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AL 101-Chapter 8


ovaries pair of almond-shaped organs located in the pelvic cavity. Egg cells are formed & stored in the ovaries.
ovum (pl. ova) female egg cell
graafian follicles 100,000 microscopic sacs make up a large part of ovaries. Each follicle has an immature ovum. Normally one follicle develops to maturity monthly b/w puberty & menopause, moves to the surface of the ovary, releases the ovum, & passes to the uterine tube.
uterine, or fallopian, tubes pair of 5-inch (12 cm) tubes, attached to the uterus, that provide a passageway for the ovum to move from the ovary to the uterus
fimbria (pl. fimbriae) finger-like projection at the free end of the uterine tube
uterus pear-sized & pear-shaped muscular organ that lies in the pelvic cavity, except during pregnancy when it enlarges & extends up into the abdominal cavity. Its functions are menstruation, pregnancy, and labor.
endometrium inner lining of the uterus
myometrium muscular middle layer of the uterus
perimetrium outer thin layer that covers the surface of the uterus
corpus, or body large central portion of the uterus
fundus rounded upper portion of the uterus
cervix (Cx) narrow lower portion of the uterus
vagina a 3-inch (7-8 cm) tube that connects the uterus to the outside of the body
hymen fold of membrane found near the opening of the vagina
rectouterine pouch pouch between the posterior wall of the uterus & the anterior wall of the rectum (also called Douglas cul-de-sac)
Bartholin glands pair of mucus-producing glands located on each side of the vagina & just above the vaginal opening
mammary glands, or breasts milk-producing glands of the female. Each breast consists of 15-20 devisions, or lobes
mammary papilla breast nipple
areola pigmented area around the breast nipple
vulva, or external genitals two pairs of lips (labia major & labia minora) that surround the vagina
clitoris highly erogenous erectile body located anterior to the urethra
perineum pelvic floor in both the male & female. In females it usually refers to the area between the vaginal opening & the anus.
arche/o first, beginning
cervic/o, trachel/o cervix
colp/o, vagin/o vagina
culd/o cul-de-sac
episi/o, vulv/o vulva
gynec/o, gyn/o woman
hymen/o hymen
hyster/o, metr/o, metr/i, uter/o uterus
mamm/o, mast/o breast
men/o menstruation
oophor/o ovary
perine/o perineum
salping/o uterine tube (fallopian tube)
peri- surrounding (outer)
-atresia absence of a normal body opening; occlusion; closure
-ial pertaining to
-salpinx uterine tube (fallopian tube)
amenorrhea absence of menstrual discharge
Bartholin adenitis inflammation of a Bartholin gland (also called bartholinitis)
cervicitis inflammation of the cervix
colpitis, vaginitis inflammation of the vagina
dysmenorrhea painful menstrual discharge
endocervicitis inflammation of the inner (lining) of the cervix
endometritis inflammation of the inner (lining) of the uterus (endometrium)
hematosalpinx blood in the uterine tube
hydrosalpinx water in the uterine tube
hysteratresia closure of the uterus (uterine cavity)
mastitis inflammation of the breast
menometrorrhagia rapid flow of blood from the uterus at menstruation (& between menstrual cycles; increased amount)
menorrhagia rapid flow of blood at menstruation (increased amount)
metrorrhagia rapid flow of blood from the uterus (between menstrual cycles)
myometritis inflammation of the uterine muscle (myometrium)
oligomenorrhea scanty menstrual flow (less often)
oophoritis inflammation of the ovary
perimetritis inflammation surrounding the uterus (perimetrium)
pyosalpinx pus in the uterine tube
salpingitis inflammation of the uterine tube
salpingocele hernia of the uterine tube
vulvovaginitis inflammation of the vulva & vagina
adenomyosis growth of endometrium into the muscular portion of the uterus
breast cancer malignant tumor of the breast
cervical cancer malignant tumor of the cervix, which progresses from cellular dysplasia to carcinoma. Its cause is linked to human papillomavirus infection.
endometrial cancer malignant tumor of the endometrium (also called uterine cancer)
endometriosis abnormal condition in which endometrial tissue grows outside of the uterus in various areas in the pelvic cavity, including ovaries, uterine tubes, intestines, & uterus
fybrocystic breast disease a disorder characterized by one or more benign cysts in the breast
fibroid tumor benign fibroid tumor of the uterine muscle (also called myoma of the uterus or leiomyoma)
ovarian cancer malignant tumor of the ovary
pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) inflammation of pelvic organs-caused by different pathogens. If untreated, it may spread upward from vagina, involving the uterus, u. tubes, ovaries, & other pelvic organs. Ascending infection may cause: infertility &, in acute cases, fatal septicemia.
prolapsed uterus downward displacement of the uterus into the vagina (also called hysteroptosis)
toxic shock syndrome (TSS) a severe illness characterized by high fever, rash, vomiting, diarrhea, & myalgia, followed by hypotension &, in severe cases, shock & death; usually affects menstruating women using tampons. Caused by Staphylococcus aureus & Streptococcus pyogenes.
