of external intercostals increases the anteriorposterior & lateral dimensions
the lungs adhere tightly to the thorax walls due to surface tension of fluid between pleural membranes
the lungs are stretched to the new, larger size of the thorax because they are bound to the walls of the thorax
intrapulmonary volume volume within lungs
when intrapulmonary volume increases, gases within lungs spread out to fill the larger space
when pressure in the lungs is less than atmospheric pressure a partial vacuum is produced, which sucks air into the lungs
in healthy people this is largely passive process depending on natural elasticity expiration
when inspiratory muscles relax & resume intial resting length, the rib cage descends & lungs recoil
intrapulmonary volume decreases, gases in lungs forced closer together then intrapulmonary pressure rises to a point higher than atmospheric pressure
when intrapulmonary pressure rises to a point higher than atmospheric pressure it causes gases to flow out to equalize pressure inside/outside lungs
unde normal circumstances expiration is effortless
if respiratory passageways are narrowed by spasms or blocked with mucus/fluid expiration becomes an active process, or forced expiration
during forced expiration internal intercostal muscles are activated to help depress rib cage
during forced expiration abdominal muscles contract & help to force air from lungs by squeezing abdominal organs upward against diaphragm
intrapleural pressure normal pressure within plueral space always negative
major force preventing collapse of lungs negative pressure within plueral space
if intrapleural pressure becomes = to atmospheric pressure the lungs immediately recoil completely & collapse
atelectasis collapsed lung
when a lung is collapsed it is useless for ventilation
when air enters pleural space, due to a chest wound it is normal for a atelectasis to occur
atelectasis can also result from rupture of visceral pleura
rupture of visceral pleura allows air to enter plueral space from respiratory tract
pneumothorax presence of air in intrapleural space, disrupting fluid bond between pleurae
revered by drawing air out of intrapleural space with a chest tube pneumothorax
when a pneumothorax is relieved with a chest tube this allows lung to reinflate & resume its normal function
nonrespiratory air movements result from a reflex activity, but some are produced voluntarily
cough, sneeze, cry, laugh are all examples of nonrespiratory air movements
inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) amount of air that can be taken in forcibly over the tidal volume
between 2100 & 3200ml is the normal IRV
expiratory reserve volume (ERV) amount of air that can be forcibly exhaled after tidal expiration
1200ml is the approximate normal ERV
residual volume even after strenuous expiration, the 1200ml of air remaining in lungs, that can't be expelled
important because allows continuous gas exchange between breaths & keeps alveoli open residual volume
vital capacity (VC) sum of TV + IRV + ERV
dead space volume amount of air remaining in conducting zone passageways, never reaching alveoli
150ml is the amount of dead space volume during a normal tidal breath
spirometer instrument used to measure respiratory capacity
useful in evaluating losses in respiratory functioning & follow course of respiratory diseases spirometer
inspiration is obstructed causing decrease in IVR & VC in pneumonia
expiration hampered, causing ERV to be lower than normal & residual volume is higher in emphysema
bronchial sounds produced by air rushing through trachea & bronchi
vesicular breathing sounds occur as air fills alveoli, soft & resemble muffled breeze
crackle bubbling sound
wheezing whistling sound
abnormal respiratory sounds due to disease, mucus or pus crackle & wheeze
all gas exchanges are made according to laws of diffusion
duffusion movement occurs toward area of lower concentration of diffusing substance
dark red blood is found flowing through pulmonary circuit
dark red blood is transformed into scarlet when returned to heart for distribution to systemic circuit
color change of dark red to scarlet blood is due to oxygen pickup by hemoglobin in lungs
there is more oxygen in the alveoli, than in the lungs
because concentration of CO2 higher in pulmonary capillaries than avleolar air, it will move from blood into alveoli & be flushed out of lungs during expiration
oxyhemoglobin oxygen attaches to hemoglobin molecules inside RBCs
small amount of oxygen in carried dissovled in the plasma
enzymatic conversion of CO2 to bicarbonate ion occurs within RBCs
once coverted into bicarbonate ion it diffuses into the plasma
CO2 carried inside RBCs is bound to hemoglobin at different site than O2
before CO2 can diffuse out of blood into alveoli it must be released from bicarbonate ion form
enter RBCs combining with H+ to form carbonic acid process for CO2 to be released from bicarbonate ion form
carbonic acid splits to form water & CO2, which diffuses from blood into alveoli
hypoxia inadequate O2 delivery to body tissues
cyanotic skin & mucosa take on bluish cast due to lack of O2
hypoxia can be result of anemia, pulmonary disease or impaired/blocked blood circulation
leading cause of death from fire carbon monoxide poisening
carbonic anhydrase speeds upreaction of bicarbonate ions converting to carbonic acid
nerve impulses from brain to diaphragm & external intercostals travel by phrenic or intercostal nerves
neural centers that control respiratory rhythm are located deep in the medulla & pons
medulla sets basic rhythm of breathing & contains self-exciting inspiratory center
self-exciting inspiratory center located in medulla; neurons fire impulses to travel to phrenic/instercostal nerves
medulla also contain expiratory center which inhibits pacemaker in rhythmic way
eupnea normal respiration of rate 12-15 respirations/minute
pons centers smooth out basic ryhthm of inspiration/expiration set by medulla
bronchioles & alveoli have stretch receptors that respond to extreme overinflation by initiating protective reflexes
in case of overinflation ____ send inpulses from stretch receptors to medulla vagus nerves
hyperpnea increased deep breathing, which may/may not be accompanied by increase in respiratory rate
Maximal hyperpnea occurs during strenuous exercise
overdose of sleeping pills, morphine or alcohol can lead to medullary centers being completely suppressed causing respiration to stop, and death
concious control of breathing will be overtaken by involuntary controls once O2 supply becomes low or blood pH falls
emtional factors can modify the rate & depth of breathing
emotional factors result from reflexes initiated by emotional stimuli acting through centers in hypothalamus
most important stimuli leading to increase in rate & depth of breathing increased CO2 & decreased blood pH
changes in CO2 levels in blood act directly on medulla centers by influencing pH of cerebrospinal fluid
peripheral chemoreceptors in aorta & fork in common cartoid artery detect changes in O2 concentration in blood
send impulses to medulla when blood O2 levels are dropping peripheral chemoreceptors in aorta & fork in common cartoid artery
the most stimulus for breathing in a person is the body's need to rid itself of CO2
hyperventilation abnormally fast and deep breathing
blows off more CO2, decreasing amount of carbonic acid & returns blood pH to normal hyperventilation
hypoventilation reduced amount of air entering alveoli, which causes increase in arterial CO2 level
acidosis accumulation of acid & hydrogen ions; depletion of alkaline reserve in blood & body tissues, resulting in decrease in pH
alkalosis decrease in hydrogen ion concentration of blood (increase in pH)
when the buffering ability of blood is overwhelmed the result is acidosis/alkalosis