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Session 2 Microbio5

Microbio -5- Sterilization and Disinfection

the process of destroying ALL microbes, endospores, and viruses on an object Sterilization
the process of eliminating most or all pathogens on an object disinfection
type of chemicals used on inanimate objects/Fomites to get rid of microbes disinfectants
type of chemicals used on skin and body surfaces to get rid of microbes antiseptics
What are the factors that affect the type of antimicrobial procedure to use type of organism present number of microorganisms initially present environmental conditions potential risk for infection composition of item to be cleared of microbes
what are the common types of microorganisms we try and get rid of bacterial endospores- bacillus and clostridium protozoan cysts and oocysts- killed by boiling mycobacterium- waxy cells resistant to chemicals pseudomonas- resistant to and may grow on many chemical disenfectants (nosocomial infections) Naked Viruses
why does number of microorganism present matter in antimicrobial selection more organisms initially present the harder it will be to kill them
what environmental conditions can affect antimicrobial selection PH of environment, Temperature, Presence of fats, oils, or organic substances these can interfere with ability of anti microbial to kill
What does potential risk of infection have to do with selection on antimicrobial used if an object is likely to cause infection such as a scalpel or needle it has to be sterile some instruments only contact mucus membranes other should only contact unbroken skin so each could have a different antimicrobial treatment
what are the three levels of potential risk of infection critical instruments semicritical instruments non-critical instruments
What impact does composition of item to be disinfected have on antimicrobial choice if item could be destroyed by antimicrobial you will have to use another option such as a heat critical fluid that would have to filtered rather than heated
what are the common types of anti-microbial procedures PHYSICAL- heat(moist and dry), filtration radiation (ionizing, uv, microwave) CHEMICAL- alcohols, aldehydes, etc PRESERVATION- temp, water content
boiling for how long should kill most organism and what organisms would not be killed 5 minutes of boiling should kill everything but endospores
does pasteurization sterilize no, in only removes the majority of pathogens
what is the heat method that uses pressure, volume and temperature pressurized steaming
when moist heat is not appropriate what other heat can be used dry heat, such as incineration, and dry heat ovens which require longer times and higher temps than moist heat
When would you use filtration to get rid of microbes when the solution or gas could be destroyed by heat or chemicals
How does radiation work as an antimicrobial ionizing radiation- causes direct biological and DNA damage. Endospores are resistant UV radiation- cause DNA damage
how are antimicrobial chemicals classified list the types according to their capacity to kill organisms sterilants, high-level disinfectants, intermediate level disinfectants, low-level disinfectants
chemical that can kill all microorganisms, viruses, endospore, used on critical instruments sterilants
can kill all viruses and vegatative microorganisms but can't reliably kill endospores. Used to treat semi-critical instruments and are generally sterilants used for less time High-level disinfectants
chemicals that can kill all vegetative microorganisms, fungi and most viruses. will not kill endospores regardless of incubation time can be used on non critical instrumetns intermediate level disinfectants
can kill fungi and vegetative bacteria except mycobacteria and only enveloped viruses low-level disinfectants
60%-80% solutions that are effective for killing bacteria and fungi, denature proteins used as antiseptic and disinfectants alcohols
capable of destroying all forms of microbial life including endospores and viruses act through inactivation of DNA and RNA germicidal in 10 min sporocidal in 3-10hrs aldehydes
iodophors which act by causing oxidative damage used as antiseptic or disinfectant, and chlorine compounds act by oxidative damage, hypochlorus acid formed when chlorine is dissolved in water halogen
act by disrupting cellular compounds, used to disinfect non-critical surfaces, inactivated by organic matter, pseudomonads and gram negative bac can be resistant quarternary ammonia compounds
act by disrupting membrane and denaturing proteins used in germicidal soaps phenolics
gas that can kill all microorganisms including endospores and viruses. acts by alkylation of nucleic acids. commonly used as a sterilant, can be used on items that cannot withstand steam/heat explosive in pure form mixed with N2 and CO2 ethylene oxide
chemical used in vaporized form as a sterilant in manufacturing causes oxidative damage vaporized hydrogen peroxide
what other factors do you need to keep in mind when selecting an antimicrobial besides organism to be killed toxicity of the chemical, presence of organic matter, compatability with surface will it destroy it like electronic equipment, will it leave a residue
what is the goal of preservation slowing the growth of microorganism on commercial products
what methods are used in preservation chemical preservatives low temp storage reducing available water drying foods
What are the classification of microorganism and how resistant are they endospores- most resistant pseudomonas-highly chemical resistant mycobacterium- very chemical resistant protozoan cysts and oocytes- relative sensativity Naked Viruses- highly chemical resistant
what determines the selection of antimicrobial chemical cost and availability storage and stability environmental risks
what are the endospore producers and what level of disinfectant are you most likely going to have to use on surface contaminated by them bacillus and clostridium sp. will need a sterilant since only sterilants kill endospores
Created by: smaxsmith