vesicovaginal fistula abnormal opening between the bladder & the vagina
cervicectomy excision of the cervix
colpoperineorrhaphy suture of the vagina & perineum (performed to mend perineal vaginal tears)
colpoplasty surgical repair of the vagina
colporrhaphy suture of the vagina (wall of the vagina)
episioperineoplasty surgical repair of the vulva & perineum
episiorrpaphy suture of (a tear) in the vulva
hymenectomy excision of the hymen
hymenotomy incision of the hymen
hysterectomy excision of the uterus
hysteropexy surgical fixation of the uterus
hysterosalpingo-oophorectomy excision of the uterus, uterine tubes, & ovaries
mammoplasty surgical repair of the breast (performed to enlarge or reduce in size, to lift, or to reconstruct after removal of a tumor)
mastectomy surgical removal of a breast
oopherectomy excision of an ovary
perineorrhaphy suture of (a tear in) the perineum
salpingectomy excision of a uterine tube
salpingo-oophorectomy excision of the uterine tube & ovary
salpingostomy creation of an artificial opening in a uterine tube (performed to restore patency)
trachelectomy excision of the cervix
trachelorrhaphy suture of the cervix
vulvectomy excision of the vulva
anterior & posterior colporrhaphy (A & P repair) when a weakened vaginal wall results in a cystocele (protrusion of the bladder against the anterior wall of the vagina) & a rectocele (protrusion of the rectum against the posterior wall of the vagina), an A & P repair corrects the condition
conization the surgical removal of a cone-shaped area of the cervix; used in the treatment for noninvasive cervical cancer (also called cone biopsy)
dilation and curettage (D & C) dilation (widening) of the cervix & scraping of the endometrium with an instrument called a curette. It is performed to diagnose disease, to correct bleeding, & to empty uterine contents.
endometrial ablation a procedure to destroy or remove the endometrium by use of laser or thermal energy; used to treat abnormal uterine bleeding
laparoscopy or laparoscopic surgery visual examof abdominal cavity, by inserting a laparoscope through tiny incision near the umbilicus. For surgical procedures such as tubal sterilization, hysterectomy, oophorectomy, or biopsy of the ovaries. It may also be used to diagnose endometriosis.
myomectomy excision of a fibroid tumor (myoma) from the uterus
sentinel lymph node biopsy injection of blue dye/radioactive isotope used to identify the sentinel lymph node(s), the first in the axillary chain & most likely to contain metastases of breast cancer. They're removed & microscopically examined. If negative, no more are removed.
stereotactic breast biopsy a technique that combines mammography & computer-assisted biopsy to obtain tissue from a breast lesion
tubal ligation closure of the uterine tubes for sterilization by cutting, tying, or cauterizing (also called tubal sterilization & tying of tubes)
uterine artery embolization (UAE) minimally invasive procedure to treat uterine fibroids by blocking arteries that supply blood to fibroids. An arteriogram is used to identify the vessels. Then tiny gelatin beads are inserted into vessels to create a blockage. Fibroids ultimately shrink.
hysterosalpingogram radiographic image of the uterus & uterine tubes (after an injection of a contrast agent)
mammogram radiographic image of the breast
mammography radiographic imaging of the breast (also called Digital Mammography when images are obtained using computed radiography or direct digital radiography)
sonohysterography (SHG) process of recording the uterus by use of sound (an ultrasound procedure)
colposcope instrument used for visual examination of the vagina (and cervix)
colposcopy visual examination (with a magnified view) of the vagina (and cervix)
culdoscope instrument used for visual examination of Douglas cul-de-sac (rectouterine pouch)
culdoscopy visual examination of Douglas cul-de-sac (rectouterine pouch)
hysteroscope instrument used for visual examination of the uterus (uterine cavity)
hysteroscopy visual examination of the uterus (uterine cavity)
culdocentesis surgical puncture to remove fluid from Douglas cul-de-sac (rectouterine pouch)
transvaginal sonography (TVS) ultrasound procedure-uses transducer placed in vagina to obtain images of ovaries, uterus, cervix, uterine tubes, & surrounding structures; used to diagnose masses-ovarian cysts/tumors, to monitor pregnancy, & evaluate ovulation for infertility treatment
CA-125 (cancer antigen-125 tumor marker) blood test used in the detection of ovarian cancer. It is also used to monitor treatment & to determine the extent of the disease.
Pap smear a cytological study of cervical & vaginal secretions used to determine the presence of abnormal or cancerous cells; most commonly used to detect cancers of the cervix (also called Papanicolaou smeanr & Pap test)
gynecologist a physician who studies & treats diseases of women (female reproductive system)
gynecology (GYN) study of women (a branch of medicine dealing with diseases of the female reproductive system)
gynopathic pertaining to diseases of women
leukorrhea white discharge (from the vagina)
mastalgia pain in the breast
mastoptosis sagging breast
menarche beginning of menstruation (usually occurring between the ages of 11 & 16)
vaginal pertaining to the vagina
vulvovaginal pertaining to the vulva & vagina
dyspareunia difficult or painful intercourse
fistula abnormal passageway between two organs or between an internal organ & the body surface
hormone replacement therapy (HRT) replacement of hormones to treat symptoms associated with menopause (also called Estrogen Replacement Therapy [ERT])
menopause cessation of menstruation, usually around the ages of 48-53
premenstrual syndrome (PMS) a syndrome involving physical & emotional symptoms occurring in the 10 days before menstruation. Symptoms include nervous tension, irritability, mastalgia, edema, & headache. Its cause is not fully understood.
speculum instrument for opening a body cavity to allow visual inspection
FBD fibrocystic breast disease
TAH/BSO total abdominal hysterectomy/bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy
TVH total vaginal hysterectomy
Created by: Ann Callies Ann Callies